# Sudoku

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Sudoku (数独, sūdoku, Digit-single) /suːˈdoʊkuː/, originally called Number Place, is a logic-based, combinatorial number-placement puzzle. The objective is to fill a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, each row, and each of the nine 3×3 sub-grids that compose the grid (also called "boxes", "blocks", "regions", or "sub-squares") contains all of the digits from 1 to 9. The puzzle setter provides a partially completed grid, which for a well-posed puzzle has a unique solution.

Completed puzzles are always a type of Latin square with an additional constraint on the contents of individual regions. For example, the same single integer may not appear twice in the same 9×9 playing board row or column or in any of the nine 3×3 subregions of the 9×9 playing board.
The puzzle was popularized in 1986 by the Japanese puzzle company Nikoli, under the name Sudoku, meaning single number. It became an international hit in…

…2005.

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Kakuro Kakuro or Kakkuro (Japanese: カックロ) is a kind of logic puzzle that is often referred to as a mathematical…
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Kakuro or Kakkuro (Japanese: カックロ) is a kind of logic puzzle that is often referred to as a mathematical transliteration of the crossword. Kakuro puzzles are regular features in many math-and-logic puzzle publications in the United States. In 1966, Canadian Jacob E. Funk,an employee of Dell Magazines came up with the original English name Cross

Kakuro or Kakkuro (Japanese: カックロ) is a kind of logic puzzle that is often referred to as a mathematical transliteration of the crossword. Kakuro puzzles are regular features in many math-and-logic puzzle publications in the United States. In 1966, Canadian Jacob E. Funk,an employee of Dell Magazines came up with the original English name Cross Sums and other names such as Cross Addition have also been used, but the Japanese name Kakuro, abbreviation of Japanese kasan kurosu (加算クロス, addition cross), seems to have gained general acceptance and the puzzles appear to be titled this way now in most publications. The popularity of Kakuro in Japan is immense, second only to Sudoku among Nikoli's famed logic-puzzle offerings.
The canonical Kakuro puzzle is played in a grid of filled and barred cells, "black" and "white" respectively. Puzzles are usually 16×16 in size, although these dimensions can vary widely. Apart from the top row and leftmost column which are entirely black, the grid is divided into "entries"—lines of white cells—by the black cells. The black cells contain a diagonal slash from upper-left to lower-right and a number in one or both halves, such that each horizontal entry has a number in the black half-cell to its immediate left and each vertical entry has a number in the black half-cell immediately above it. These numbers, borrowing crossword terminology, are commonly called "clues".
The objective of the puzzle is to insert a digit from 1 to 9 inclusive into each white cell such that the sum of the numbers in each entry matches the clue associated with it and that no digit is duplicated in any entry. It is that lack of duplication that makes creating Kakuro puzzles with unique solutions possible, and which means solving a Kakuro puzzle involves investigating combinations more, compared to Sudoku in which the focus is on permutations. There is an unwritten rule for making Kakuro puzzles that each clue must have at least two numbers that add up to it. This is because including one number is mathematically trivial when solving Kakuro puzzles; one can simply disregard the number entirely and subtract it from the clue it indicates.
At least one publisher includes the constraint that a given combination of numbers can only be used once in each grid, but still markets the puzzles as plain Kakuro.
Some publishers prefer to print their Kakuro grids exactly like crossword grids, with no labeling in the black cells and instead numbering the entries, providing a separate list of the clues akin to a list of crossword clues. (This eliminates the row and column that are entirely black.) This is purely an issue of image and does not affect solving.
In discussing Kakuro puzzles and tactics, the typical shorthand for referring to an entry is "(clue, in numerals)-in-(number of cells in entry, spelled out)", such as "16-in-two" and "25-in-five". The exception is what would otherwise be called the "45-in-nine"—simply "45" is used, since the "-in-nine" is mathematically implied (nine cells is the longest possible entry, and since it cannot duplicate a digit it must consist of all the digits from 1 to 9 once). Curiously, "3-in-two", "4-in-two", "43-in-eight", and "44-in-eight" are still frequently called as such, despite the "-in-two" and "-in-eight" being equally implied.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Kakuro

• The final puzzle of the 2004 United States qualifier for the World Puzzle Championship is titled Cross Number Sums Place: it is a Cross Sums where every row and column of the grid (except the top row and leftmost column as usual) contains exactly nine white cells, none of which—even across multiple entries—are allowed to use the same digit twice, like a Number Place (Sudoku); in addition, small circles are printed on the borders between some white cells; numerically adjacent digits must be placed astride those circles, and may not appear orthogonally adjacent when not astride a circle. from Kakuro

• The popularity of Kakuro in Japan is immense, second only to Sudoku among Nikoli's famed logic-puzzle offerings. from Kakuro

• The Killer Sudoku variant combines elements of Sudoku and Kakuro. from Sudoku

• Another variant is the combination of Sudoku with Kakuro on a 9×9 grid, called Cross Sums Sudoku, in which clues are given in terms of cross sums. from Sudoku

• Alphametics can be combined with other number puzzles such as Sudoku and Kakuro to create cryptic Sudoku and Kakuro. from Verbal arithmetic

• It is usually bee hive, like Sudoku or Kakuro, but it can also include irregular shaped grids like hearts, skulls, and so forth. from Hidato

• Killer sudoku (also killer su doku, sumdoku, sum doku, addoku, or samunamupure) is a puzzle that combines elements of sudoku and kakuro. from Killer sudoku

• Universal Uclick products include crossword puzzles and games edited by Timothy Parker and Pat Sajak, number placement puzzles like Sudoku and Kakuro, jigsaw puzzles and other casual games. from Universal Uclick

• Uclick products include crosswords and other word games, number placement puzzles like Sudoku and Kakuro, jigsaw puzzles and other casual games. from Uclick

• Also the logic puzzles published by Nikoli: Sudoku, Slitherlink, Kakuro, Fillomino, Hashiwokakero, Heyawake, Hitori, Light Up, Masyu, Number Link, Nurikabe, Ripple Effect, Shikaku, and Kuromasu. from Puzzle

• Japanese Puzzles such as Su Doku, Kakuro, Futoshiki, Nurikabe. from BBC MindGames Magazine

• More recent games have had a more mainstream focus such as Sudoku and Kakuro board games and themed board games such as for the Totally Spies! cartoon series. from Dario De Toffoli

• Sudoku, Futoshiki, Kakuro (Cross Sums), Numbrix, Hidato and many other logic puzzles. from Constraint satisfaction problem

• Schneps has also published one non-fiction book as Shaw, a guide to solving Sudoku and Kakuro puzzles. from Leila Schneps

• Puzzlewright Press creates puzzle and game titles covering sudoku, crosswords, chess, kakuro, wordoku, mazes, logic puzzles, cryptograms, casino games, card games, and magic tricks. from Sterling Publishing

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Crossword A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white and black…
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A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white and black shaded squares. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues which lead to the answers. In languages that are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom. The shaded squares are used to separate the words or phrases.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Crossword

• Knowing that British newspapers have a long history of publishing crosswords and other puzzles, he promoted Sudoku to The Times in Britain, which launched it on November 12, 2004 (calling it Su Doku). from Sudoku

• Nonograms are also known by many other names, including Paint by Numbers, Griddlers, Pic-a-Pix, Picross, PrismaPixels, Pixel Puzzles, Crucipixel, Edel, FigurePic, Hanjie, HeroGlyphix, Illust-Logic, Japanese Crosswords, Japanese Puzzles, Kare Karala!, Logic Art, Logic Square, Logicolor, Logik-Puzzles, Logimage, Oekaki Logic, Oekaki-Mate, Paint Logic, Picture Logic, Tsunamii, Paint by Sudoku and Binary Coloring Books. from Nonogram

• The mystery hunt employs a wide range of puzzles including crosswords, cryptic crosswords, logic puzzles, jigsaw puzzles, anagrams, connect-the-dots, ciphers, riddles, paint by numbers, sudokus, and word searches. from MIT Mystery Hunt

• Puzzle books may contain puzzles all of simply one type like (e.g. crosswords or sudoku) or a mixture of different puzzle types. from Puzzle book

• Uclick products include crosswords and other word games, number placement puzzles like Sudoku and Kakuro, jigsaw puzzles and other casual games. from Uclick

• His works include the Puzzle Lady and the Stanley Hastings series, as well as the screenplay to the 1984 cult classic, C.H.U.D. He has collaborated with Manny Nosowsky for crossword puzzles and with Will Shortz for sudoku puzzles incorporated in Puzzle Lady stories. from Parnell Hall (writer)

• Applications pre-loaded on the Nook Color include Chess, Sudoku, crossword puzzles, Pandora Radio, and a media gallery for viewing pictures and video. from Nook Color

• Puzzlewright Press creates puzzle and game titles covering sudoku, crosswords, chess, kakuro, wordoku, mazes, logic puzzles, cryptograms, casino games, card games, and magic tricks. from Sterling Publishing

• In others he has been seen setting decoys, completing a sudoku puzzle, completing a crossword puzzle (to Jon's amazement), writing poetry, and while playing as superheros with Garfield, finding a complete outfit to one-up Garfield's cape. from Odie

• Also included are entertainment features such as sudokus, crosswords, and holiday-themed recipes. from Student (magazine)

• Ka Leo O Hawai‘i publishes a variety of popular puzzles including: sudoku, Pathem™ & crosswords. from Ka Leo O Hawaii

• Student Life also includes a crossword puzzle and sudoku in each issue, and Police Beat and Pulse (a guide to weekend events) once a week. from Student Life (newspaper)

• In 2010 the State News published Crosswords, Pathem puzzles, Sudoku, Octo, Wordplay and Word Search puzzles. from The State News

• She also enjoys crossword puzzles and Sudoku. from Rose McIver

• Brainwave – The puzzles page, including a crossword, Sudoku and various (Mumma needed) other word games. from MX (newspaper)

