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Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Stress is a body's method of reacting to a challenge. According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. In humans, stress typically describes a negative condition or a positive condition that can have an impact on a person's mental and physical well-being.

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      Anxiety Anxiety is an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and…
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      Anxiety is an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real…

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      Anxiety is an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events, such as the feeling of imminent death. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat; whereas anxiety is the expectation of future threat. Anxiety is a feeling of fear, worry, and uneasiness, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. It is often accompanied by muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, and problems in concentration. Anxiety can be appropriate, but when it is too much and continues too long, the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Anxiety

    • Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. from Stress (biology)

    • Persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation, deemed distress, may lead to anxiety or withdrawal (depression) behavior. from Stress (biology)

    • The raphe nucleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regulation, particularly when stress is associated with depression and anxiety. from Stress (biology)

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    • Assessing (performance) anxiety, guilt, stress and worry are integral to the optimal management of sexual dysfunction. from Sexual dysfunction

    • It can also accompany sleep deprivation (often occurring when suffering from jet lag), migraine, epilepsy (especially temporal lobe epilepsy ), obsessive-compulsive disorder, stress, and anxiety. from Depersonalization

    • Stress or anxiety commonly are causes of hyperventilation; this is known as hyperventilation syndrome. from Hyperventilation

    • A relaxation technique (also known as relaxation training) is any method, process, procedure, or activity that helps a person to relax; to attain a state of increased calmness; or otherwise reduce levels of anxiety, stress or anger. from Relaxation technique

    • Stress is thought to affect immune function through emotional and/or behavioral manifestations such as anxiety, fear, tension, anger and sadness and physiological changes such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. from Psychoneuroimmunology

    • Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). from Occupational stress

    • Nightmares can be caused by extreme stress or anxiety if no other mental disorder is discovered. from Nightmare disorder

    • Clonidine also has several off-label uses, and has been prescribed to treat psychiatric disorders including stress, sleep disorders, and hyperarousal caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and other anxiety disorders. from Clonidine

    • The word "spasm" may also refer to a temporary burst of energy, activity, emotion, Eustress, stress, or anxiety unrelated to, or as a consequence of, involuntary muscle activity. from Spasm

    • Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable or awkward position, having a fever, or psychological causes such as stress, anxiety, and as a side effect of various drugs. from Nightmare

    • The psychology of such behavior is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, psychoactive drugs, alcohol, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms. from Self-medication

    • Anxiety, stress, and panic attacks often accompany shallow breathing. from Shallow breathing

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      Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA or HTPA axis), also known as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal…
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      The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA or HTPA axis), also known as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA axis) and, occasionally, as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadotropic axis, is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the hypothalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).…

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      The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA or HTPA axis), also known as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA axis) and, occasionally, as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadotropic axis, is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the hypothalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
      The interactions among these organs constitute the HPA axis, a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality and energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the midbrain that mediate the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). While steroids are produced only by vertebrates, the physiological role of the HPA axis and corticosteroids in stress response is so fundamental that analogous systems can be found in invertebrates and monocellular organisms as well.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • ;The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in depression In depression, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is upregulated with a down-regulation of its negative feedback controls. from Stress (biology)

    • There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing glucocorticoids (cortisol, aka the S-hormone or stress-hormone). from Stress (biology)

    • The HPA axis is a multi-step biochemical pathway where information is transmitted from one area of the body to the next via chemical messengers. from Stress (biology)

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    • Noradrenaline stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) which processes the information about the stressor in the hypothalamus. from Stress (biology)

    • Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by the sleep/wake cycle (circadian rhythm). from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • The interactions among these organs constitute the HPA axis, a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality and energy storage and expenditure. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • It is thought to act as a relay site within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and regulate its activity in response to acute stress. from Stria terminalis

    • Recent research indicates prolonged chronic stress can contribute to metabolic syndrome by disrupting the hormonal balance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). from Metabolic syndrome

    • Glucocorticoids are released by the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress, of which cortisol is the most prominent in humans. from Aggression

    • Examples of the diversity of interests in the subject are: in neurobiology where it is understood that "experience can change the mature brain - but experience during the critical periods of early childhood organizes brain systems"; in psychoneuroendocrinology where there is evidence of an "umbilical affect exchange" which influences the immediate and long- term psychology of behavior; in bioengineering where the importance to development as well as growth of the fetomaternal system is increasingly understood; and in clinical maternal-fetal medicine where the unique symbiotic relationship between a mother and her fetus is explored, and where issues such as maternal stress and the development of later psychopathology in the child are considered through hormonal mechanisms particularly the HPA axis. from Prenatal and perinatal psychology

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      Coping (psychology) In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to…
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      In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness of the coping efforts depend on the type of stress and/or conflict, the particular individual, and the circumstances.…

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      In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness of the coping efforts depend on the type of stress and/or conflict, the particular individual, and the circumstances.
      Psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills. Unconscious or non conscious strategies (e.g. defense mechanisms) are generally excluded. The term coping generally refers to adaptive or constructive coping strategies, i.e. the strategies reduce stress levels. However, some coping strategies can be considered maladaptive, i.e. stress levels increase. Maladaptive coping can thus be described, in effect, as non-coping. Furthermore, the term coping generally refers to reactive coping, i.e. the coping response follows the stressor. This contrasts with proactive coping, in which a coping response aims to head off a future stressor.
      Coping responses are partly controlled by personality (habitual traits), but also partly by the social environment, particularly the nature of the stressful environment.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Coping (psychology)

    • Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. from Stress (biology)

    • In mild cases, dissociation can be regarded as a coping mechanism or defense mechanisms in seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress – including boredom or conflict. from Dissociation (psychology)

    • In addition, coping mechanisms in the mind are activated in response to a negative event, which minimizes the stress and negative events experienced. from Autobiographical memory

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    • It was concluded that while the approach may be a useful corrective to the usual style of case management - at least when genuinely chosen and shaped by each unique individual on the ground - serious social, institutional and personal difficulties made it essential that there be sufficient ongoing effective support with stress management and coping in daily life. from Recovery approach

    • He has applied the theory and measurements to the study of social stratification and mobility, stress and coping, and individual, organization and community well-being. from Nan Lin

    • Pargament has distinguished between three types of styles for coping with stress: 1) Collaborative, in which people co-operate with God to deal with stressful events; 2) Deferring, in which people leave everything to God; and 3) Self-directed, in which people do not rely on God and try exclusively to solve problems by their own efforts. from Psychology of religion

    • Throughout his life, he would work on the problems raised in the essay as a coping strategy during times of personal stress. from William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

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      Cortisol Cortisol is a steroid hormone, more specifically a glucocorticoid, produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal…
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      Cortisol is a steroid hormone, more specifically a glucocorticoid, produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoid. Its primary functions are to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, suppress the immune system, and aid the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. It also decreases bone formation.…

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      Cortisol is a steroid hormone, more specifically a glucocorticoid, produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoid. Its primary functions are to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, suppress the immune system, and aid the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. It also decreases bone formation.
      Hydrocortisone (INN, USAN, BAN), is a name for cortisol when used as a medication. It can be used to treat people who lack adequate stores of naturally generated cortisol in their bodies. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines needed in a basic health system.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Cortisol

    • There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing glucocorticoids (cortisol, aka the S-hormone or stress-hormone). from Stress (biology)

    • This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, although this can increase storage of flashbulb memories it decreases long term potentation (LTP). from Stress (biology)

    • The adrenal cortex responds by signaling the release of the corticosteroids cortisol and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) directly into the bloodstream. from Stress (biology)

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    • The mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) make up the majority of stress corticosteroid receptors and have an extremely high affinity for cortisol. from Stress (biology)

    • Cortisol is a steroid hormone, belonging to a broader class of steroids called glucocorticoids, produced by the adrenal gland and secreted during a stress response. from Stress (biology)

    • Cortisol is the major stress hormone released by the adrenal gland. from Stress (biology)

    • Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, clinical depression, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes. from Cortisol

    • This could be due to increased stress when their partner was away. from Cortisol

    • It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoid. from Cortisol

    • They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. from Adrenal gland

    • Glucocorticoids are released by the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress, of which cortisol is the most prominent in humans. from Aggression

    • In particular, he has found that stress hormones, such as epinephrine and cortisol, mediate much of the effects of emotional arousal on subsequent retention of the event. from James McGaugh

    • Lymphocytopenia, but not idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia, is associated with corticosteroid use, infections with HIV and other viral, bacterial, and fungal agents, malnutrition, systemic lupus erythematosus, severe stress, intense or prolonged physical exercise (due to cortisol release), rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, and iatrogenic (caused by other medical treatments) conditions. from Lymphocytopenia

    • Levels of cortisol (the "stress" hormone) are elevated for long periods of time. from Overtraining

    • Emotional stress can also negatively affect the healing of a wound, possibly by raising blood pressure and levels of cortisol, which lowers immunity. from Chronic wound

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      Hypothalamus The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under and θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a…
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      The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under and θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).…

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      The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under and θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
      The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brainstem. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond.
      The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Hypothalamus

    • Noradrenaline stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) which processes the information about the stressor in the hypothalamus. from Stress (biology)

    • The hypothalamus is a small portion of the brain located below the thalamus and above the brainstem. from Stress (biology)

    • CRH is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in response to stress. from Corticotropin-releasing hormone

