East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Burma, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistan was located near, without a border, to the Kingdom of Nepal, the People's Republic of China, the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan.
East Pakistan was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra. The Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957. A Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan. The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan replaced Mirza as president and launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan of 1962 which ended universal suffrage. By 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the preeminent opposition leader in Pakistan and launched the six point movement for autonomy and democracy. The 1969 uprising in East Pakistan contributed to Ayub Khan's overthrow. Another general, Yahya Khan, usurped the presidency and enacted martial law. The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a major natural disaster. In 1970, Yahya Khan organized Pakistan's first federal general election on December 7, 1970. It was won by a party namely Awami League, from East Pakistan which gained an absolute majority in the National Assembly by winning 160 seats out of 162 in total. It however failed to achieve even a single seat in the western wing of the united Pakistan where, Pakistan Peoples' Party got an overwhelming majority by winning 81 seats out of total 138 ones. It however, had no political influence in Eastern wing of Pakistan and accordingly, had no seats therein. Acknowledging the result, the then military Government military junta that being under control of General Yahya Khan, announced to convene the first National assembly session on 3 March 1971 in Dhaka. However, over some unproclaimed reservations, it was declared to be adjourned sine die. It was alleged to have been at the instance of Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who was the Chairman of the Pakistan Peoples' Party. The fact led to civil disobedience, uprising and insurgency in East Pakistan, that was deemed to be the treason against the state of Pakistan. It thenceforth, made a mess of the whole political situation in both the wings that further converted the insurgency into full scale war of separation with the aggression and illegitimate interference by India into the internal situation of the country. It is named as Bangladesh Liberation War that took place following the 1971 Bangladesh genocide and was in consequence of the military operation conducted in Eastern wing by the then federal military Government of Pakistan. The operation too, is alleged to have been conducted at the instance of Mr. Z. A. Bhutto. The Eastern wing thereafter seceded from the federation of Pakistan and assumed self rule under the ethnocentric name of bangladesh instead of maintaining the famous 'Two nation-theory' of muslims of the sub-continent that was a base for creation of Pakistan in 1947.
Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. The economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan, even though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialization in East Pakistan. The Kaptai Dam was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery was established in Chittagong. Dacca was declared as the second capital of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament. The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn to design the national assembly complex in Dacca....LESS