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Logic puzzle A logic puzzle is a puzzle deriving from the mathematics field of deduction.
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A logic puzzle is a puzzle deriving from the mathematics field of deduction.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Logic puzzle

• Some popular forms include Sudoku, which involves using deduction to correctly place numbers in a grid; the nonogram, also called "Paint by Numbers", which involves using deduction to correctly fill in a grid with black-and-white squares to produce a picture; and logic mazes, which involve using deduction to figure out the rules of a maze. from Logic puzzle

• Also the logic puzzles published by Nikoli: Sudoku, Slitherlink, Kakuro, Fillomino, Hashiwokakero, Heyawake, Hitori, Light Up, Masyu, Number Link, Nurikabe, Ripple Effect, Shikaku, and Kuromasu. from Puzzle

• The mystery hunt employs a wide range of puzzles including crosswords, cryptic crosswords, logic puzzles, jigsaw puzzles, anagrams, connect-the-dots, ciphers, riddles, paint by numbers, sudokus, and word searches. from MIT Mystery Hunt

• Sudoku, Futoshiki, Kakuro (Cross Sums), Numbrix, Hidato and many other logic puzzles. from Constraint satisfaction problem

• Puzzlewright Press creates puzzle and game titles covering sudoku, crosswords, chess, kakuro, wordoku, mazes, logic puzzles, cryptograms, casino games, card games, and magic tricks. from Sterling Publishing

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Nonogram Nonograms, also known as Hanjie or Griddlers, are picture logic puzzles in which cells in a grid must be colored or…
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Nonograms, also known as Hanjie or Griddlers, are picture logic puzzles in which cells in a grid must be colored or left blank according to numbers at the side of the grid to reveal a hidden picture. In this puzzle type, the numbers are a form of discrete tomography that measures how many unbroken lines…

Nonograms, also known as Hanjie or Griddlers, are picture logic puzzles in which cells in a grid must be colored or left blank according to numbers at the side of the grid to reveal a hidden picture. In this puzzle type, the numbers are a form of discrete tomography that measures how many unbroken lines of filled-in squares there are in any given row or column. For example, a clue of "4 8 3" would mean there are sets of four, eight, and three filled squares, in that order, with at least one blank square between successive groups.
These puzzles are often black and white, describing a binary image, but they can also be colored. If colored, the number clues are also colored to indicate the color of the squares. Two differently colored numbers may have a space in between them. For example, a black four followed by a red two could mean four black boxes, some empty spaces, and two red boxes, or it could simply mean four black boxes followed immediately by two red ones.
Nonograms have no theoretical limits on size, and are not restricted to square layouts.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Nonogram

• Nonograms are also known by many other names, including Paint by Numbers, Griddlers, Pic-a-Pix, Picross, PrismaPixels, Pixel Puzzles, Crucipixel, Edel, FigurePic, Hanjie, HeroGlyphix, Illust-Logic, Japanese Crosswords, Japanese Puzzles, Kare Karala!, Logic Art, Logic Square, Logicolor, Logik-Puzzles, Logimage, Oekaki Logic, Oekaki-Mate, Paint Logic, Picture Logic, Tsunamii, Paint by Sudoku and Binary Coloring Books. from Nonogram

• Some popular forms include Sudoku, which involves using deduction to correctly place numbers in a grid; the nonogram, also called "Paint by Numbers", which involves using deduction to correctly fill in a grid with black-and-white squares to produce a picture; and logic mazes, which involve using deduction to figure out the rules of a maze. from Logic puzzle

• The mystery hunt employs a wide range of puzzles including crosswords, cryptic crosswords, logic puzzles, jigsaw puzzles, anagrams, connect-the-dots, ciphers, riddles, paint by numbers, sudokus, and word searches. from MIT Mystery Hunt

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KenKen KenKen and KenDoku are trademarked names for a style of arithmetic and logic puzzle invented in 2004 by Japanese…
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KenKen and KenDoku are trademarked names for a style of arithmetic and logic puzzle invented in 2004 by Japanese math teacher Tetsuya Miyamoto, who intended the puzzles to be an instruction-free method of training the brain. The names Calcudoku and Mathdoku are sometimes used by those who don't have the rights to use the KenKen or KenDoku trademarks.…

KenKen and KenDoku are trademarked names for a style of arithmetic and logic puzzle invented in 2004 by Japanese math teacher Tetsuya Miyamoto, who intended the puzzles to be an instruction-free method of training the brain. The names Calcudoku and Mathdoku are sometimes used by those who don't have the rights to use the KenKen or KenDoku trademarks.
The name derives from the Japanese word for cleverness (賢, ken, kashiko(i)?).
As in sudoku, the goal of each puzzle is to fill a grid with digits –– 1 through 4 for a 4×4 grid, 1 through 5 for a 5×5, etc. –– so that no digit appears more than once in any row or any column (a Latin square). Grids range in size from 3×3 to 9×9. Additionally, KenKen grids are divided into heavily outlined groups of cells –– often called “cages” –– and the numbers in the cells of each cage must produce a certain “target” number when combined using a specified mathematical operation (either addition, subtraction, multiplication or division). For example, a linear three-cell cage specifying addition and a target number of 6 in a 4×4 puzzle must be satisfied with the digits 1, 2, and 3. Digits may be repeated within a cage, as long as they are not in the same row or column. No operation is relevant for a single-cell cage: placing the "target" in the cell is the only possibility (thus being a "free space"). The target number and operation appear in the upper left-hand corner of the cage.
In the English-language KenKen books of Will Shortz, the issue of the non-associativity of division and subtraction is addressed by restricting clues based on either of those operations to cages of only two cells in which the numbers may appear in any order. Hence if the target is 1 and the operation is - (subtraction) and the number choices are 2 and 3, possible answers are 2,3 or 3,2. Some puzzle authors have not done this and have published puzzles that use more than two cells for these operations.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To KenKen

• As in sudoku, the goal of each puzzle is to fill a grid with digits –– 1 through 4 for a 4×4 grid, 1 through 5 for a 5×5, etc. –– so that no digit appears more than once in any row or any column (a Latin square). Grids range in size from 3×3 to 9×9. from KenKen

• As well as publishing a second word puzzle on Sundays, the Times publishes a KenKen numbers puzzle (a variant of the popular sudoku logic puzzles) each day of the week. from The New York Times crossword puzzle

• The back pages are devoted to puzzles and contain sudoku, "Killer Sudoku", "KenKen", word polygon puzzles, and a crossword simpler and more concise than the main "Times Crossword". from The Times

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Puzzle A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity. In a puzzle, one is required to put pieces…
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A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity. In a puzzle, one is required to put pieces together, in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct solution of the puzzle. There are different types of puzzles for different ages.…

A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity. In a puzzle, one is required to put pieces together, in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct solution of the puzzle. There are different types of puzzles for different ages.
Puzzles are often devised as a form of entertainment but they can also arise from serious mathematical or logistical problems. In such cases, their solution may be a significant contribution to mathematical research.
Solutions of puzzles often require the recognition of patterns and the creation of a particular kind of order. People with a high level of inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving such puzzles than others. But puzzles based upon inquiry and discovery may be solved more easily by those with good deduction skills. Deductive reasoning improves with practice.
Some notable creators of puzzles are Sam Loyd, Henry Dudeney, Boris Kordemsky and, more recently, David J. Bodycombe, Will Shortz, Lloyd King, and Martin Gardner.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Puzzle

• Also the logic puzzles published by Nikoli: Sudoku, Slitherlink, Kakuro, Fillomino, Hashiwokakero, Heyawake, Hitori, Light Up, Masyu, Number Link, Nurikabe, Ripple Effect, Shikaku, and Kuromasu. from Puzzle

• number-placement puzzle. from Sudoku

• The class of Sudoku puzzles consists of a partially completed row-column grid of cells partitioned into N regions each of size N cells, to be filled in using a prescribed set of N distinct symbols (typically the numbers {1, ..., N}), so that each row, column and region contains exactly one of each element of the set. from Mathematics of Sudoku

• Killer sudoku (also killer su doku, sumdoku, sum doku, addoku, or samunamupure) is a puzzle that combines elements of sudoku and kakuro. from Killer sudoku

• Ka Leo O Hawai‘i publishes a variety of popular puzzles including: sudoku, Pathem™ & crosswords. from Ka Leo O Hawaii

• ; shiatsu : 指圧, a form of massage ; shiba inu : 柴犬, the smallest of the six original and distinct Japanese breeds of dog ; shinro: しんろ, a logic puzzle related to sudoku ; skosh: A small amount, from 少し or すこし sukoshi, meaning "a bit" or "a few" ; sudoku : 数独 sūdoku , a number placement puzzle, also known as Number Place in the United States. from List of English words of Japanese origin

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World Puzzle Championship The World Puzzle Championship (commonly abbreviated as WPC) is an annual international puzzle competition run by…
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The World Puzzle Championship (commonly abbreviated as WPC) is an annual international puzzle competition run by the World Puzzle Federation. All the puzzles in the competition are pure-logic problems based on simple principles, designed to be playable regardless of language or culture.…

The World Puzzle Championship (commonly abbreviated as WPC) is an annual international puzzle competition run by the World Puzzle Federation. All the puzzles in the competition are pure-logic problems based on simple principles, designed to be playable regardless of language or culture.
National teams are determined by local affiliates of the World Puzzle Federation. Of the 22 championships (team category) held thus far, 14 have been won by the United States, 4 by Germany, 3 by the Czech Republic, and 1 by Japan (2002). The most successful individual contestant is Ulrich Voigt (Germany) with 9 titles since 2000.
The 2014 WPC will be held in London.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To World Puzzle Championship

• Sample puzzles can be 4×4 grids with 2×2 regions; 5×5 grids with pentomino regions have been published under the name Logi-5; the World Puzzle Championship has featured a 6×6 grid with 2×3 regions and a 7×7 grid with six heptomino regions and a disjoint region. from Sudoku