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      Fight-or-flight response The fight-or-flight response (also called the fight, flight, freeze, or fawn response [in PTSD], hyperarousal, or…
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      The fight-or-flight response (also called the fight, flight, freeze, or fawn response [in PTSD], hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival. It was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon. His theory states that animals react to threats with…

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      The fight-or-flight response (also called the fight, flight, freeze, or fawn response [in PTSD], hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival. It was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.
      This response is recognized as the first stage of a general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Fight-or-flight response

    • During this stage, the locus coeruleus/sympathetic nervous system is activated and catecholamines such as adrenaline are being produced, hence the fight-or-flight response. from Stress (biology)

    • This stimulation of the neurons triggers a fight-or-flight response which allows the brain to quickly process information and therefore deal with life-threatening situations. from Stress (biology)

    • Certain nerves that belong to the sympathetic branch of the central nervous system exit the spinal cord and stimulate peripheral nerves, which in turn engage the body’s major organs and muscles in a fight-or-flight manner. from Stress (biology)

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    • The sympathetic nervous system becomes primarily active during a stress response, regulating many of the body’s physiological functions in ways that ought to make an organism more adaptive to its environment. from Stress (biology)

    • In such instances, an organism’s fight-or-flight response recruits the body's energy stores and focuses attention to overcome the challenge at hand. from Stress (biology)

    • According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. from Stress (biology)

    • This response is recognized as the first stage of a general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms. from Fight-or-flight response

    • They deliver information to the body about stress and impending danger, and are responsible for the familiar fight-or-flight response. from Sympathetic ganglion

    • In an extremely stressful situation, the body can employ the "fight or flight" response. from Goose bumps

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      Stress management Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's…
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      Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.…

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      Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
      In this context, the term 'stress' refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise positive.
      Stress produces numerous physical and mental symptoms which vary according to each individual's situational factors. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-being.
      Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily measurable, using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs.
      Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health professionals and others, for self-help, which may help an individual reduce their levels of stress, provide positive feelings of control over one's life and promote general well-being.
      Evaluating the effectiveness of various stress management techniques can be difficult, as limited research currently exists. Consequently, the amount and quality of evidence for the various techniques varies widely. Some are accepted as effective treatments for use in psychotherapy, whilst others with less evidence favoring them are considered alternative therapies. Many professional organisations exist to promote and provide training in conventional or alternative therapies.
      There are several models of stress management, each with distinctive explanations of mechanisms for controlling stress. Much more research is necessary to provide a better understanding of which mechanisms actually operate and are effective in practice.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Stress management

    • Focus grew on stress in certain settings, such as workplace stress, and stress management techniques were developed. from Stress (biology)

    • Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. from Stress (biology)

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      Sympathetic nervous system The (ortho-) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of three parts of the autonomic nervous system (the others…
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      The (ortho-) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of three parts of the autonomic nervous system (the others being the enteric and parasympathetic systems). Its general action is to mobilize the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis.…

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      The (ortho-) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of three parts of the autonomic nervous system (the others being the enteric and parasympathetic systems). Its general action is to mobilize the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis.
      The name of the system has its origin related with the concept of sympathy.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Sympathetic nervous system

    • The sympathetic nervous system becomes primarily active during a stress response, regulating many of the body’s physiological functions in ways that ought to make an organism more adaptive to its environment. from Stress (biology)

    • According to the stressful event, the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. from Stress (biology)

    • Stress—as in the flight-or-fight response—is thought to counteract the parasympathetic system, which generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest. from Sympathetic nervous system

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    • This physiological stress response involves high levels of sympathetic nervous system activation, often referred to as the "fight or flight" response. from Stress (psychological)

    • 2nd law (Two phased nature of disease): A patient who has not solved their conflict is in the first, active conflict phase, where the sympathetic nervous system predominates and which manifests as a “cold disease” accompanied by cold skin and extremities, stress, weight loss and sleep disorders. from Ryke Geerd Hamer

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      Depression (mood) Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings…
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      Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Depressed people can feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating,…

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      Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Depressed people can feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions, and may contemplate, attempt, or commit suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains, or digestive problems may also be present.
      Depressed mood is not always a psychiatric disorder. It may also be a normal reaction to certain life events, a symptom of some medical conditions, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. Depressed mood is also a primary or associated feature of certain psychiatric syndromes such as clinical depression.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Depression (mood)

    • ;The areas of the brain affected in depression Many areas of the brain appear to be involved in depression including the frontal and temporal lobes and parts of the limbic system including the cingulate gyrus. from Stress (biology)

    • Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. from Stress (biology)

    • The raphe nucleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regulation, particularly when stress is associated with depression and anxiety. from Stress (biology)

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    • Nausea may be caused by stress and depression. from Nausea

    • Some memory issues are due to stress, anxiety, or depression. from Memory and aging

    • Changes in the normal levels of this steroid particularly during pregnancy and menstruation may be involved in some types of epilepsy (catamenial epilepsy), as well as stress, anxiety and depression. from Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone

    • The book makes extensive unreferenced claims that some drugs cause such conditions as AIDS, headaches, bloating, indigestion, heartburn, nausea, allergies, asthma, fibromyalgia, arthritis, diabetes, constipation, yeast infections, dandruff, acne, halitosis, fatigue, depression, stress, and inability to lose weight. from Natural Cures "They" Don't Want You to Know About

    • Possible causes of the disorder include psychological and emotional factors, such as depression, anger, and stress; relationship factors, such as conflict or lack of trust; medical factors, such as depleted hormones, reduced regional blood flow, and nerve damage; and drug use. from Sexual arousal disorder

    • Various syndemics (although not always labeled as such) have been described in the literature already, including: the SAVA syndemic (substance abuse, violence and AIDS): the hookworm, malaria and HIV/AIDS syndemic: the Chagas disease, rheumatic heart disease and congestive heart failure syndemic: the possible asthma and infectious disease syndemic: the malnutrition and depression syndemic: the TB, HIV and violence syndemic: the whooping cough, influenza, tuberculosis syndemic; the HIV and STD syndemic; the stress and obesity syndemic, and the mental health and HIV/AIDS syndemic. Additional syndemics are being identified around the world as public health officials, researchers, and service providers begin to focus on the connections among diseases and the social context factors that foster disease concentration and interactions. In January 2006, in a speech at the Enhancing the Healing Environment conference hosted by The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment and The King's Fund, St James's Palace, London, Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales, noted the importance of paying attention to the built environment, physical inactivity and the obesity/diabetes syndemic. from Syndemic

    • The book used real life case examples of past experiences she had seen during therapy over the years in helping others to deal with personal problems caused by stress, depression and anxiety. from Michele Weiner-Davis

    • PsychAlive was created with the goal of providing an online avenue for people to take an active, introspective approach to their psychological well-being, covering topics such as depression, anger, stress, addiction, self-destructive thoughts and behaviors, parenting, intimacy and general self-help. from PsychAlive

    • With the now addicted person increasingly feeling negative emotions like anger and stress, they may attempt to self-medicate through further purchases, followed again by regret or depression once they return home - leading to an urge for yet another spree. from Oniomania

    • This helped group members to ward off mental health conditions like stress and depression. from The Experiment

    • Emotional eating occurs when people use food to cope with emotional triggers including boredom, procrastination, excitement, love, frustration, stress, and mild depression. from Snacking

    • The act of gaining endurance through physical activity has been shown to decrease anxiety, depression, and stress, or any chronic disease in total. from Endurance

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      Norepinephrine Norepinephrine (INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE), also called noradrenaline (BAN) (abbreviated NA, NAd, or norad)…
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      Norepinephrine (INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE), also called noradrenaline (BAN) (abbreviated NA, NAd, or norad), or 4,5-β-trihydroxy phenethylamine is a catecholamine with multiple roles including those as a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It is the hormone and neurotransmitter most responsible for vigilant concentration in contrast to its most chemically similar hormone, dopamine, which is most responsible for cognitive alertness.…

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      Norepinephrine (INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE), also called noradrenaline (BAN) (abbreviated NA, NAd, or norad), or 4,5-β-trihydroxy phenethylamine is a catecholamine with multiple roles including those as a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It is the hormone and neurotransmitter most responsible for vigilant concentration in contrast to its most chemically similar hormone, dopamine, which is most responsible for cognitive alertness.
      Medically it is used in those with severe hypotension. It does this by increasing vascular tone (tension of vascular smooth muscle) through α-adrenergic receptor activation.
      Areas of the body that produce or are affected by norepinephrine are described as noradrenergic. The terms noradrenaline (from the Latin) and norepinephrine (from the Greek) are interchangeable, with noradrenaline being the common name in most parts of the world. However the U.S. National Library of Medicine has promoted norepinephrine as the favored name.
      One of the most important functions of norepinephrine is its role as the neurotransmitter released from the sympathetic neurons to affect the heart. An increase in norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system increases the rate of contractions in the heart. As a stress hormone, norepinephrine affects parts of the brain, such as the amygdala, where attention and responses are controlled. Norepinephrine also underlies the fight-or-flight response, along with epinephrine, directly increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle. It increases the brain's oxygen supply.
      Norepinephrine is synthesized from dopamine by dopamine β-hydroxylase in the secretory granules of the medullary chromaffin cells. It is released from the adrenal medulla into the blood as a hormone, and is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system, where it is released from noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. The actions of norepinephrine are carried out via the binding to adrenergic receptors.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Norepinephrine

