An abscess (Latin: abscessus) is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body. Signs and symptoms of abscesses include redness, pain, warmth, and swelling. The swelling may feel fluid filled when pressed. The area of redness often extends beyond the swelling. Carbuncles and boils are types of abscess that often involve hair follicles with carbuncles being larger.
They are usually caused by a bacterial infection. Often many different types of bacteria are involved in a single infection. In the United States and many other areas of the world the most common bacteria present is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Rarely, parasites can cause abscesses and this is more common in the developing world. Diagnosis of a skin abscess is usually made based on what it looks like and is confirmed by cutting it open. Ultrasound imaging may be useful in cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. In abscesses around the anus, computer tomography (CT) may be important to look for deeper infection.
Standard treatment for most skin or soft tissue abscesses is cutting it open and drainage. There does not appear to be any benefit from also using antibiotics for this type of abscess in most people who are otherwise healthy. A small amount of evidence supports not packing the cavity that remains with gauze after drainage. Closing this cavity right after draining it rather than leaving it open may speed healing without increasing the risk of the abscess returning. Sucking out the pus with a needle is often not sufficient.
Skin abscesses are common and have become more common in recent years. Risk factors include intravenous drug use with rates reported as high as 65% in this population. In 2005 in the United States 3.2 million people went to the emergency department for an abscess. In Australia around 13,000 people were hospitalized in 2008 with the condition....LESS
This book provides a comprehensive overview of inflammatory brain diseases from a neuroradiological point of view, encompassing both infectious (e.g., viral encephalitis and pyogenic brain abscess) and non-infectious (e.g., multiple sclerosis) diseases. Neuroimaging contributes greatly to the differentiation of infectious and noninfectious brain diseases and to the distinction between brain inflammation and other diseases. In order to ensure a standardized approach throughout the book, each chapter is subdivided into three principal sections: epidemiology, clinical presentation and therapy; imaging; and differential diagnosis. A separate chapter addresses technical and methodological issues and imaging protocols. All of the authors are recognized experts in their fields, and numerous high-quality and informative illustrations are included. This book will be of great value not only to neuroradiologists but also to neurologists, neuropediatricians, and general radiologists.
This reference resource represents the consensus opinion a team of international specialists on the diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE), many of whom have been co-authors of American or European guidelines on the topic. It is therefore a useful tool for many practitioners: cardiologists and cardiac imagers, cardiac surgeons, echocardiographers, specialists of internal medicine, neurologists, and infectiologists.
Infective endocarditis (IE) is defined as an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart, which may include one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. Its intracardiac effects include severe valvular insufficiency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardial abscesses. If left untreated, IE is generally fatal. IE is a changing disease with new diagnostic techniques, new therapeutic strategies, more frequent elderly people and patients with prosthetic valves of intravenous drug users.