• The final puzzle of the 2004 United States qualifier for the World Puzzle Championship is titled Cross Number Sums Place: it is a Cross Sums where every row and column of the grid (except the top row and leftmost column as usual) contains exactly nine white cells, none of which—even across multiple entries—are allowed to use the same digit twice, like a Number Place (Sudoku); in addition, small circles are printed on the borders between some white cells; numerically adjacent digits must be placed astride those circles, and may not appear orthogonally adjacent when not astride a circle. from Kakuro

• In addition to editing the Times crosswords, Shortz founded and runs the annual American Crossword Puzzle Tournament as well as the World Puzzle Championship (where he remains captain of the US team), has published numerous books of crosswords, sudoku, and other puzzles, authors occasional variety puzzles (a.k.a "Second Sunday puzzles"; see below) to appear alongside the Sunday Times puzzle, and serves as "Puzzlemaster" on the NPR show "Weekend Edition Sunday". from The New York Times crossword puzzle

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Nikoli Nikoli (ニコリ, nikori) Co., Ltd. is a Japanese publisher that specializes in games and, especially, logic puzzles…
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Nikoli (ニコリ, nikori) Co., Ltd. is a Japanese publisher that specializes in games and, especially, logic puzzles. Nikoli is also the nickname of a quarterly magazine (whose full name is Puzzle Communication Nikoli) issued by the company. Nikoli became prominent worldwide with the popularity of Sudoku.…

Nikoli (ニコリ, nikori) Co., Ltd. is a Japanese publisher that specializes in games and, especially, logic puzzles. Nikoli is also the nickname of a quarterly magazine (whose full name is Puzzle Communication Nikoli) issued by the company. Nikoli became prominent worldwide with the popularity of Sudoku.
The name "Nikoli" comes from the racehorse who won the Irish 2,000 Guineas in 1980; the president of Nikoli, Maki Kaji, is fond of horse-racing and betting.[citation needed]
Nikoli's claim to fame is its vast library of "culture independent" puzzles. An example of a language/culture-dependent genre of puzzle would be the crossword, which relies on a specific language and alphabet. For this reason Nikoli's puzzles are often purely logical, and often numerical.
Nikoli's Sudoku, the most popular logic problem in Japan, was popularized in the English-speaking world in 2005, although it was originally an American puzzle, since Dell Magazines had created it and distributed it for years.
The magazine has invented several new genres of puzzles, and introduced several new games to Japan.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Nikoli

• Nikoli offers 25×25 Sudoku the Giant behemoths. from Sudoku

• Nikoli's Sudoku, the most popular logic problem in Japan, was popularized in the English-speaking world in 2005, although it was originally an American puzzle, since Dell Magazines had created it and distributed it for years. from Nikoli

• The popularity of Kakuro in Japan is immense, second only to Sudoku among Nikoli's famed logic-puzzle offerings. from Kakuro

• Also the logic puzzles published by Nikoli: Sudoku, Slitherlink, Kakuro, Fillomino, Hashiwokakero, Heyawake, Hitori, Light Up, Masyu, Number Link, Nurikabe, Ripple Effect, Shikaku, and Kuromasu. from Puzzle

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Howard Garns Howard Garns (March 2, 1905 – October 6, 1989) was an American architect who gained fame only after his death as…
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Howard Garns (March 2, 1905 – October 6, 1989) was an American architect who gained fame only after his death as the creator of Number Place, the number puzzle that became a worldwide phenomenon under the name Sudoku.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Howard Garns

• The modern Sudoku was most likely designed anonymously by Howard Garns, a 74-year-old retired architect and freelance puzzle constructor from Connersville, Indiana, and first published in 1979 by Dell Magazines as Number Place (the earliest known examples of modern Sudoku). from Sudoku

• Howard Garns (March 2, 1905 – October 6, 1989) was an American architect who gained fame only after his death as the creator of Number Place, the number puzzle that became a worldwide phenomenon under the name Sudoku. from Howard Garns

• Howard Garns (1922), Creator of the Sudoku numbers puzzle. from Arsenal Technical High School

• The first modern Sudoku, known as Number Place, appears in Dell Pencil Puzzles and Word Games (United States), devized by Howard Garns. from 1979 in science

• Howard Garns, creator of the logic game Sudoku, was born in Connersville on March 2, 1905. from Connersville, Indiana

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World Sudoku Championship The World Sudoku Championship is an annual international sudoku competition organised by a member of the World…
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The World Sudoku Championship is an annual international sudoku competition organised by a member of the World Puzzle Federation. The first one was held in Lucca in 2006. National teams are determined by local affiliates of the World Puzzle Federation. The competition typically consists of 50 or more puzzles solved by all competitors over multiple…

The World Sudoku Championship is an annual international sudoku competition organised by a member of the World Puzzle Federation. The first one was held in Lucca in 2006. National teams are determined by local affiliates of the World Puzzle Federation. The competition typically consists of 50 or more puzzles solved by all competitors over multiple timed rounds, including classic sudoku and variations, followed by a playoff for the top qualifiers to determine a champion. Examples of rounds include the Relay round, where an answer from one puzzle contributes digits to the start of the next sudoku, and the "World Record" round, in which solvers competed to set a Guinness World Record for fastest sudoku solution.
Of the 8 championships held so far, Thomas Snyder of USA (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Jan Mrozowski of Poland (2009, 2010 and 2012) have been the most successful winners with three individual titles each, they succedeed to Jana Tylova of Czech Republic (2006) who won the first individual championship.
From 2007 there has also been a team competition. Japan (2007 and 2012) and Germany (2010 and 2011) have both won this title twice; Czech Republic (2008), Slovakia (2009) and China (2013) also won a title each.
As of 2011, the event has been held alongside the World Puzzle Championship. The 2013 Championship was held in Beijing, China.
The 2014 Championship is scheduled for the United Kingdom.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To World Sudoku Championship

• The fifth World Sudoku Championship was held in Philadelphia, USA from April 29 to May 2, 2010. from Sudoku

• The fourth World Sudoku Championship was held in Žilina, Slovakia, from April 24 to 27, 2009. from Sudoku

• The third World Sudoku Championship was held in Goa, India, from April 14 to 16, 2008. from Sudoku

• The second World Sudoku Championship was held in Prague from March 28 to April 1, 2007. from Sudoku

• The first World Sudoku Championship was held in Lucca, Italy, from March 10 to 12, 2006. from Sudoku

• The competition typically consists of 50 or more puzzles solved by all competitors over multiple timed rounds, including classic sudoku and variations, followed by a playoff for the top qualifiers to determine a champion. from World Sudoku Championship

• The World Sudoku Championship is an annual international sudoku competition organised by a member of the World Puzzle Federation. from World Sudoku Championship

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Verbal arithmetic Verbal arithmetic, also known as alphametics, cryptarithmetic, crypt-arithmetic, cryptarithm or word addition, is a…
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Verbal arithmetic, also known as alphametics, cryptarithmetic, crypt-arithmetic, cryptarithm or word addition, is a type of mathematical game consisting of a mathematical equation among unknown numbers, whose digits are represented by letters. The goal is to identify the value of each letter. The name can be extended to puzzles that use non-alphabetic symbols instead of letters.…

Verbal arithmetic, also known as alphametics, cryptarithmetic, crypt-arithmetic, cryptarithm or word addition, is a type of mathematical game consisting of a mathematical equation among unknown numbers, whose digits are represented by letters. The goal is to identify the value of each letter. The name can be extended to puzzles that use non-alphabetic symbols instead of letters.
The equation is typically a basic operation of arithmetic, such as addition, multiplication, or division. The classic example, published in the July 1924 issue of Strand Magazine by Henry Dudeney, is:

The solution to this puzzle is O = 0, M = 1, Y = 2, E = 5, N = 6, D = 7, R = 8, and S = 9.
Traditionally, each letter should represent a different digit, and (as in ordinary arithmetic notation) the leading digit of a multi-digit number must not be zero. A good puzzle should have a unique solution, and the letters should make up a cute phrase (as in the example above).
Verbal arithmetic can be useful as a motivation and source of exercises in the teaching of algebra.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Verbal arithmetic

• Alphametics can be combined with other number puzzles such as Sudoku and Kakuro to create cryptic Sudoku and Kakuro. from Verbal arithmetic

• The clues can also be given by cryptic alphametics in which each letter represents a single digit from 0 to 9. from Sudoku

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Futoshiki Futoshiki (不等式, futōshiki), or More or Less, is a logic puzzle game from Japan. Its name means "inequality". It is…
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Futoshiki (不等式, futōshiki), or More or Less, is a logic puzzle game from Japan. Its name means "inequality". It is also spelled hutosiki (using Kunrei-shiki romanization).…

Futoshiki (不等式, futōshiki), or More or Less, is a logic puzzle game from Japan. Its name means "inequality". It is also spelled hutosiki (using Kunrei-shiki romanization).
The puzzle is played on a square grid, such as 5 x 5. The objective is to place the numbers 1 to 5 (or whatever the dimensions are) such that each row, and column contains each of the digits 1 to 5. Some digits may be given at the start. In addition, inequality constraints are also initially specified between some of the squares, such that one must be higher or lower than its neighbour. These constraints must be honoured as the grid is filled out.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Futoshiki

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Latin square In combinatorics and in experimental design, a Latin square is an n × n array filled with n different symbols, each…
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In combinatorics and in experimental design, a Latin square is an n × n array filled with n different symbols, each occurring exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column. Here is an example:…

In combinatorics and in experimental design, a Latin square is an n × n array filled with n different symbols, each occurring exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column. Here is an example:
The name "Latin square" was inspired by mathematical papers by Leonhard Euler, who used Latin characters as symbols. Other symbols can be used instead of Latin letters: in the above example, the alphabetic sequence A, B, C can be replaced by the integer sequence 1, 2, 3.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Latin square