    • This stimulates postganglionic neurons which release noradrenaline. from Stress (biology)

    • Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter released from locus coeruleus when stimulated by the hypothalamus during a stress response. from Stress (biology)

    • They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. from Adrenal gland

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    • Chronic secretion of stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), as a result of disease, may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, or other receptors in the brain, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones. from Psychoneuroimmunology

    • Stress – norepinephrine and epinephrine, the stress hormones, are released from nerve terminals in the adrenal medulla in the kidney innervated from the sympathetic nervous system’s splanchnic nerve. from Neural top down control of physiology

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    1. 11
      Glucocorticoid Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is…
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      Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (glucose + cortex + steroid) derives from its role in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose, its synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right). A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid.…

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      Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (glucose + cortex + steroid) derives from its role in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose, its synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right). A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid.
      GCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system that turns immune activity (inflammation) down. They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and sepsis. GCs have many diverse (pleiotropic) effects, including potentially harmful side effects, and as a result are rarely sold over the counter. They also interfere with some of the abnormal mechanisms in cancer cells, so they are used in high doses to treat cancer. This includes mainly inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation (treatment of lymphomas and leukemias) and mitigation of side effects of anticancer drugs.
      GCs cause their effects by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression).
      Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. In technical terms, "corticosteroid" refers to both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (as both are mimics of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex), but is often used as a synonym for "glucocorticoid." Glucocorticoids are chiefly produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, whereas mineralocorticoids are synthesized in the zona glomerulosa.
      Cortisol (or hydrocortisone) is the most important human glucocorticoid. It is essential for life, and it regulates or supports a variety of important cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, and homeostatic functions. Various synthetic glucocorticoids are available; these are used either as replacement therapy in glucocorticoid deficiency or to suppress the immune system.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Glucocorticoid

    • This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, although this can increase storage of flashbulb memories it decreases long term potentation (LTP). from Stress (biology)

    • Cortisol is a steroid hormone, belonging to a broader class of steroids called glucocorticoids, produced by the adrenal gland and secreted during a stress response. from Stress (biology)

    • It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoid. from Cortisol

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    • In many species, including amphibians, reptiles, rodents and birds, corticosterone is a main glucocorticoid, involved in regulation of energy, immune reactions, and stress responses. from Corticosterone

    • His current research focuses on glucocorticoids, stress and neuronal degeneration. from Bruce McEwen

    • Chronic secretion of stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), as a result of disease, may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, or other receptors in the brain, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones. from Psychoneuroimmunology

    • These include the glucocorticoids which are critical for regulation of blood sugar and the immune system, as well as response to physiological stress, the mineralcorticoid aldosterone, which regulates blood pressure and kidney function, and certain sex hormones. from Adrenal tumor

    • A developing hypothesis is that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of Borrelia infection may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, or other receptors in the brain by cell-mediated proinflammatory pathways, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones, specifically glucocorticoids and catecholamines, the major stress hormones. from Lyme disease

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    1. 12
      Eustress Eustress is a term coined by endocrinologist Hans Selye. The word eustress consists of two parts. The prefix eu-…
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      Eustress is a term coined by endocrinologist Hans Selye. The word eustress consists of two parts. The prefix eu- derives from the Greek word meaning either "well" or "good." When attached to the word stress, it literally means "good stress".…

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      Eustress is a term coined by endocrinologist Hans Selye. The word eustress consists of two parts. The prefix eu- derives from the Greek word meaning either "well" or "good." When attached to the word stress, it literally means "good stress".
      Eustress was originally explored in a stress model by Richard Lazarus, it is the positive cognitive response to stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings. Selye created the term as a subgroup of stress to differentiate the wide variety of stressors and manifestations of stress.
      Eustress is not defined by the stressor type, but rather how one perceives that stressor (e.g. a negative threat versus a positive challenge). Eustress refers to a positive response one has to a stressor, which can depend on one's current feelings of control, desirability, location, and timing of the stressor. Potential indicators of eustress may include responding to a stressor with a sense of meaning, hope, or vigor. Eustress has also been positively correlated with life satisfaction and well-being.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Eustress

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    • Selye created the term as a subgroup of stress to differentiate the wide variety of stressors and manifestations of stress. from Eustress

    • Eustress was originally explored in a stress model by Richard Lazarus, it is the positive cognitive response to stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings. from Eustress

    • The word "spasm" may also refer to a temporary burst of energy, activity, emotion, Eustress, stress, or anxiety unrelated to, or as a consequence of, involuntary muscle activity. from Spasm

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    1. 13
      Hormone A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is a class of regulatory biochemical that is produced in all multicellular…
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      A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is a class of regulatory biochemical that is produced in all multicellular organisms by glands, and transported by the circulatory system to a distant target organ to coordinate its physiology and behavior. Hormones serve as a major form of communication between different organs and tissues. Hormones regulate a variety…

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      A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is a class of regulatory biochemical that is produced in all multicellular organisms by glands, and transported by the circulatory system to a distant target organ to coordinate its physiology and behavior. Hormones serve as a major form of communication between different organs and tissues. Hormones regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral activities, including digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. Generally, only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. The brain is often a target organ for many of the hormones, and the brain, in turn, regulates the secretion of these hormones.
      Hormone formation may arise at localized clusters of specific cells known as endocrine glands, or at other specialized cells with several functions. Hormone synthesis occurs in response to specific biochemical signals induced by a wide range of regulatory systems. In some cases, the rate at which these systems act on a hormone depends on the particular effect or properties of the hormone. For instance, ionized calcium concentration modulates PTH synthesis, whereas glucose concentration modulates insulin synthesis. Contrarily, regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones is often dependent on a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as the HPA, HPG, and HPT axes.
      Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. Other hormones, including steroid and thyroid hormones, are lipid soluble; to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., throxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand-protein complexes. Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. The endocrine system secretes hormones directly into the circulatory system typically into fenestrated capillaries, whereas the exocrine system secretes its hormones indirectly using ducts. Hormones with paracrine function diffuse through the interstitial spaces to nearby target tissues.
      Hormones purposefully affect the target tissue of interest by binding to specific receptor proteins to elicit a specified action in the cellular target. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. When a hormone binds to the receptor protein, it results in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism. This ultimately leads to cell type-specific genomic responses that cause the hormone to activate genes that regulate protein synthesis (e.g., up-regulation: synthesis of a receptor for that hormone).
      Plant hormones are known as phytohormones.
      Endocrinology is a branch of science concerned with the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, biochemical and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Hormone

    • These connections help to regulate the hypothalamus’ ability to secrete hormones into the body’s blood stream, having far-reaching and long-lasting effects on physiological processes such as metabolism. from Stress (biology)

    • They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. from Adrenal gland

    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. from Corticotropin-releasing hormone

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    • Chronic secretion of stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), as a result of disease, may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, or other receptors in the brain, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones. from Psychoneuroimmunology

    • Social defeat is a source of chronic stress in animals and humans, capable of causing significant changes in behaviour, brain functioning, physiology, neurotransmitter and hormone levels, and health (Bjorkqvist, 2001; Rohde, 2001; Allen & Badcock, 2003). from Social defeat

    • Possible causes of the disorder include psychological and emotional factors, such as depression, anger, and stress; relationship factors, such as conflict or lack of trust; medical factors, such as depleted hormones, reduced regional blood flow, and nerve damage; and drug use. from Sexual arousal disorder

    • Factors that affect the input are the baroreflex, thermoregulation, hormones, sleep-wake cycle, meals, physical activity, and stress. from Heart rate variability

    • Reactive lymphocytes are usually associated with viral illnesses, however, they can also be present as a result of drug reactions (such as phenytoin), immunisations, radiation, hormonal causes (such as stress and Addison's disease) as well as some auto-immune disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis). from Reactive lymphocyte

    • In particular, he has found that stress hormones, such as epinephrine and cortisol, mediate much of the effects of emotional arousal on subsequent retention of the event. from James McGaugh

    • Rice has been traditionally used for studying responses to hormones like abscissic acid and gibberelin as well as responses to stress. from Plant evolutionary developmental biology

    • A developing hypothesis is that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of Borrelia infection may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, or other receptors in the brain by cell-mediated proinflammatory pathways, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones, specifically glucocorticoids and catecholamines, the major stress hormones. from Lyme disease

    • Foster children have elevated levels of cortisol, a stress hormone, in comparison to children raised by their biological parents. from Foster care

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    1. 14
      Sleep In animals, sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited…
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      In animals, sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, and inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, and it is more easily reversible than being in hibernation or a coma.…

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      In animals, sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, and inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, and it is more easily reversible than being in hibernation or a coma.
      During sleep, most systems in an animal are in a heightened anabolic state, accentuating the growth and rejuvenation of the immune, nervous, skeletal and muscular systems etc. It is observed in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, and (in some form) in insects and even simpler animals such as nematodes (see the related article Sleep (non-human)), suggesting that sleep is universal in the animal kingdom.
      The purposes and mechanisms of sleep are only partially clear and the subject of substantial ongoing research. Sleep is sometimes thought to help conserve energy, though this theory is not fully adequate as it only decreases metabolism by about 5–10%. Additionally it is observed that mammals require sleep even during the hypometabolic state of hibernation, in which circumstance it is actually a net loss of energy as the animal returns from hypothermia to euthermia in order to sleep.
      In most societies people sleep during the night, but in very hot climates they may sleep during the day. During Ramadan, many Muslims sleep during the day rather than at night and people working nights try to sleep in the daytime. Humans may suffer from a number of sleep disorders. These include dyssomnias (such as insomnia, hypersomnia, and sleep apnea), parasomnias (such as sleepwalking and REM behavior disorder), and the circadian rhythm sleep disorders).

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Sleep

    • Life experiences such as poverty, unemployment, clinical depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, heavy drinking, or insufficient sleep can also cause stress. from Stress (biology)

    • Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by the sleep/wake cycle (circadian rhythm). from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • This area controls most anterior pituitary cells and thereby regulates functions in the entire body, like responses to stress, cold, sleep, and the reproductive system. from Neuroendocrine cell

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    • Other non-nutritional causes for obesity included: sleep deprivation, stress, lack of exercise, and heredity. from Nutrition disorder

    • Tremor can also be caused from lack of sleep, lack of vitamins, or increased stress. from Tremor

    • Work intensity can lead to many negative health consequences, such as lack of sleep, stress, and lack of recreation. from Double burden

    • :In epilepsy, next generations of long-term video-EEG monitoring may predict epileptic seizure and prevent them with changes of daily life activity like sleep, stress, nutrition and mood management. from Monitoring (medicine)

    • Ebbinghaus hypothesized that the speed of forgetting depends on a number of factors such as the difficulty of the learned material (e.g. how meaningful it is), its representation and physiological factors such as stress and sleep. from Forgetting curve

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    1. 15
      Corticotropin-releasing hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a…
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      Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. It belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor family. In humans, it is encoded by the CRH gene.…

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      Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. It belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor family. In humans, it is encoded by the CRH gene.
      Its main function is the stimulation of the pituitary synthesis of ACTH, as part of the HPA Axis.
      Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide derived from a 196-amino acid preprohormone. CRH is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in response to stress. Increased CRH production has been observed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease and major depression, and autosomal recessive hypothalamic corticotropin deficiency has multiple and potentially fatal metabolic consequences including hypoglycemia. In addition to being produced in the hypothalamus, CRH is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, such as T lymphocytes, and is highly expressed in the placenta. In the placenta, CRH is a marker that determines the length of gestation and the timing of parturition and delivery. A rapid increase in circulating levels of CRH occurs at the onset of parturition, suggesting that, in addition to its metabolic functions, CRH may act as a trigger for parturition.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Corticotropin-releasing hormone

    • The adrenal cortex responds by signaling the release of the corticosteroids cortisol and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) directly into the bloodstream. from Stress (biology)

    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone is the neurohormone secreted by the hypothalamus during a stress response that stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland by binding to its corticotropin-releasing hormone-receptors, causing the anterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic hormone. from Stress (biology)

    • During a stress response, the hypothalamus secretes various hormones, namely corticotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the body’s pituitary gland and initiates a heavily regulated stress response pathway. from Stress (biology)

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    1. 16
      Amygdala The amygdalae (singular: amygdala; /əˈmɪɡdələ/; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē…
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      The amygdalae (singular: amygdala; /əˈmɪɡdələ/; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil'), listed in the Gray's Anatomy textbook as the nucleus amygdalæ, are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Amygdala

    • The brain is equipped to process stress in three main areas: the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. from Stress (biology)

    • The amygdala is a small, "almond"-shaped structure located bilaterally, deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain and is a part of the brain’s limbic system, with projections to and from the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and locus coeruleus among other areas. from Stress (biology)

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      Adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and…
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      Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release…

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      Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids. Primary adrenal insufficiency, also called Addison's disease, occurs when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient, resulting in chronically elevated ACTH levels; when a pituitary tumor is the cause of elevated ACTH (from the anterior pituitary) this is known as Cushing's Disease and the constellation of signs and symptoms of the excess cortisol (hypercortisolism) is known as Cushing's syndrome. A deficiency of ACTH is a cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency. ACTH is also related to the circadian rhythm in many organisms.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone is the hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland into the body’s blood stream that stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland by binding to its adrenocorticotropic hormone-receptors, thus causing the adrenal gland to release cortisol. from Stress (biology)

    • During a stress response, the pituitary gland releases hormones into the blood stream, namely adrenocorticotropic hormone, which modulates a heavily regulated stress response system. from Stress (biology)

    • Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, clinical depression, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes. from Cortisol

    1. 18
      Pituitary gland In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and…
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      In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural…

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      In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum). The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The pituitary gland sits in the hypophysial fossa, situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Pituitary gland

    • Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of growth hormone, as in children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord, alcoholism, or child abuse. from Stress (biology)

    • This quickly signals the pituitary gland and finally triggers the adrenal cortex. from Stress (biology)

    • The pituitary gland is a small organ that is located at the base of the brain just under the hypothalamus. from Stress (biology)

    1. 19
      Serotonin Serotonin /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnɨn/ or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from…
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      Serotonin /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnɨn/ or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.…

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      Serotonin /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnɨn/ or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.
      Approximately 90% of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the GI tract, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS, where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep. Serotonin also has some cognitive functions, including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants.
      Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. Serotonin also is a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing. There are various serotonin receptors.
      Serotonin is metabolized mainly to 5-HIAA, chiefly by the liver. Metabolism involves first oxidation by monoamine oxidase to the corresponding aldehyde. This is followed by oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by the kidneys. One type of tumor, called carcinoid, sometimes secretes large amounts of serotonin into the blood, which causes various forms of the carcinoid syndrome of flushing (serotonin itself does not cause flushing. Potential causes of flushing in carcinoid syndrome include bradykinins, prostaglandins, tachykinins, substance P, and/or histamine), diarrhea, and heart problems. Because of serotonin's growth-promoting effect on cardiac myocytes,a serotonin-secreting carcinoid tumour may cause a tricuspid valve disease syndrome, due to the proliferation of myocytes onto the valve.
      In addition to animals, serotonin is found in fungi and plants. Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. Serotonin is produced by pathogenic amoebae, and its effect on the gut causes diarrhea. Its widespread presence in many seeds and fruits may serve to stimulate the digestive tract into expelling the seeds.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Serotonin

    • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter synthesized in the raphe nucleus of the pons of the brainstem and projects to most brain areas. from Stress (biology)

    • Chronic secretion of stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), as a result of disease, may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, or other receptors in the brain, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones. from Psychoneuroimmunology

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      Prefrontal cortex In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the thick outer layer (cerebral cortex) of the…
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      In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the thick outer layer (cerebral cortex) of the prefrontal lobe (the front portion of the frontal lobe). The PFC contains Brodmann areas 9, 10, 11, 12, 46, and 47.…

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      In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the thick outer layer (cerebral cortex) of the prefrontal lobe (the front portion of the frontal lobe). The PFC contains Brodmann areas 9, 10, 11, 12, 46, and 47.
      Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's personality and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals. Destruction of the anterior two-thirds results in deficits in concentration, orientation, abstracting ability, judgment, and problem solving ability; destruction of the orbital (frontal) lobe results in inappropriate social behavior.
      The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function. Executive function relates to abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts, determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social "control" (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially unacceptable outcomes).
      Frontal cortex supports concrete rule learning. More anterior regions along the rostro-caudal axis of frontal cortex support rule learning at higher levels of abstraction.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Prefrontal cortex

    • The brain is equipped to process stress in three main areas: the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. from Stress (biology)

    • The prefrontal cortex, located in the frontal lobe, is the anterior-most region of the cerebral cortex. from Stress (biology)

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      Posttraumatic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as…
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      Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, warfare, serious injury, or threats of imminent death that result in feelings of intense fear, horror, and powerlessness. The diagnosis may be given when a group of symptoms, such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal, continue for more than a month after the occurrence of traumatic event.…

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      Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, warfare, serious injury, or threats of imminent death that result in feelings of intense fear, horror, and powerlessness. The diagnosis may be given when a group of symptoms, such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal, continue for more than a month after the occurrence of traumatic event.
      Most people having experienced a traumatizing event will not develop PTSD. Women are more likely to experience higher impact events, and are also more likely to develop PTSD than men. Children are less likely to experience PTSD after trauma than adults, especially if they are under ten years of age. War veterans are commonly at risk for PTSD.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Posttraumatic stress disorder

    • Previous diagnoses now considered historical equivalents of PTSD include railway spine, stress syndrome, nostalgia, soldier's heart, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat stress reaction, or traumatic war neurosis. from Posttraumatic stress disorder

    • The psychiatric diagnosis post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was coined in the mid-1970s, in part through the efforts of anti-Vietnam War activists and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and Chaim F. Shatan. from Stress (biology)

    • Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). from Occupational stress

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    • Clonidine also has several off-label uses, and has been prescribed to treat psychiatric disorders including stress, sleep disorders, and hyperarousal caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and other anxiety disorders. from Clonidine

    • Some of the psychological and health effects that can occur in someone who has been sexually harassed as a result of stress and humiliation: depression, anxiety and/or panic attacks, sleeplessness and/or nightmares, shame and guilt, difficulty concentrating, headaches, fatigue or loss of motivation, stomach problems, eating disorders (weight loss or gain), alcoholism, feeling betrayed and/or violated, feeling angry or violent towards the perpetrator, feeling powerless or out of control, increased blood pressure, loss of confidence and self-esteem, withdrawal and isolation, overall loss of trust in people, traumatic stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidal thoughts or attempts, suicide. from Sexual harassment