• A completed Sudoku grid is a special type of Latin square with the additional property of no repeated values in any of the 9 blocks of contiguous 3×3 cells. from Sudoku

• Completed puzzles are always a type of Latin square with an additional constraint on the contents of individual regions. from Sudoku

• As in sudoku, the goal of each puzzle is to fill a grid with digits –– 1 through 4 for a 4×4 grid, 1 through 5 for a 5×5, etc. –– so that no digit appears more than once in any row or any column (a Latin square). Grids range in size from 3×3 to 9×9. from KenKen

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Thomas Snyder Thomas Snyder (born c. 1980) is an American puzzle creator and world-champion sudoku solver. He writes a puzzle…
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Thomas Snyder (born c. 1980) is an American puzzle creator and world-champion sudoku solver. He writes a puzzle blog as Dr. Sudoku.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Thomas Snyder

• The winners of the event were Thomas Snyder (2007), Wei-Hwa Huang (2008), and Tammy McLeod (2009). from Sudoku

• The puzzles were written by Thomas Snyder and Wei-Hwa Huang, both past US Sudoku champions. from Sudoku

• After past champion Thomas Snyder of USA won the general qualification, Jan Mrozowski of Poland emerged from a 36-competitor playoff to become the new World Sudoku Champion. from Sudoku

• Thomas Snyder repeated as the individual overall champion, and also won the first ever Classic Trophy (a subset of the competition counting only classic Sudoku). from Sudoku

• The individual champion was Thomas Snyder of the USA. from Sudoku

• Thomas Snyder (born c. 1980) is an American puzzle creator and world-champion sudoku solver. from Thomas Snyder

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Mathematics of Sudoku The class of Sudoku puzzles consists of a partially completed row-column grid of cells partitioned into N regions…
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The class of Sudoku puzzles consists of a partially completed row-column grid of cells partitioned into N regions each of size N cells, to be filled in using a prescribed set of N distinct symbols (typically the numbers {1, ..., N}), so that each row, column and region contains exactly one of each element of the set. The puzzle can be investigated using mathematics.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Mathematics of Sudoku

• Various other grid sizes have also been enumerated—see the main article for details. from Sudoku

• The class of Sudoku puzzles consists of a partially completed row-column grid of cells partitioned into N regions each of size N cells, to be filled in using a prescribed set of N distinct symbols (typically the numbers {1, ..., N}), so that each row, column and region contains exactly one of each element of the set. from Mathematics of Sudoku

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Pentomino A pentomino is a plane geometric figure formed by joining five equal squares edge to edge. It is a polyomino with…
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A pentomino is a plane geometric figure formed by joining five equal squares edge to edge. It is a polyomino with five cells. There are twelve pentominoes, not counting rotations and reflections as distinct. They are used chiefly in recreational mathematics for puzzles and problems. Pentominoes were formally defined by American professor Solomon W. Golomb…

A pentomino is a plane geometric figure formed by joining five equal squares edge to edge. It is a polyomino with five cells. There are twelve pentominoes, not counting rotations and reflections as distinct. They are used chiefly in recreational mathematics for puzzles and problems. Pentominoes were formally defined by American professor Solomon W. Golomb starting in 1953 and later in his 1965 book Polyominoes: Puzzles, Patterns, Problems, and Packings. Golomb coined the term "pentomino" from the Ancient Greek πέντε / pénte, "five", and the -omino of domino, fancifully interpreting the "d-" of "domino" as if it were a form of the Greek prefix "di-" (two). Golomb named the 12 free pentominoes after letters of the Latin alphabet that they resemble.
Ordinarily, the pentomino obtained by reflecting or rotating a pentomino does not count as a different pentomino. The F, L, N, P, Y, and Z pentominoes are chiral; adding their reflections (F', J, N', Q, Y', S) brings the number of one-sided pentominoes to 18. Pentominoes I, T, U, V, W, and X, remain the same when reflected. This matters in some video games in which the pieces may not be reflected, such as Tetris imitations and Rampart.
Each of the twelve pentominoes can tile the plane. Each chiral pentomino can tile the plane without reflecting it.
John Horton Conway proposed an alternate labeling scheme for pentominoes, using O instead of I, Q instead of L, R instead of F, and S instead of N. The resemblance to the letters is more strained, especially for the O pentomino, but this scheme has the advantage of using 12 consecutive letters of the alphabet. It is used by convention in discussing Conway's Game of Life, where, for example, one speaks of the R-pentomino instead of the F-pentomino.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Pentomino

• Sample puzzles can be 4×4 grids with 2×2 regions; 5×5 grids with pentomino regions have been published under the name Logi-5; the World Puzzle Championship has featured a 6×6 grid with 2×3 regions and a 7×7 grid with six heptomino regions and a disjoint region. from Sudoku

• For instance, the problem of tiling a board with pentominoes, and solving Sudoku can both be viewed as exact cover problems. from Exact cover

• Finding Pentomino tilings and solving Sudoku are noteworthy examples of exact cover problems. from Exact cover

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Hidato Hidato (Hebrew: חידאתו‎, originating from the Hebrew word Hida = Riddle), also known as "Hidoku", is a logic puzzle…
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Hidato (Hebrew: חידאתו‎, originating from the Hebrew word Hida = Riddle), also known as "Hidoku", is a logic puzzle game invented by Dr. Gyora Benedek, an Israeli mathematician. The goal of Hidato is to fill the grid with consecutive numbers that connect horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Numbrix puzzles, created by Marilyn Vos Savant, are similar…

Hidato (Hebrew: חידאתו‎, originating from the Hebrew word Hida = Riddle), also known as "Hidoku", is a logic puzzle game invented by Dr. Gyora Benedek, an Israeli mathematician. The goal of Hidato is to fill the grid with consecutive numbers that connect horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. Numbrix puzzles, created by Marilyn Vos Savant, are similar to Hidato except that diagonal moves are not allowed. The names Numbrix and Hidato are registered trademarks. Some publishers use different names for this puzzle such as Number Snake.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Hidato

• It is usually bee hive, like Sudoku or Kakuro, but it can also include irregular shaped grids like hearts, skulls, and so forth. from Hidato

• Sudoku, Futoshiki, Kakuro (Cross Sums), Numbrix, Hidato and many other logic puzzles. from Constraint satisfaction problem

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Glossary of Sudoku This is a glossary of Sudoku terms and jargon.
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This is a glossary of Sudoku terms and jargon.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Glossary of Sudoku

• ;Main diagonals unique: the cell values along both main diagonals must be unique, see Sudoku X. ;Relative digit location: digits use the same relative location within selected regions. from Glossary of Sudoku

• ;Number Place Challenger: Sixteen 4×4 regions. from Glossary of Sudoku

• Super Sudoku X – Four 4×2 + four 2×4 rectangular blocks. from Glossary of Sudoku

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Rubik's Cube Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő…
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Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube, the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980 via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer, and won the German Game of…

Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube, the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980 via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer, and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide making it the world's top-selling puzzle game. It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy.
In a classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces is covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours: white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow. In currently sold models, white is opposite yellow, blue is opposite green, and orange is opposite red, and the red, white and blue are arranged in that order in a clockwise arrangement. On early cubes, the position of the colours varied from cube to cube. An internal pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be returned to consisting of one colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of sides, dimensions, and stickers, not all of them by Rubik.
Although the Rubik's Cube reached its height of mainstream popularity in the 1980s, it is still widely known and used. Many speedcubers continue to practice it and other twisty puzzles and compete for the fastest times in various categories. Since 2003, The World Cube Association, the Rubik's Cube's international governing body, has organized competitions and kept the official world records.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Rubik's Cube

• There is also a Sudoku version of the Rubik's Cube named Sudoku Cube. from Sudoku

• Number games such as Sudoku and puzzle games like the Rubik's cube can develop mental prowess. from Entertainment

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Barnes & Noble Nook The Barnes & Noble Nook (styled "nook" or "NOOK") is a brand of e-readers developed by American book retailer…
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The Barnes & Noble Nook (styled "nook" or "NOOK") is a brand of e-readers developed by American book retailer Barnes & Noble, based on the Android platform. The original device was announced in the United States in October 2009, and was released the next month. The original Nook was capable of Wi-Fi and AT&T 3G…

The Barnes & Noble Nook (styled "nook" or "NOOK") is a brand of e-readers developed by American book retailer Barnes & Noble, based on the Android platform. The original device was announced in the United States in October 2009, and was released the next month. The original Nook was capable of Wi-Fi and AT&T 3G wireless connectivity and had a six-inch E-paper display, and a separate, smaller color touchscreen that serves as the primary input device. A Wi-Fi-only model of the original design was released in June 2010. The original line of Nooks was followed in November 2010 by a color LCD device called the Nook Color, in June 2011 by a second-generation E-paper device marketed as the Nook Simple Touch, and in November 2011 and February 2012 by the 16 and 8 GB versions, respectively, of the Wi-Fi only Nook Tablet. On April 30, 2012, Barnes & Noble entered into a partnership with Microsoft that will spin off the Nook and college businesses into a subsidiary. On August 28, 2012, Barnes and Noble announced partnerships with retailers in the UK, which began offering the Nook digital products to people in October 2012.
To encourage visiting the B&N stores, you can read any Nook Store book for one hour once per day while connected to Wi-Fi with a Nook device.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Barnes & Noble Nook

• Software has also been released on video game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, the Game Boy Advance, Xbox Live Arcade, the Nook e-book reader, Kindle Fire tablet, several iPod models, and the iPhone. from Sudoku

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SUDO-Q SUDO-Q was a game show that was broadcast between 5 December 2005 and 23 March 2007. It was hosted by Eamonn…
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SUDO-Q was a game show that was broadcast between 5 December 2005 and 23 March 2007. It was hosted by Eamonn Holmes. The format was based on a mix of the number puzzle Sudoku and general knowledge questions.