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      Adrenal gland In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that sit at the top of the…
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      In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. They also produce androgens in their innermost…

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      In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. They also produce androgens in their innermost cortical layer. The adrenal glands affect kidney function through the secretion of aldosterone, and recent data (1998) suggest that adrenocortical cells under pathological as well as under physiological conditions show neuroendocrine properties; within normal adrenal glands, this neuroendocrine differentiation seems to be restricted to cells of the zona glomerulosa and might be important for an autocrine regulation of adrenocortical function.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Adrenal gland

    • They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. from Adrenal gland

    • This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, although this can increase storage of flashbulb memories it decreases long term potentation (LTP). from Stress (biology)

    • The adrenal gland is a major organ of the endocrine system that is located directly on top of the kidneys and is chiefly responsible for the synthesis of stress hormones that are released into the blood stream during a stress response. from Stress (biology)

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      Hippocampus The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek hippos meaning "horse" and kampos…
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      The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek hippos meaning "horse" and kampos meaning "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important…

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      The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek hippos meaning "horse" and kampos meaning "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex; and in primates it is located in the medial temporal lobe, underneath the cortical surface. It contains two main interlocking parts: Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus.
      In Alzheimer's disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; memory loss and disorientation are included among the early symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (hypoxia), encephalitis, or medial temporal lobe epilepsy. People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia—the inability to form or retain new memories.
      In rodents, the hippocampus has been studied extensively as part of a brain system responsible for spatial memory and navigation. Many neurons in the rat and mouse hippocampus respond as place cells: that is, they fire bursts of action potentials when the animal passes through a specific part of its environment. Hippocampal place cells interact extensively with head direction cells, whose activity acts as an inertial compass, and conjecturally with grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex.
      Since different neuronal cell types are neatly organized into layers in the hippocampus, it has frequently been used as a model system for studying neurophysiology. The form of neural plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) was first discovered to occur in the hippocampus and has often been studied in this structure. LTP is widely believed to be one of the main neural mechanisms by which memory is stored in the brain.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Hippocampus

    • The hippocampus contains high levels of glucocorticoid receptors, which make it more vulnerable to long-term stress than most other brain areas. from Hippocampus

    • The brain is equipped to process stress in three main areas: the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. from Stress (biology)

    • The hippocampus is a structure located bilaterally, deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain, just below each amygdala, and is a part of the brain’s limbic system. from Stress (biology)

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    • Exposure to stress and the stress hormone corticosterone has been shown to decrease the expression of BDNF in rats, and, if exposure is persistent, this leads to an eventual atrophy of the hippocampus. from Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    • Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal ganglia, associated with movement control; the cerebellum, associated with body movement coordination; the hippocampus, associated with learning, memory, and stress control; the cerebral cortex, associated with higher cognitive functions; and the nucleus accumbens, regarded as the reward center of the brain. from Effects of cannabis

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    1. 24
      Stressor A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes…
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      A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.
      An event that triggers the stress response may include:…

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      A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.
      An event that triggers the stress response may include:
      Stressors have physical, chemical and mental responses inside of the body. Physical stressors produce mechanical stresses on skin, bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles and nerves that cause tissue deformation and in extreme cases tissue failure. Chemical stresses also produce biomechanical responses associated with metabolism and tissue repair. Physical stressors may produce pain and impair work performance. Chronic pain and impairment requiring medical attention may result from extreme physical stressors or if there is not sufficient recovery time between successive exposures.
      Stressors may also affect mental function and performance. One possible mechanism involves stimulation of the hypothalamus, crf (corticotropin release factor) -> pituitary gland releases "acth" (adrenocorticotropic hormone) ->adrenal cortex secretes various stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) ->stress hormones (30 varieties) travel in the blood stream to relevant organs, e.g., glands, heart, intestines. ->flight-or-fight response. Between this flow there is an alternate path that can be taken after the stressor is transferred to the hypothalamus, which leads to the sympathetic nervous system. After which, the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Mental and social stressors may affect behavior and how individuals respond to physical and chemical stressors.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Stressor

    • He also coined the term stressor to refer to the causative event or stimulus, as opposed to the resulting state of stress. from Stress (biology)

    • Whether one should interpret these mechanisms as the body’s response to a stressor or embody the act of stress itself is part of the ambiguity in defining what exactly stress is. from Stress (biology)

    • Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. from Stress (biology)

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    • A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism. from Stressor

    • In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to adapt completely to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors. from Distress (medicine)

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      Adrenal cortex Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the…
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      Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis. Recent data suggest that adrenocortical cells under pathological as well as under physiological conditions show neuroendocrine properties; within the…

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      Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis. Recent data suggest that adrenocortical cells under pathological as well as under physiological conditions show neuroendocrine properties; within the normal adrenal, this neuroendocrine differentiation seems to be restricted to cells of the zona glomerulosa and might be important for an autocrine regulation of adrenocortical function.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Adrenal cortex

    • This quickly signals the pituitary gland and finally triggers the adrenal cortex. from Stress (biology)

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      Mood (psychology) A mood is an emotional state. Moods differ from emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less…
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      A mood is an emotional state. Moods differ from emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event. Moods generally have either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people typically speak of being in a good mood or a bad mood.…

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      A mood is an emotional state. Moods differ from emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event. Moods generally have either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people typically speak of being in a good mood or a bad mood.
      Mood also differs from temperament or personality traits which are even longer lasting. Nevertheless, personality traits such as optimism and neuroticism predispose certain types of moods. Long term disturbances of mood such as clinical depression and bipolar disorder are considered mood disorders. Mood is an internal, subjective state but it often can be inferred from posture and other behaviors. "We can be sent into a mood by an unexpected event, from the happiness of seeing an old friend to the anger of discovering betrayal by a partner. We may also just fall into a mood."
      Research also shows that a person's mood can influence how they process advertising. Further mood has been found to interact with gender to affect consumer processing of information.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Mood (psychology)

    • The raphe nucleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regulation, particularly when stress is associated with depression and anxiety. from Stress (biology)

    • Some individuals have reported affective changes prior to an outburst (e.g., tension, mood changes, energy changes, etc.). from Intermittent explosive disorder

    • :In epilepsy, next generations of long-term video-EEG monitoring may predict epileptic seizure and prevent them with changes of daily life activity like sleep, stress, nutrition and mood management. from Monitoring (medicine)

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      Major depressive disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or…
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      Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable…

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      Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. This cluster of symptoms (syndrome) was named, described and classified as one of the mood disorders in the 1980 edition of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual. The term "depression" is used in a number of different ways. It is often used to mean this syndrome but may refer to other mood disorders or simple to a low mood. Major depressive disorder is a disabling condition that adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, around 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of people who commit suicide had depression or another mood disorder.
      The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives or friends, and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians generally request tests for physical conditions that may cause similar symptoms. The most common time of onset is between the ages of 20 and 30 years, with a later peak between 30 and 40 years.
      Typically, people are treated with antidepressant medication and, in many cases, also receive counseling, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Medication appears to be effective, but the effect may only be significant in the most severely depressed. Hospitalization may be necessary in cases with associated self-neglect or a significant risk of harm to self or others. A minority are treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The course of the disorder varies widely, from one episode lasting weeks to a lifelong disorder with recurrent major depressive episodes. Depressed individuals have shorter life expectancies than those without depression, in part because of greater susceptibility to medical illnesses and suicide. It is unclear whether or not medications affect the risk of suicide. Current and former patients may be stigmatized.
      The understanding of the nature and causes of depression has evolved over the centuries, though this understanding is incomplete and has left many aspects of depression as the subject of discussion and research. Proposed causes include psychological, psycho-social, hereditary, evolutionary and biological factors. Long-term substance abuse may cause or worsen depressive symptoms. Psychological treatments are based on theories of personality, interpersonal communication, and learning. Most biological theories focus on the monoamine chemicals serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which are naturally present in the brain and assist communication between nerve cells.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Major depressive disorder

    • In addition, some studies have found little empirical support for the DSM-IV cut-off criteria, indicating they are a diagnostic convention imposed on a continuum of depressive symptoms of varying severity and duration: Excluded are a range of related diagnoses, including dysthymia, which involves a chronic but milder mood disturbance; recurrent brief depression, consisting of briefer depressive episodes; minor depressive disorder, whereby only some of the symptoms of major depression are present; and adjustment disorder with depressed mood, which denotes low mood resulting from a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor. from Major depressive disorder

    • The result can manifest itself in obvious illnesses, such as peptic ulcer and general trouble with the digestive system (e.g. occult bleeding, melena, constipation/obstipation), diabetes, or even cardiovascular problems (angina pectoris), along with clinical depression and other mental illnesses. from Stress (biology)

    • Life experiences such as poverty, unemployment, clinical depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, heavy drinking, or insufficient sleep can also cause stress. from Stress (biology)

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    • Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, clinical depression, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes. from Cortisol

    • Fatigue is a normal result of working, mental stress, overstimulation and understimulation, jet lag or active recreation, depression, and also boredom, disease and lack of sleep. from Fatigue (medical)

    • It can be caused by another disorder, by changes in the sleep environment, by the timing of sleep, severe depression, or by stress. from Insomnia

    • The most common immediate precipitators of the disorder are severe stress; major depressive disorder and panic; and hallucinogen ingestion. from Depersonalization disorder

    • This explains why in clinical depression and stress, energy intake can change quite drastically. from Appetite

    • Many theories of burnout include negative outcomes related to burnout, including measures of job function (performance, output, etc.), health related outcomes (increases in stress hormones, coronary heart disease, circulatory issues) and mental health problems such as depression. from Burnout (psychology)

    • Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). from Occupational stress

    • Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain (McCracken et al. 2007), stress (Grossman et al. 2004), anxiety and depression (Hofmann et al. 2010), substance abuse (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent suicidal behavior (Williams et al. 2006). from Mindfulness (psychology)

    • These people may develop symptoms of depression, stress, and trauma. from Compassion fatigue

    • Occupational therapists also may work with individuals who are dealing with alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, eating disorders, or stress-related disorders. from Occupational therapist

    • The remedies are intended primarily for emotional and spiritual conditions, including but not limited to depression, anxiety, insomnia and stress. from Bach flower remedies

    • Some of the psychological and health effects that can occur in someone who has been sexually harassed as a result of stress and humiliation: depression, anxiety and/or panic attacks, sleeplessness and/or nightmares, shame and guilt, difficulty concentrating, headaches, fatigue or loss of motivation, stomach problems, eating disorders (weight loss or gain), alcoholism, feeling betrayed and/or violated, feeling angry or violent towards the perpetrator, feeling powerless or out of control, increased blood pressure, loss of confidence and self-esteem, withdrawal and isolation, overall loss of trust in people, traumatic stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidal thoughts or attempts, suicide. from Sexual harassment

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    1. 28
      Hans Selye János Hugo Bruno "Hans" Selye, CC (/ˈhænz ˈsɛljeɪ/; Hungarian: Selye János; January 26, 1907 – October 16, 1982)…
    1. 28

      János Hugo Bruno "Hans" Selye, CC (/ˈhænz ˈsɛljeɪ/; Hungarian: Selye János; January 26, 1907 – October 16, 1982), was a pioneering Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin. He conducted much important scientific work on the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors. While he did not recognize all of the many aspects of glucocorticoids, Selye was aware of their role in the stress response. Some commentators consider him the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Hans Selye

    • He later coined the term "stress", which has been accepted into the lexicon of various other languages. from Hans Selye

    • His last inspiration for general adaptation syndrome (GAS, a theory of stress) came from an endocrinological experiment in which he injected mice with extracts of various organs. from Hans Selye

    • Some commentators consider him the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress. from Hans Selye

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    • There was also renewed laboratory research into the neuroendocrine, molecular, and immunological bases of stress, conceived as a useful heuristic not necessarily tied to Selye's original hypotheses. from Stress (biology)

    • From the late 1960s, academic psychologists started to adopt Selye's concept; they sought to quantify "life stress" by scoring "significant life events," and a large amount of research was undertaken to examine links between stress and disease of all kinds. from Stress (biology)

    • The current usage of the word stress arose out of Selye's 1930s experiments. from Stress (biology)

    • Selye published in year 1975 a model dividing stress into eustress and distress. from Stress (biology)

    • The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. from Stress (biology)

    • Hans Selye, who founded the theory of stress. from Eustress

    • Selye created the term as a subgroup of stress to differentiate the wide variety of stressors and manifestations of stress. from Eustress

    • The roots of periodization come from Hans Selye’s model, known as the General adaptation syndrome (GAS), describing biological responses to stress. from Sports periodization

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    1. 29
      Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association…
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      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives…

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      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), produced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The DSM is now in its fifth edition, DSM-5, published on May 18, 2013.
      The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a United States Army manual. Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, although also removing those no longer considered to be mental disorders.
      The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), produced by the World Health Organization (WHO), is the other commonly used manual for mental disorders. It is distinguished from the DSM in that it covers health as a whole. It is in fact the official diagnostic system for mental disorders in the US, but is used more widely in Europe and other parts of the world. The coding system used in the DSM is designed to correspond with the codes used in the ICD, although not all codes may match at all times because the two publications are not revised synchronously.
      While the DSM has been praised for standardizing psychiatric diagnostic categories and criteria, it has also generated controversy and criticism. Critics, including the National Institute of Mental Health, argue that the DSM represents an unscientific and subjective system. There are ongoing issues concerning the validity and reliability of the diagnostic categories; the reliance on superficial symptoms; the use of artificial dividing lines between categories and from ‘normality’; possible cultural bias; medicalization of human distress. The publication of the DSM, with tightly guarded copyrights, now makes APA over $5 million a year, historically totaling over $100 million.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    • The condition was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as posttraumatic stress disorder in 1980. from Stress (biology)

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      Burnout (psychology) Burnout is a psychological term that refers to long-term exhaustion and diminished interest in work. Research…
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      Burnout is a psychological term that refers to long-term exhaustion and diminished interest in work. Research indicates general practitioners have the highest proportion of burnout cases; according to a recent Dutch study in Psychological Reports, no less than 40% of these experienced high levels of burnout. Burnout is not a recognized disorder in the DSM…

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      Burnout is a psychological term that refers to long-term exhaustion and diminished interest in work. Research indicates general practitioners have the highest proportion of burnout cases; according to a recent Dutch study in Psychological Reports, no less than 40% of these experienced high levels of burnout. Burnout is not a recognized disorder in the DSM although it is recognized in the ICD-10 and specified as a "State of vital exhaustion" (Z73.0) under "Problems related to life-management difficulty" (Z73), but not considered a "disorder".
      Clinical psychologist Herbert Freudenberger first identified the construct "burnout" in the 1970s. Social psychologists Christina Maslach and Susan Jackson developed what is the most widely used instrument for assessing burnout, namely, the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The Maslach Burnout Inventory operationalizes burnout as a three-dimensional syndrome made up of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. Some researchers and practitioners have argued for an "exhaustion only" model that views that symptom as the hallmark of burnout.
      Maslach and her colleague, Michael Leiter, defined the antithesis of burnout as engagement. Engagement is characterized by energy, involvement and efficacy, the opposites of exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy.
      Many theories of burnout include negative outcomes related to burnout, including measures of job function (performance, output, etc.), health related outcomes (increases in stress hormones, coronary heart disease, circulatory issues) and mental health problems such as depression. In the only study that directly compared depressive symptoms in burned out workers and clinically depressed patients, no diagnostically significant differences were observed between the two groups; overall, burned out workers reported as many depressive symptoms as clinically depressed patients. It has been found that patients with chronic burnout have specific cognitive impairments, which should be emphasized in the evaluation of symptoms and treatment regimes. Significant reductions in nonverbal memory and auditory and visual attention were found for the patient group. The term burnout in psychology was coined by Herbert Freudenberger in his 1974 Staff burnout, presumably based on the 1960 novel A Burnt-Out Case by Graham Greene, which describes a protagonist suffering from burnout.
      Burnout is supposed to be a work-specific syndrome. However, this restrictive view of burnout's scope has recently been shown to be groundless. Thus, the restriction of the study of burnout to the occupational domain would result from arbitrary choices rather than from a phenomenological necessity.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Burnout (psychology)

    • Because the amount of stressors in a person's life often (although not always) correlates with the amount of stress that person experiences, researchers combine the results of stress and burnout self-tests. from Stress (biology)

    • Many theories of burnout include negative outcomes related to burnout, including measures of job function (performance, output, etc.), health related outcomes (increases in stress hormones, coronary heart disease, circulatory issues) and mental health problems such as depression. from Burnout (psychology)

    • Particularly in larger, urban settings, the mental demands and stress level may be comparable to those of an air traffic controller, and 'burn-out' rates may be quite high. from Emergency medical dispatcher

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    • (Lydiard found through physiological testing that four weeks was the maximum amount of anaerobic development needed—any more caused negative effects such a decrease in aerobic enzymes and increased mental stress, often referred to as burnout, due to lowered blood pH.) Then followed a co-ordination phase of six weeks in which anaerobic work and volume taper off and the athlete races each week, learning from each race to fine-tune himself or herself for the target race. from Arthur Lydiard

    • Relish report on the stress which cartoonists may face, and may lead to burn out. from 2006 in comics

    • Other writers have explored ex-pastors within particular denominations and/or focused on particular related issues such as burnout, stress, marital stress, sexual abuse, celibacy, loneliness, organisational factors, and conflict. from Pastor

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    1. 31
      Homeostasis Homeostasis, also spelled homoeostasis or homœostasis (from Greek: ὅμοιος, "hómoios", "similar", and στάσις…
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      Homeostasis, also spelled homoeostasis or homœostasis (from Greek: ὅμοιος, "hómoios", "similar", and στάσις, stásis, "standing still"), is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of temperature and the balance between acidity and alkalinity (pH). It is a process that maintains the stability of the human body's internal environment in response to changes in external conditions.…