#### How Sudoku Connects To SUDO-Q

• Later in 2005, the BBC launched SUDO-Q, a game show that combines Sudoku with general knowledge. from Sudoku

• The format was based on a mix of the number puzzle Sudoku and general knowledge questions. from SUDO-Q

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36 Cube The 36 Cube is a three-dimensional sudoku puzzle created by ThinkFun. The puzzle consists of a gray base that…
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The 36 Cube is a three-dimensional sudoku puzzle created by ThinkFun. The puzzle consists of a gray base that resembles a city skyline, plus 36 colored towers. The towers come in six different colors and six different heights. The goal of the puzzle is to place all the towers onto the base so as to…

The 36 Cube is a three-dimensional sudoku puzzle created by ThinkFun. The puzzle consists of a gray base that resembles a city skyline, plus 36 colored towers. The towers come in six different colors and six different heights. The goal of the puzzle is to place all the towers onto the base so as to form a level cube with each of the six colors appearing once, and only once, in each row and column. The 36 cube was invented by Dr. Derrick Niederman, a PhD. at MIT. He came up with the idea while writing a book on whole numbers, after unearthing an 18th-century mathematical hypothesis. This supposition, the 36 officer problem, requires placing six regiments of six differently ranked officers in a 6-x-6 square without having any rank or regiment in the same column. Such an arrangement would form a Graeco-Latin square. Euler conjectured there was no solution to this problem. Although Euler was correct, his conjecture was not settled until Gaston Tarry came up with an exhaustive proof in 1901.
Euler's 36 officer problem is a mental challenge, which can be attempted either in one's head or on paper, whereas the 36 cube is a mechanical puzzle that must be played on a manufactured grid. Therefore, it requires some abstract thinking, and a certain amount of special insight.
The 36 Cube is, however, subtly different from the 36 officer problem. Careful inspection of the pieces reveals that two of the pieces are special. These two pieces will fit on certain parts of the base differently from other pieces of the same height. With this subtle modification, there are in fact 96 possible solutions to the 36 Cube puzzle.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To 36 Cube

• The 36 Cube is a three-dimensional sudoku puzzle created by ThinkFun. from 36 Cube

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NP-complete In computational complexity theory, a decision problem is NP-complete when it is both in NP and NP-hard. The set of…
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In computational complexity theory, a decision problem is NP-complete when it is both in NP and NP-hard. The set of NP-complete problems is often denoted by NP-C or NPC. The abbreviation NP refers to "nondeterministic polynomial time".…

In computational complexity theory, a decision problem is NP-complete when it is both in NP and NP-hard. The set of NP-complete problems is often denoted by NP-C or NPC. The abbreviation NP refers to "nondeterministic polynomial time".
Although any given solution to an NP-complete problem can be verified quickly (in polynomial time), there is no known efficient way to locate a solution in the first place; indeed, the most notable characteristic of NP-complete problems is that no fast solution to them is known. That is, the time required to solve the problem using any currently known algorithm increases very quickly as the size of the problem grows. This means that the time required to solve even moderately sized versions of many of these problems can easily reach into the billions or trillions of years, using any amount of computing power available today. As a consequence, determining whether or not it is possible to solve these problems quickly, called the P versus NP problem, is one of the principal unsolved problems in computer science today.
While a method for computing the solutions to NP-complete problems using a reasonable amount of time remains undiscovered, computer scientists and programmers still frequently encounter NP-complete problems. NP-complete problems are often addressed by using heuristic methods and approximation algorithms.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To NP-complete

• The general problem of solving Sudoku puzzles on n 2 × n 2 boards of n × n blocks is known to be NP-complete. from Sudoku

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Heptomino A heptomino (or 7-omino) is a polyomino of order 7, that is, a polygon in the plane made of 7 equal-sized squares…
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A heptomino (or 7-omino) is a polyomino of order 7, that is, a polygon in the plane made of 7 equal-sized squares connected edge-to-edge. The name of this type of figure is formed with the prefix hept(a)-. When rotations and reflections are not considered to be distinct shapes, there are 108 different free heptominoes. When…

A heptomino (or 7-omino) is a polyomino of order 7, that is, a polygon in the plane made of 7 equal-sized squares connected edge-to-edge. The name of this type of figure is formed with the prefix hept(a)-. When rotations and reflections are not considered to be distinct shapes, there are 108 different free heptominoes. When reflections are considered distinct, there are 196 one-sided heptominoes. When rotations are also considered distinct, there are 760 fixed heptominoes.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Heptomino

• Sample puzzles can be 4×4 grids with 2×2 regions; 5×5 grids with pentomino regions have been published under the name Logi-5; the World Puzzle Championship has featured a 6×6 grid with 2×3 regions and a 7×7 grid with six heptomino regions and a disjoint region. from Sudoku

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Wei-Hwa Huang Wei-Hwa Huang (黃煒華, born August 4, 1975) is an award-winning American puzzler and member of the US Team for the…
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Wei-Hwa Huang (黃煒華, born August 4, 1975) is an award-winning American puzzler and member of the US Team for the World Puzzle Federation.
Huang graduated from Montgomery Blair High School and the California Institute of Technology and was an employee at Google until July 2008. One of his most famous projects was the Da Vinci Code Quest on Google, which was a set of 24 puzzles launched on April 17, 2006 in cooperation with Columbia Pictures.…

Wei-Hwa Huang (黃煒華, born August 4, 1975) is an award-winning American puzzler and member of the US Team for the World Puzzle Federation.
Huang was a member of the United States International Math Olympiad team in 1992 and 1993, where he was awarded a Silver Medal both years. He was a Putnam Fellow in 1993. Huang has won the annual World Puzzle Championship on four occasions: 1995 and 1997–1999. He also won the 2008 Sudoku National Championship.
Huang graduated from Montgomery Blair High School and the California Institute of Technology and was an employee at Google until July 2008. One of his most famous projects was the Da Vinci Code Quest on Google, which was a set of 24 puzzles launched on April 17, 2006 in cooperation with Columbia Pictures.
Huang submitted a crossword puzzle to the New York Times newspaper which was published on Tuesday, September 10, 2002.
Google gives their employees 20% of their time to work on personal projects. Much of Huang's time for August 2006 to December 2006 was spent on his puzzle gadget.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Wei-Hwa Huang

• The winners of the event were Thomas Snyder (2007), Wei-Hwa Huang (2008), and Tammy McLeod (2009). from Sudoku

• The puzzles were written by Thomas Snyder and Wei-Hwa Huang, both past US Sudoku champions. from Sudoku

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La France (French newspaper) La France was a daily financial newspaper in the 19th century. Founded in August 1862 by Arthur de La Guéronnière…
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La France was a daily financial newspaper in the 19th century. Founded in August 1862 by Arthur de La Guéronnière, the newspaper originally followed an editorial line that reconciled loyalty to Napoleon III with the reaffirmation of the temporal power of the Pope. It was bought in 1874 by Émile de Girardin, founder of the…

La France was a daily financial newspaper in the 19th century. Founded in August 1862 by Arthur de La Guéronnière, the newspaper originally followed an editorial line that reconciled loyalty to Napoleon III with the reaffirmation of the temporal power of the Pope. It was bought in 1874 by Émile de Girardin, founder of the famous newspaper La Presse and a longtime collaborator of La Guéronnière. More respected than La Presse and "decidedly political," according to historian Tristan Gaston Breton,[citation needed] in the crisis of 16 May 1877 the newspaper fought the policies of Patrice de Mac Mahon and Duke Albert de Broglie. The paper also had sections devoted to Fine Arts and Letters. Employees included Gaston de Cambronne and Émile Cère.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To La France (French newspaper)

• On July 6, 1895, s rival, La France, refined the puzzle so that it was almost a modern Sudoku. from Sudoku

• On July 6, 1895, s rival, La France, published a puzzle that was close to the modern Sudoku. from La France (French newspaper)

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Dell Magazines Dell Magazines was a company founded by George T. Delacorte Jr. in 1921 as part of his Dell Publishing Co. Dell is…
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Dell Magazines was a company founded by George T. Delacorte Jr. in 1921 as part of his Dell Publishing Co. Dell is today known for its many puzzle magazines, as well as fiction magazines such as Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, Asimov's Science Fiction, and Analog Science Fiction and Fact. It was…

Dell Magazines was a company founded by George T. Delacorte Jr. in 1921 as part of his Dell Publishing Co. Dell is today known for its many puzzle magazines, as well as fiction magazines such as Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, Asimov's Science Fiction, and Analog Science Fiction and Fact. It was sold in March 1996 by Dell's successor company to Crosstown Publications, with headquarters in Norwalk, Connecticut, under the same ownership as Penny Publications, LLC, which publishes Penny Press puzzle magazines.
The first puzzle magazine Dell published was Dell Crossword Puzzles, in 1931, and since then it has printed magazines containing word searches, math and logic puzzles, and other diversions.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Dell Magazines

• The modern Sudoku was most likely designed anonymously by Howard Garns, a 74-year-old retired architect and freelance puzzle constructor from Connersville, Indiana, and first published in 1979 by Dell Magazines as Number Place (the earliest known examples of modern Sudoku). from Sudoku

• Nikoli's Sudoku, the most popular logic problem in Japan, was popularized in the English-speaking world in 2005, although it was originally an American puzzle, since Dell Magazines had created it and distributed it for years. from Nikoli

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Magic square In recreational mathematics, a magic square is an arrangement of distinct numbers (i.e. each number is used once)…
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In recreational mathematics, a magic square is an arrangement of distinct numbers (i.e. each number is used once), usually integers, in a square grid, where the numbers in each row, and in each column, and the numbers in the forward and backward main diagonals, all add up to the same number. A magic square has…

In recreational mathematics, a magic square is an arrangement of distinct numbers (i.e. each number is used once), usually integers, in a square grid, where the numbers in each row, and in each column, and the numbers in the forward and backward main diagonals, all add up to the same number. A magic square has the same number of rows as it has columns, and in conventional math notation, "n" stands for the number of rows (and columns) it has. Thus, a magic square always contains n2 numbers, and its size (the number of rows [and columns] it has) is described as being "of order n". A magic square that contains the integers from 1 to n2 is called a normal magic square. (The term "magic square" is also sometimes used to refer to any of various types of word squares.)
It is possible to construct a normal magic square of any size except 2 × 2 (that is, where n = 2), although the solution to a magic square where n = 1 is trivial, since it consists simply of a single cell containing the number 1. The smallest nontrivial case, shown below, is a 3 × 3 grid (that is, a magic square of order 3).
The constant that is the sum of every row, column and diagonal is called the magic constant or magic sum, M. Every normal magic square has a unique constant determined solely by the value of n, which can be calculated using this formula:
For example, if n = 3, the formula says M = [3 (32 + 1)]/2, which simplifies to 15. For normal magic squares of order n = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, the magic constants are, respectively: 15, 34, 65, 111, 175, and 260. (See sequence A006003 in the OEIS)

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Magic square

• Number puzzles appeared in newspapers in the late 19th century, when French puzzle setters began experimenting with removing numbers from magic squares. from Sudoku

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Set (game) Set is a real-time card game designed by Marsha Falco in 1974 and published by Set Enterprises in 1991. The deck…
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Set is a real-time card game designed by Marsha Falco in 1974 and published by Set Enterprises in 1991. The deck consists of 81 cards varying in four features: number (one, two, or three); symbol (diamond, squiggle, oval); shading (solid, striped, or open); and color (red, green, or purple). Each possible combination of features (e.g., a card with three striped green diamonds) appears precisely once in the deck.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Set (game)

• A tabletop version of Sudoku can be played with a standard 81-card Set deck (see Set game). from Sudoku

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The Conway Daily Sun The Conway Daily Sun is a five-day (Tuesday through Saturday) free daily newspaper published in the town of Conway…
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The Conway Daily Sun is a five-day (Tuesday through Saturday) free daily newspaper published in the town of Conway, New Hampshire, U.S., covering the Mount Washington Valley. It has been published since 1989 by Country News Club, and was the forerunner of three other Daily Sun newspapers in New Hampshire and Maine.…

The Conway Daily Sun is a five-day (Tuesday through Saturday) free daily newspaper published in the town of Conway, New Hampshire, U.S., covering the Mount Washington Valley. It has been published since 1989 by Country News Club, and was the forerunner of three other Daily Sun newspapers in New Hampshire and Maine.
The Conway Daily Sun was the first United States daily to publish the popular numbers puzzle Sudoku.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To The Conway Daily Sun

• In the United States, the first newspaper to publish a Sudoku puzzle by Wayne Gould was The Conway Daily Sun (New Hampshire), in 2004. from Sudoku

• The Conway Daily Sun was the first United States daily to publish the popular numbers puzzle Sudoku. from The Conway Daily Sun

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Carol Vorderman Carol Jean Vorderman MBE (born 24 December 1960) is a British media personality, best known for co-hosting the…
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Carol Jean Vorderman MBE (born 24 December 1960) is a British media personality, best known for co-hosting the popular game show Countdown for 26 years from 1982 until 2008.…

Carol Jean Vorderman MBE (born 24 December 1960) is a British media personality, best known for co-hosting the popular game show Countdown for 26 years from 1982 until 2008.
Vorderman's career took off in 1982 when she joined Channel 4 game show Countdown. She co-hosted the show most recently with Des O'Connor; before that Vorderman was co-host with Des Lynam and Richard Whiteley (from 1982 until his death). She left the show in 2008 and was replaced by Rachel Riley. Whilst appearing on Countdown, Vorderman began presenting other shows for various broadcasters including Better Homes and The Pride of Britain Awards for ITV, as well as guest hosting shows such as Have I Got News for You, The Sunday Night Project and Lorraine.
Vorderman was an anchor of ITV's Loose Women from 2011 to 2 July 2014.
In 2013, she presented a cookery series for ITV, Food Glorious Food.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Carol Vorderman

• Vorderman also expanded her business ventures launching a number of Sudoku products. from Carol Vorderman

• It was presented by Carol Vorderman. from Sudoku

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Connersville, Indiana Connersville is a city in Fayette County, east central Indiana, United States, 66 miles east by southeast of…
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Connersville is a city in Fayette County, east central Indiana, United States, 66 miles east by southeast of Indianapolis. The population was 13,481 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of and the largest and only incorporated town in Fayette County.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Connersville, Indiana

• Howard Garns, creator of the logic game Sudoku, was born in Connersville on March 2, 1905. from Connersville, Indiana

• The modern Sudoku was most likely designed anonymously by Howard Garns, a 74-year-old retired architect and freelance puzzle constructor from Connersville, Indiana, and first published in 1979 by Dell Magazines as Number Place (the earliest known examples of modern Sudoku). from Sudoku

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Broken diagonal A broken diagonal is a sequence of n diametrically-positioned cells in a panmagic square which spans the vertical…
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A broken diagonal is a sequence of n diametrically-positioned cells in a panmagic square which spans the vertical boundary. Examples of broken diagonals from the below square are as follows: 3,12,14,5; 10,1,7,16; 10,13,7,4; 15,8,2,9; 15,12,2,5; and 6,13,11,4.…

A broken diagonal is a sequence of n diametrically-positioned cells in a panmagic square which spans the vertical boundary. Examples of broken diagonals from the below square are as follows: 3,12,14,5; 10,1,7,16; 10,13,7,4; 15,8,2,9; 15,12,2,5; and 6,13,11,4.
Notice that because one of the properties of a panmagic square is that the broken diagonals add up to the same constant, the following pattern is evident:
;
;

One way to visualize a broken diagonal is to imagine a "ghost image" of the panmagic square adjacent to the original:
It is easy to see now how the set of numbers {3, 12, 14, 5} result to form a broken diagonal: once wrapped around the original square, it can now be seen starting with the first square of the ghost image and moving down to the left.
Although this specific article relates to broken diagonals in panmagic squares, the "broken diagonal" also has uses in matrices and other areas of geometry such as determining the area of a polygon solely from its Cartesian coordinates.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Broken diagonal

• It simplified the 9×9 magic square puzzle so that each row, column and broken diagonals contained only the numbers 1–9, but did not mark the sub-squares. from Sudoku

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Rotational symmetry Generally speaking, an object with rotational symmetry, also known in biological contexts as radial symmetry, is an…
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Generally speaking, an object with rotational symmetry, also known in biological contexts as radial symmetry, is an object that looks the same after a certain amount of rotation. An object may have more than one rotational symmetry; for instance, if reflections or turning it over are not counted. The degree of rotational symmetry is how many degrees the shape has to be turned to look the same on a different side or vertex. It can not be the same side or vertex.…

Generally speaking, an object with rotational symmetry, also known in biological contexts as radial symmetry, is an object that looks the same after a certain amount of rotation. An object may have more than one rotational symmetry; for instance, if reflections or turning it over are not counted. The degree of rotational symmetry is how many degrees the shape has to be turned to look the same on a different side or vertex. It can not be the same side or vertex.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Rotational symmetry

• In 1986, Nikoli introduced two innovations: the number of givens was restricted to no more than 32, and puzzles became "symmetrical" (meaning the givens were distributed in rotationally symmetric cells). from Sudoku

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NRC Handelsblad NRC Handelsblad (Dutch pronunciation: [ɛnɛrseː ˈɦɑndəɫzblɑt]), often abbreviated to NRC, is a daily evening…
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NRC Handelsblad (Dutch pronunciation: [ɛnɛrseː ˈɦɑndəɫzblɑt]), often abbreviated to NRC, is a daily evening newspaper published in the Netherlands by NRC Media. The newspaper was launched on 1 October 1970, from merger of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (New Rotterdam Paper) and Algemeen Handelsblad (General Commerce Paper). In 2006 a morning newspaper, NRC Next, was launched. The circulation of NRC Handelsblad in 2013 was 200,000, putting it in 4th place among the national dailies.

#### How Sudoku Connects To NRC Handelsblad

• It is published by newspapers and magazines around the world and is also known as "NRC Sudoku", "Windoku", "Hyper-Sudoku", and "4 Square Sudoku". from Sudoku

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Žilina Žilina /ˈʒɪlɪnə/ German: Sillein [zɪˈlaɪ̯n] or [ˈzɪlaɪ̯n], Hungarian: Zsolna, names in other languages) is a city…
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Žilina /ˈʒɪlɪnə/ German: Sillein [zɪˈlaɪ̯n] or [ˈzɪlaɪ̯n], Hungarian: Zsolna, names in other languages) is a city in north-western Slovakia, around 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the capital Bratislava, close to both the Czech and Polish borders. It is the fourth largest city of Slovakia with a population of approximately 85,000, an important industrial center, the…

Žilina /ˈʒɪlɪnə/ German: Sillein [zɪˈlaɪ̯n] or [ˈzɪlaɪ̯n], Hungarian: Zsolna, names in other languages) is a city in north-western Slovakia, around 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the capital Bratislava, close to both the Czech and Polish borders. It is the fourth largest city of Slovakia with a population of approximately 85,000, an important industrial center, the largest city on the Váh river, and the seat of a kraj (Žilina Region) and of an okres (Žilina District). It belongs to Upper Váh region of tourism.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Žilina

• The fourth World Sudoku Championship was held in Žilina, Slovakia, from April 24 to 27, 2009. from Sudoku

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App Store (iOS) The App Store is a digital distribution platform for mobile apps on iOS, developed and maintained by Apple Inc. The…
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The App Store is a digital distribution platform for mobile apps on iOS, developed and maintained by Apple Inc. The service allows users to browse and download applications that were developed with Apple's iOS SDK. The apps can be downloaded directly to an iOS device, or onto a personal computer via iTunes (also developed and…

The App Store is a digital distribution platform for mobile apps on iOS, developed and maintained by Apple Inc. The service allows users to browse and download applications that were developed with Apple's iOS SDK. The apps can be downloaded directly to an iOS device, or onto a personal computer via iTunes (also developed and maintained by Apple Inc.). The "App Store" is not the only app store available, with there being other well-known app stores for Android, Windows Phone, and BlackBerry 10.
Applications in "The App Store" are targeted at iOS devices, including iPhones and iPads, and may make use of specific attributes of those devices, such as motion sensors for game controls and cameras for online video calling. Apps may be downloaded for free or for a set cost, and they may include in-app monetization (costs levied through buyable features and/or advertising). Apple takes 30 percent of all revenue generated through apps, and 70 percent goes to the app's publisher.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To App Store (iOS)

• In fact, just two weeks after Apple Inc. debuted the online App Store within its iTunes Store on July 11, 2008, there were already nearly 30 different Sudoku games, created by various software developers, specifically for the iPhone and iPod Touch. from Sudoku

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Quincunx A quincunx /ˈkwɪn.kʌŋks/ is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, with four of them…
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A quincunx /ˈkwɪn.kʌŋks/ is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, with four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center. It forms the arrangement of five units in the pattern corresponding to the five-spot on six-sided dice, playing cards, or dominoes. It is represented in Unicode as U+2059 ⁙ five dot punctuation or (for the dice pattern) U+2684 ⚄ die face-5.