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      Homeostasis, also spelled homoeostasis or homœostasis (from Greek: ὅμοιος, "hómoios", "similar", and στάσις, stásis, "standing still"), is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of temperature and the balance between acidity and alkalinity (pH). It is a process that maintains the stability of the human body's internal environment in response to changes in external conditions.
      The concept was described by Claude Bernard in 1865 and the word was coined by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926, 1929 and 1932. Although the term was originally used to refer to processes within living organisms, it is frequently applied to automatic control systems such as thermostats. Homeostasis requires a sensor to detect changes in the condition to be regulated, an effector mechanism that can vary that condition; and a negative feedback connection between the two.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Homeostasis

    • This gland releases various hormones that play significant roles in regulating homeostasis. from Stress (biology)

    • Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. from Stress (biology)

    • Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis. from Stress (biology)

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    • Through them, the higher cerebral cortex areas can control the immune system, and the body’s homeostatic and stress physiology. from Neural top down control of physiology

    • After a period of near perfect renewal (in humans, between 20 and 35 years of age), organismal senescence is characterised by the declining ability to respond to stress, increasing homeostatic imbalance and the increased risk of disease. from Ageing

    • Such blood flow is imperative to mediate the effects caused by stress, hypoxia and several other conditions which may alter homeostasis. from Pericyte

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    1. 32
      Pain Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a…
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      Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, and bumping the "funny bone". The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition states: "Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage."…

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      Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, and bumping the "funny bone". The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition states: "Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage."
      Pain motivates the individual to withdraw from damaging situations, to protect a damaged body part while it heals, and to avoid similar experiences in the future. Most pain resolves promptly once the painful stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but sometimes pain persists despite removal of the stimulus and apparent healing of the body; and sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease.
      Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in the United States. It is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and can significantly interfere with a person's quality of life and general functioning. Psychological factors such as social support, hypnotic suggestion, excitement, or distraction can significantly modulate pain's intensity or unpleasantness.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Pain

    • Sensory input such as pain, bright light, noise, temperatures, or environmental issues such as a lack of control over environmental circumstances, such as food, air and/or water quality, housing, health, freedom, or mobility. from Stress (biology)

    • Projections extend from this region to widespread areas across the brain, namely the hypothalamus, and are thought to modulate an organism's circadian rhythm and sensation of pain among other processes. from Stress (biology)

    • Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, clinical depression, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes. from Cortisol

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    • Substance P has been associated with the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress, reinforcement, neurogenesis, respiratory rhythm, neurotoxicity, nausea/emesis, pain and nociception. from Substance P

    • Meditation has entered the mainstream of health care as a method of stress and pain reduction. from Research on meditation

    • Treatable causes of cancer-related fatigue include: anemia, pain, emotional distress, sleep disturbances, nutritional disturbances, decreased physical fitness and activity, side effects from medications (e.g., sedatives), abuse of alcohol or other substances. from Cancer-related fatigue

    • Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury (see also pain and suffering). from Pain and suffering

    • Brain opioid peptide systems are known to play an important role in motivation, emotion, attachment behaviour, the response to stress and pain, and the control of food intake. from Opioid peptide

    • The word roughly corresponds to a number of terms in English including suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness, sorrow, affliction, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress, misery, and frustration. from Buddhism

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    1. 33
      Memory In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows…
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      In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process.…

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      In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information.
      From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:
      The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness or, as a medical disorder, amnesia.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Memory

    • Chronic stress is seen to affect the parts of the brain where memories are processed through and stored. from Stress (biology)

    • The hippocampus is thought to play an important role in memory formation. from Stress (biology)

    • Some users of mobile handsets have reported feeling several unspecific symptoms during and after its use; ranging from burning and tingling sensations in the skin of the head and extremities, fatigue, sleep disturbances, dizziness, loss of mental attention, reaction times and memory retentiveness, headaches, malaise, tachycardia (heart palpitations), to disturbances of the digestive system. Reports have noted that all of these symptoms can also be attributed to stress and that current research cannot separate the symptoms from nocebo effects. from Mobile phone radiation and health

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      Psychosomatic medicine Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social…
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      Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals.…

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      Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals.
      The academic forebear of the modern field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse specialties including psychiatry, psychology, neurology, internal medicine, surgery, allergy, dermatology and psychoneuroimmunology. Clinical situations where mental processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Psychosomatic medicine

    • In modern society, psychosomatic aspects of illness are often attributed to stress making the remediation of stress one important factor in the development, treatment, and prevention of psychosomatic illness. from Psychosomatic medicine

    • This is the case, for example, of lower back pain and high blood pressure, which appear to be partly related to stresses in everyday life. from Psychosomatic medicine

    • While the work attracted continued support from advocates of psychosomatic medicine, many in experimental physiology concluded that his concepts were too vague and unmeasurable. from Stress (biology)

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    • The technique can be used to alleviate many stress-induced psychosomatic disorders. from Autogenic training

    • This had an influence on the study of psychosomatic illness and stress, emphasizing the role of patients' inability to adapt to environmental situations, rather than focusing on internal psychic conflict, as had been the approach of Franz Alexander. from Jurgen Ruesch

    • Culture shapes the way people think about the world, altering their biology by influencing their behavior (e.g., food choice) or more directly through psychosomatic effects (e.g., the biological effects of psychological stress). from Biocultural anthropology

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      Quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies. QOL has a wide range of contexts…
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      Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies. QOL has a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, politics and employment. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income. Instead, standard indicators of the quality…

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      Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies. QOL has a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, politics and employment. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income. Instead, standard indicators of the quality of life include not only wealth and employment but also the built environment, physical and mental health, education, recreation and leisure time, and social belonging.
      According to ecological economist Robert Costanza:
      While Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit or implicit policy goal, adequate definition and measurement have been elusive. Diverse "objective" and "subjective" indicators across a range of disciplines and scales, and recent work on subjective well-being (SWB) surveys and the psychology of happiness have spurred renewed interest.
      One approach, called Engaged theory, outlined in the journal of Applied Research in the Quality of Life, posits four domains in assessing quality of life: ecology, economics, politics and culture. In the domain of culture, for example, it includes the following subdomains of quality of life:
      Also frequently related are concepts such as freedom, human rights, and happiness. However, since happiness is subjective and difficult to measure, other measures are generally given priority. It has also been shown that happiness, as much as it can be measured, does not necessarily increase correspondingly with the comfort that results from increasing income. As a result, standard of living should not be taken to be a measure of happiness. Also sometimes considered related is the concept of human security, though the latter may be considered at a more basic level and for all people.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Quality of life

    • On the other hand, their reported quality of emotional daily experiences (their reported experiences of joy, affection, stress, sadness, or anger) levels off after a certain income level (approximately $75,000 per year); income above $75,000 does not lead to more experiences of happiness nor to further relief of unhappiness or stress. from Quality of life

    • In humans, stress typically describes a negative condition or a positive condition that can have an impact on a person's mental and physical well-being. from Stress (biology)

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      Appetite Appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to…
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      Appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the digestive tract, adipose tissue and the brain. Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive and consummatory behaviours…

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      Appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the digestive tract, adipose tissue and the brain. Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive and consummatory behaviours are the only processes that involve energy intake, whereas all other behaviours affect the release of energy. When stressed, appetite levels may increase and result in an increase of food intake. Decreased desire to eat is termed anorexia, while polyphagia (or "hyperphagia") is increased eating. Dysregulation of appetite contributes to anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, cachexia, overeating, and binge eating disorder.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Appetite

    • Traditionally, it has been thought to play an important role in appetite, feeding behavior, and satiety, but more recent findings have implicated Neuropeptide Y in anxiety and stress, specifically, stress resiliency. from Stress (biology)

    • This explains why in clinical depression and stress, energy intake can change quite drastically. from Appetite

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      Circadian rhythm A circadian rhythm /sɜrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of…
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      A circadian rhythm /sɜrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and rhythms have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diem or dies, meaning…

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      A circadian rhythm /sɜrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and rhythms have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diem or dies, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers, commonly the most important of which is daylight.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Circadian rhythm

    • Projections extend from this region to widespread areas across the brain, namely the hypothalamus, and are thought to modulate an organism's circadian rhythm and sensation of pain among other processes. from Stress (biology)

    • Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by the sleep/wake cycle (circadian rhythm). from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • These cycles are often affected by changes in sleep cycle (too much or too little), diurnal rhythms, and environmental stressors. from Mania

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    • As an example, humans benefit from using indoor artificial light to extend the time available for work and play, but the light disrupts the human circadian rhythm, and the resulting stress is damaging to health. from Ecological light pollution

    • Factors that affect the input are the baroreflex, thermoregulation, hormones, sleep-wake cycle, meals, physical activity, and stress. from Heart rate variability

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      Neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron (brain cell) to…
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      Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron (brain cell) to another 'target' neuron. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal, on the presynaptic side of a synapse. Neurotransmitters are released into and diffuse across the synaptic cleft, where they bind to specific…