#### How Sudoku Connects To Quincunx

• Five 9×9 grids that overlap at the corner regions in the shape of a quincunx is known in Japan as Gattai 5 (five merged) Sudoku. from Sudoku

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Hexadecimal In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or…
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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively af) to represent values ten to fifteen. Hexadecimal…

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively af) to represent values ten to fifteen. Hexadecimal numerals are widely used by computer systems designers and programmers. In computing, hexadecimal numerals are usually written with a prefix, "0x" (in reference to the abbreviated pronunciation of "hexadecimal"). Alternately, some authors denote hexadecimal values using a suffix or subscript. For example, one could write 0x2AF3 or 2AF316, depending on the choice of notation.
As an example, the hexadecimal number 2AF316 can be converted to an equivalent decimal representation. Observe that 2AF316 is equal to a sum of (200016 + A0016 + F016 + 316), by decomposing the numeral into a series of place value terms. Converting each term to decimal, one can further write: (216 × 163) + (A16 × 162) + (F16 × 161) + (316 × 160),
(2 × 4096) + (10 × 256) + (15 × 16) + (3 × 1), or 10995.
Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits), and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is a human-friendly representation of binary-coded values in computing and digital electronics. One hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte (8 bits). For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal), but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 to FF. Hexadecimal is also commonly used to represent computer memory addresses.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Hexadecimal

• Dell Magazines regularly publishes 16×16 "Number Place Challenger" puzzles (the 16×16 variant often uses 1 through G rather than the 0 through F used in hexadecimal). from Sudoku

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Nintendo DS The Nintendo DS (ニンテンドーDS, Nintendō DS) is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo…
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The Nintendo DS (ニンテンドーDS, Nintendō DS) is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device went on sale in North America on November 21, 2004. The DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem (the bottom one featuring…

The Nintendo DS (ニンテンドーDS, Nintendō DS) is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device went on sale in North America on November 21, 2004. The DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem (the bottom one featuring a touchscreen), a built-in microphone, and support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP. The Nintendo DS also features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they can interact online using the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service.
Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as a "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube. However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and strong sales ultimately established the new handheld console as the successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo launched the Nintendo DS Lite, a slimmer and lighter redesign of the original Nintendo DS with brighter screens. On November 1, 2008, Nintendo released the Nintendo DSi, another redesign with several hardware improvements and new features. As of March 31, 2014, all Nintendo DS models combined have sold 153.99 million units, making it the best selling handheld game console to date, and the second best selling video game console of all time.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Nintendo DS

• Software has also been released on video game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, the Game Boy Advance, Xbox Live Arcade, the Nook e-book reader, Kindle Fire tablet, several iPod models, and the iPhone. from Sudoku

• In October 2006, Eidos announced Zendoku, a Sudoku-based game developed by Zoonami for the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable. from Zoonami

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Symmetry Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday…
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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, that an object is invariant to a transformation, such as reflection but including other transforms too. Although these two meanings of "symmetry" can sometimes be told apart, they are related, so they are here discussed together.…

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, that an object is invariant to a transformation, such as reflection but including other transforms too. Although these two meanings of "symmetry" can sometimes be told apart, they are related, so they are here discussed together.
Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time; as a spatial relationship; through geometric transformations such as scaling, reflection, and rotation; through other kinds of functional transformations; and as an aspect of abstract objects, theoretic models, language, music and even knowledge itself.
This article describes symmetry from four perspectives: in geometry, the most familiar type of symmetry for many people; more generally, in mathematics as a whole; as it relates to science and nature; and in the arts, covering architecture, art and music.
The opposite of symmetry is asymmetry.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Symmetry

• The number of essentially different solutions, when symmetries such as rotation, reflection, permutation and relabelling are taken into account, was shown to be just 5,472,730,538 . from Sudoku

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Teletext Teletext (or broadcast teletext) is a television information retrieval service created in the United Kingdom in the…
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Teletext (or broadcast teletext) is a television information retrieval service created in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s by the Philips Lead Designer for VDUs, John Adams. Teletext is a means of sending pages of text and simple geometric shapes from mosaic blocks to a VBI decoder equipped television screen by use of a…

Teletext (or broadcast teletext) is a television information retrieval service created in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s by the Philips Lead Designer for VDUs, John Adams. Teletext is a means of sending pages of text and simple geometric shapes from mosaic blocks to a VBI decoder equipped television screen by use of a number of reserved vertical blanking interval lines that together form the dark band dividing pictures horizontally on the television screen. It offers a range of text-based information, typically including news, weather and TV schedules. Paged subtitle (or closed captioning) information is also transmitted within the television signal. The first test transmissions were made by the BBC in 1973, known as Ceefax ("see facts"). After adoption in the UK the standards became international as the European Teletext standards and as the World System Teletext (WST). The World Wide Web began to take over some of the functions of teletext from the late 1990s, and many broadcasters have ceased broadcast of teletext—CNN in 2006 and the BBC in 2012. The decline of teletext has been hastened by the introduction of digital television, though an aspect of teletext continues in closed captioning.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Teletext

• From July 2005, Channel 4 included a daily Sudoku game in their Teletext service. from Sudoku

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Entropy (information theory) In information theory, entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a random variable. In this context, the term…
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In information theory, entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a random variable. In this context, the term usually refers to the Shannon entropy, which quantifies the expected value of the information contained in a message. Entropy is typically measured in bits, nats, or bans. Shannon entropy is the average unpredictability in a random…

In information theory, entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a random variable. In this context, the term usually refers to the Shannon entropy, which quantifies the expected value of the information contained in a message. Entropy is typically measured in bits, nats, or bans. Shannon entropy is the average unpredictability in a random variable, which is equivalent to its information content (with the opposite sign). Shannon entropy provides an absolute limit on the best possible lossless encoding or compression of any communication, assuming that the communication may be represented as a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables.
A single toss of a fair coin has an entropy of one bit. A series of two fair coin tosses has an entropy of two bits. The number of fair coin tosses is its entropy in bits. This random selection between two outcomes in a sequence over time, whether the outcomes are equally probable or not, is often referred to as a Bernoulli process. The entropy of such a process is given by the binary entropy function. The entropy rate for a fair coin toss is one bit per toss. However, if the coin is not fair, then the uncertainty, and hence the entropy rate, is lower. This is because, if asked to predict the next outcome, we could choose the most frequent result and be right more often than wrong. The difference between what we know, or predict, and the information that the unfair coin toss reveals to us is less than one heads-or-tails "message", or bit, per toss.
This definition of "entropy" was introduced by Claude E. Shannon in his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Entropy (information theory)

• The arrangement of numbers in Sudoku puzzles have greater Shannon entropy than the number arrangements in randomly generated 9×9 matrices. from Sudoku

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IPhone iPhone (/ˈaɪfoʊn/ EYE-fohn) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It runs Apple's iOS mobile…
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iPhone (/ˈaɪfoʊn/ EYE-fohn) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It runs Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007; the most recent iPhones, the seventh-generation iPhone 5C and iPhone 5S, were introduced on September 10, 2013.…

iPhone (/ˈaɪfoʊn/ EYE-fohn) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It runs Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007; the most recent iPhones, the seventh-generation iPhone 5C and iPhone 5S, were introduced on September 10, 2013.
The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to many cellular networks, including 1xRTT (represented by a 1x on the status bar) and GPRS (shown as GPRS on the status bar), EDGE (shown as a capital E on the status bar), UMTS and EV-DO (shown as 3G), a faster version of UMTS and 4G (shown as a 4G symbol on the status bar), and LTE (shown as LTE on the status bar). An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send texts, GPS navigation, record notes, do mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Other functions — video games, reference works, social networking, etc. — can be enabled by downloading application programs (‘apps’); as of October 2013, the App Store offered more than one million apps by Apple and third parties.
There are seven generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the six major releases of iOS. The original 1st-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G cellular network capabilities and A-GPS location. The iPhone 3GS added a faster processor and a higher-resolution camera that could record video at 480p. The iPhone 4 featured a higher-resolution 960×640 "Retina Display", a VGA front-facing camera for video calling and other apps, and a 5-megapixel rear-facing camera with 720p video capture. The iPhone 4S upgrades to an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording, a dual-core A5 processor, and a natural language voice control system called Siri. iPhone 5 features the dual-core A6 processor, increases the size of the Retina display to 4 inches, introduces LTE support and replaces the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector. The iPhone 5S features the dual-core 64-bit A7 processor, an updated camera with a larger aperture and dual-LED flash, and the Touch ID fingerprint scanner, integrated into the home button. iPhone 5C features the same A6 chip as the iPhone 5, along with a new backside-illuminated FaceTime camera and a new casing made of polycarbonate. As of 2013, the iPhone 3GS had the longest production run, 1181 days; followed by the iPhone 4, produced for 1174 days.
The resounding sales of the iPhone have been credited with reshaping the smartphone industry and helping make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies in 2011–12. The iPhone is the top-selling phone of any kind in some countries, including the United States and Japan. In the last quarter of 2013, there were 51 million iPhones sold, a new record, compared to 47.8 million in the last quarter of 2012. In March 2014, sales of the iPhone brand had reached 500 million devices.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To IPhone

• Software has also been released on video game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, the Game Boy Advance, Xbox Live Arcade, the Nook e-book reader, Kindle Fire tablet, several iPod models, and the iPhone. from Sudoku

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Brentford Brentford is a town in west London, England and part of the London Borough of Hounslow, at the confluence of the…
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Brentford is a town in west London, England and part of the London Borough of Hounslow, at the confluence of the River Brent and the Thames, 8 miles (13 km) west-by-southwest of Charing Cross. It was historically part of the ancient parishes of Ealing and Hanwell in the county of Middlesex. After being administratively united…

Brentford is a town in west London, England and part of the London Borough of Hounslow, at the confluence of the River Brent and the Thames, 8 miles (13 km) west-by-southwest of Charing Cross. It was historically part of the ancient parishes of Ealing and Hanwell in the county of Middlesex. After being administratively united with Chiswick in 1927 at a lower level than the overarching county body, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1932. It has formed part of Greater London since 1965.
Its economy has diverse company headquarters buildings which mark the start of the M4 corridor; in transport it also has two railway stations and the Boston Manor tube station on its north-east border with Little Ealing. Brentford has a convenience shopping and dining venue grid of streets at its centre. Brentford at the start of its 21st century attracted regeneration of its little-used warehouse premises and docks including the re-modelling of the waterfront to provide more economically active shops, townhouses and apartments, some of which comprises Brentford Dock. A 19th and 20th centuries mixed social and private housing locality: New Brentford is contiguous with the Osterley neighbourhood of Isleworth and Syon Park and the Great West Road which has most of the largest business premises.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Brentford

• The first letter to The Times regarding Su Doku was published the following day on November 13 from Ian Payn of Brentford, complaining that the puzzle had caused him to miss his stop on the tube. from Sudoku

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IPod The iPod is a line of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first line was released on…
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The iPod is a line of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first line was released on October 23, 2001, about 8½ months after iTunes (Macintosh version) was released. iTunes is a media player, media library, and mobile device management application. The most recent iPod redesigns were announced on September 12,…

The iPod is a line of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first line was released on October 23, 2001, about 8½ months after iTunes (Macintosh version) was released. iTunes is a media player, media library, and mobile device management application. The most recent iPod redesigns were announced on September 12, 2012. There are four current versions of the iPod: the ultra-compact iPod Shuffle, the compact iPod Nano, the touchscreen iPod Touch, and the hard drive-based iPod Classic.
Like other digital music players, iPods can serve as external data storage devices. Storage capacity varies by model, ranging from 2 GB for the iPod Shuffle to 160 GB for the iPod Classic. The devices are controlled by the Samsung ARM and the Apple A5 CPUs.
Apple's iTunes software (and other alternative software) can be used to transfer music, photos, videos, games, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks, and calendars, to the devices supporting these features from computers using certain versions of Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems.
Before the release of iOS 5, the iPod branding was used for the media player included with the iPhone and iPad, a combination of the Music and Videos apps on the iPod Touch. As of iOS 5, separate apps named "Music" and "Videos" are standardized across all iOS-powered products. While the iPhone and iPad have essentially the same media player capabilities as the iPod line, they are generally treated as separate products. During the middle of 2010, iPhone sales overtook those of the iPod.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To IPod

• Software has also been released on video game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, the Game Boy Advance, Xbox Live Arcade, the Nook e-book reader, Kindle Fire tablet, several iPod models, and the iPhone. from Sudoku

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Jury trial A jury trial or trial by jury is a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of…
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A jury trial or trial by jury is a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of fact, which then direct the actions of a judge. It is distinguished from a bench trial, in which a judge or panel of judges make all decisions.…

A jury trial or trial by jury is a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of fact, which then direct the actions of a judge. It is distinguished from a bench trial, in which a judge or panel of judges make all decisions.
Jury trials are used in a significant share of serious criminal cases in almost all common law legal systems, and juries or lay judges have been incorporated into the legal systems of many civil law countries for criminal cases. Only the United States and Canada make routine use of jury trials in a wide variety of non-criminal cases. Other common law legal jurisdictions use jury trials only in a very select class of cases that make up a tiny share of the overall civil docket (e.g. defamation suits in England and Wales), while true civil jury trials are almost entirely absent elsewhere in the world. Some civil law jurisdictions do, however, have arbitration panels where non-legally trained members decide cases in select subject-matter areas relevant to the arbitration panel members' areas of expertise.
The availability of a trial by jury in American jurisdictions varies. Because the United States system separated from that of the England at the time of the American Revolution, the types of proceedings that use juries depends on whether such cases were tried by jury under English Common Law at that time, rather than the methods used in English or UK courts in the present. For example, at the time English "courts of law" tried cases of torts or private law for monetary damages but "courts of equity" tried civil cases seeking an injunction or another form of non-monetary relief. As a result, this practice continues in American civil laws, even though in modern English law only criminal proceedings and some inquests are likely to be heard by a jury.
The use of jury trials evolved within common law systems rather than civil law systems, has had a profound impact on the nature of American civil procedure and criminal procedure rules, even in cases where a bench trial is actually contemplated in a particular case. In general, the availability of a jury trial if properly demanded has given rise to a system where fact finding is concentrated in a single trial rather than multiple hearings, and where appellate review of trial court decisions is greatly limited. Jury trials are of far less importance (or of no importance) in countries that do not have a common law system.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Jury trial

• In June 2008 an Australian drugs-related jury trial costing over A\$1 million was aborted when it was discovered that five of the twelve jurors had been playing Sudoku instead of listening to evidence. from Sudoku

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Daily Mail The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.First…
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The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.
First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe, it is the United Kingdom's second biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982. Scottish and Irish editions of the daily paper…

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.
First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe, it is the United Kingdom's second biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982. Scottish and Irish editions of the daily paper were launched in 1947 and 2006 respectively. The Daily Mail was Britain's first daily newspaper aimed at the newly literate "lower-middle class market resulting from mass education, combining a low retail price with plenty of competitions, prizes and promotional gimmicks", and the first British paper to sell a million copies a day.
It was at the outset a newspaper for women, the first to provide features especially for them, and as of the second-half of 2013 had a 54.77% female readership, the only British newspaper whose female readers constitute more than 50% of its demographic.
It had an average daily circulation of 1,708,006 copies in March 2014. Between July and December 2013 it had an average daily readership of approximately 3.951 million, of whom approximately 2.503 million were in the ABC1 demographic and 1.448 million in the C2DE demographic. It has over 100 million unique visitors per month to its website.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Daily Mail

• The aforementioned "Number Place Challenger" puzzles are all of this variant, as are the Sudoku X puzzles in The Daily Mail, which use 6×6 grids. from Sudoku

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Matrix (mathematics) In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in…
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In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with 2 rows and 3 columns is…

In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with 2 rows and 3 columns is
Matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element. But the rule for matrix multiplication is that two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first equals the number of rows in the second. A major application of matrices is to represent linear transformations, that is, generalizations of linear functions such as f(x) = 4x. For example, the rotation of vectors in three dimensional space is a linear transformation which can be represented by a rotation matrix R. If v is a column vector (a matrix with only one column) describing the position of a point in space, the product Rv is a column vector describing the position of that point after a rotation. The product of two matrices is a matrix that represents the composition of two linear transformations. Another application of matrices is in the solution of a system of linear equations. If the matrix is square, it is possible to deduce some of its properties by computing its determinant. For example, a square matrix has an inverse if and only if its determinant is not zero. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors provide insight into the geometry of linear transformations.
Applications of matrices are found in most scientific fields. In every branch of physics, including classical mechanics, optics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, and quantum electrodynamics, they are used to study physical phenomena, such as the motion of rigid bodies. In computer graphics, they are used to project a 3-dimensional image onto a 2-dimensional screen. In probability theory and statistics, stochastic matrices are used to describe sets of probabilities; for instance, they are used within the PageRank algorithm that ranks the pages in a Google search. Matrix calculus generalizes classical analytical notions such as derivatives and exponentials to higher dimensions.
A major branch of numerical analysis is devoted to the development of efficient algorithms for matrix computations, a subject that is centuries old and is today an expanding area of research. Matrix decomposition methods simplify computations, both theoretically and practically. Algorithms that are tailored to particular matrix structures, such as sparse matrices and near-diagonal matrices, expedite computations in finite element method and other computations. Infinite matrices occur in planetary theory and in atomic theory. A simple example of an infinite matrix is the matrix representing the derivative operator, which acts on the Taylor series of a function.

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#### How Sudoku Connects To Matrix (mathematics)

• The arrangement of numbers in Sudoku puzzles have greater Shannon entropy than the number arrangements in randomly generated 9×9 matrices. from Sudoku

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Kanji Kanji (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: [kandʑi]  listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters (hanzi) that…
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Kanji (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: [kandʑi]  listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters (hanzi) that are used in the modern Japanese writing system along with hiragana and katakana. The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters" and is written using the same characters as the Chinese word hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字).

#### How Sudoku Connects To Kanji

• (In Japanese, dokushin means an "unmarried person".) At a later date, the name was abbreviated to Sudoku (数独) by , taking only the first kanji of compound words to form a shorter version. from Sudoku