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      Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron (brain cell) to another 'target' neuron. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal, on the presynaptic side of a synapse. Neurotransmitters are released into and diffuse across the synaptic cleft, where they bind to specific receptors in the membrane on the postsynaptic side of the synapse. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from plentiful and simple precursors, such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and which require only a small number of biosynthetic steps to convert.
      Most neurotransmitters are about the size of a single amino acid, but some neurotransmitters may be the size of larger proteins or peptides. A neurotransmitter is available only briefly – before rapid deactivation – to bind to the postsynaptic receptors. Deactivation may occur due to: the removal of neurotransmitter by re-uptake into the presynaptic terminal; or degradative enzymes in the synaptic cleft. Nevertheless, short-term exposure of the receptor to neurotransmitter is typically sufficient for causing a postsynaptic response by way of synaptic transmission.
      In response to a threshold action potential or graded electrical potential, a neurotransmitter is released at the presynaptic terminal. Low level "baseline" release also occurs without electrical stimulation. The released neurotransmitter may then move across the synapse to be detected by and bind with receptors in the postsynaptic neuron. Binding of neurotransmitters may influence the postsynaptic neuron in either an inhibitory or excitatory way. This neuron may be connected to many more neurons, and if the total of excitatory influences is greater than that of inhibitory influences, it will also "fire". That is to say, it will create a new action potential at its axon hillock to release neurotransmitters and pass on the information to yet another neighboring neuron.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Neurotransmitter

    • ;Endocrine system When a stressor acts upon the body, the endocrine system is triggered by the release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline by the autonomic nervous system. from Stress (biology)

    • The raphe nucleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regulation, particularly when stress is associated with depression and anxiety. from Stress (biology)

    • The locus coeruleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which plays an important role in the sympathetic nervous system’s fight-or-flight response to stress. from Stress (biology)

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    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. from Corticotropin-releasing hormone

    • Social defeat is a source of chronic stress in animals and humans, capable of causing significant changes in behaviour, brain functioning, physiology, neurotransmitter and hormone levels, and health (Bjorkqvist, 2001; Rohde, 2001; Allen & Badcock, 2003). from Social defeat

    • Chronic secretion of stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), as a result of disease, may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, or other receptors in the brain, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones. from Psychoneuroimmunology

    • A developing hypothesis is that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of Borrelia infection may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, or other receptors in the brain by cell-mediated proinflammatory pathways, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones, specifically glucocorticoids and catecholamines, the major stress hormones. from Lyme disease

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      Occupational stress Occupational stress is stress involving work. According to the current World Health Organization's (WHO)…
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      Occupational stress is stress involving work. According to the current World Health Organization's (WHO) definition, occupational or work-related stress "is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope."

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Occupational stress

    • Focus grew on stress in certain settings, such as workplace stress, and stress management techniques were developed. from Stress (biology)

    • Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). from Occupational stress

    • Occupational stress is stress involving work. from Occupational stress

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      Social defeat Social defeat refers to losing a confrontation among conspecific animals, or any kind of hostile dispute among…
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      Social defeat refers to losing a confrontation among conspecific animals, or any kind of hostile dispute among humans, in either a dyadic or in a group-individual context, potentially generating very significant practical and psychological consequences in terms of control over resources, access to mates and social positions.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Social defeat

    • Social issues can also cause stress, such as struggles with conspecific or difficult individuals and social defeat, or relationship conflict, deception, or break ups, and major events such as birth and deaths, marriage, and divorce. from Stress (biology)

    • Social defeat is a very potent stressor and can lead to a variety of behavioral effects, like social withdrawal (reduced interactions with conspecifics), lethargy (reduced locomotor activity), reduced exploratory behavior (of both open field and novel objects), anhedonia (reduced reward-related behaviors), decreased socio-sexual behaviors (including decreased attempts to mate and copulate after defeat), various motivational deficits, decreased levels of testosterone (due to a decline in the functionality of the Leydig cells of the testes), increased tendencies to stereotyped behaviours and self-administration of drugs and alcohol (Rygula et alli, 2005; Huhman, 2006). from Social defeat

    • Social defeat is a source of chronic stress in animals and humans, capable of causing significant changes in behaviour, brain functioning, physiology, neurotransmitter and hormone levels, and health (Bjorkqvist, 2001; Rohde, 2001; Allen & Badcock, 2003). from Social defeat

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    • In real life situations, animals (including humans) have to cope with stresses generated within their own species, during their interactions with conspecifics, especially due to recurrent struggles over the control of limited resources, mates and social positions (Bjorkqvist, 2001; Rohde, 2001; Allen & Badcock, 2003). from Social defeat

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    1. 41
      Hypertension Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition…
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      Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. Blood pressure is summarised by two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on whether the heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relaxed between beats (diastole). This equals the maximum and…

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      Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. Blood pressure is summarised by two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on whether the heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relaxed between beats (diastole). This equals the maximum and minimum pressure, respectively. Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–140mmHg systolic (top reading) and 60–90mmHg diastolic (bottom reading). High blood pressure is said to be present if it is often at or above 140/90 mmHg.
      Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension; about 90–95% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension" which means high blood pressure with no obvious underlying medical cause. The remaining 5–10% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.
      Hypertension puts strain on the heart, leading to hypertensive heart disease and coronary artery disease if not treated. Hypertension is also a major risk factor for stroke, aneurysms of the arteries (e.g. aortic aneurysm), peripheral arterial disease and is a cause of chronic kidney disease. A moderately high arterial blood pressure is associated with a shortened life expectancy while mild elevation is not. Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of health complications, although drug treatment is still often necessary in people for whom lifestyle changes are not enough or not effective.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Hypertension

    • Chronic stress is defined as a "state of prolonged tension from internal or external stressors, which may cause various physical manifestations – e.g., asthma, back pain, arrhythmias, fatigue, headaches, HTN, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, and suppress the immune system". from Stress (biology)

    • They are prone to flare up at times of high stress and are frequently accompanied by physiological symptoms such as headache, sweating, muscle spasms, tachycardia, palpitations, and hypertension, which in some cases lead to fatigue or exhaustion. from Anxiety disorder

    • This is the case, for example, of lower back pain and high blood pressure, which appear to be partly related to stresses in everyday life. from Psychosomatic medicine

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    • The seizure threshold can be altered by fatigue, malnutrition, lack of sleep or rest, hypertension, stress, diabetes, the presence of neon or xenon strobe-flashes, fluorescent lighting, rapid motion or flight, blood sugar imbalances, anxiety, antihistamines and other factors. from Tonic–clonic seizure

    • The supervising medical professional Dr Beres Wenck found that, after 48 hours, Jasmuheen displayed symptoms of acute dehydration, stress, and high blood pressure. Jasmuheen claimed that this was a result of "polluted air". from Jasmuheen

    • Much of McCarty's research has centered on behavioral and physiological adaptations to stress and on the development of hypertension, and he has written more than 30 chapters and 150 articles for various publications. from Richard C. McCarty

    • High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight-hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress, and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above, as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease. from Noise pollution

    • It has long been known that regular aerobic exercise can help to reduce high blood pressure, hypertension and combat stress. from Fitness boot camp

    • A systematic survey of research upon the effects of open plan offices found frequent negative effects in some traditional workplaces: high levels of noise, stress, conflict, high blood pressure and a high staff turnover. from Open plan

    • Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. from Pollution

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      Attention Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment…
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      Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources.…

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      Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources.
      Attention is one of the most intensely studied topics within psychology, cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology, neuroscience and neuropsychology. Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the signals that generate attention, the effects of these signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes like working memory and vigilance. A relatively new body of research, which expands upon earlier research within neuropsychology, is investigating the diagnostic symptoms associated with traumatic brain injuries and their effects on attention. Attention also has variational differences among differing cultures.
      The relationships between attention and consciousness are complex enough that they have warranted perennial philosophical exploration. Such exploration is both ancient and continually relevant, as it can have effects in fields ranging from mental health and the study of disorders of consciousness to artificial intelligence and its domains of research and development.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Attention

    • An important function of the prefrontal cortex is to regulate cognitive processes including planning, attention and problem solving through extensive connections with other brain regions. from Stress (biology)

    • Some users of mobile handsets have reported feeling several unspecific symptoms during and after its use; ranging from burning and tingling sensations in the skin of the head and extremities, fatigue, sleep disturbances, dizziness, loss of mental attention, reaction times and memory retentiveness, headaches, malaise, tachycardia (heart palpitations), to disturbances of the digestive system. Reports have noted that all of these symptoms can also be attributed to stress and that current research cannot separate the symptoms from nocebo effects. from Mobile phone radiation and health

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      Immune system The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against…
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      The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can…

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      The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity.
      Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system, in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.
      Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Immune system

    • Cortisol can weaken the activity of the immune system. from Stress (biology)

    • ;Immune system The most important aspect of the immune system are T-cells found in the form of T-helper and T-suppressor cells. from Stress (biology)

    • As a part of the body’s fight-or-flight response, cortisol also acts to suppress the body’s immune system. from Stress (biology)

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    • Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. from Stress (biology)

    • Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. from Corticosteroid

    • The interactions among these organs constitute the HPA axis, a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality and energy storage and expenditure. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • Through them, the higher cerebral cortex areas can control the immune system, and the body’s homeostatic and stress physiology. from Neural top down control of physiology

    • As a cryotherapy technique, cryomassage is said to reactivate the immune system, mobilize the endocrine system and neurohumoral system, improve health, and help to fight stress and fatigue. from Cryomassage

    • These include the glucocorticoids which are critical for regulation of blood sugar and the immune system, as well as response to physiological stress, the mineralcorticoid aldosterone, which regulates blood pressure and kidney function, and certain sex hormones. from Adrenal tumor

    • However, in certain situations, such as an underdeveloped or impaired immune system, intense stress, or malnutrition, the mites can reproduce rapidly, causing symptoms in sensitive dogs that range from mild irritation and hair loss on a small patch of skin to severe and widespread inflammation, secondary infection, and in rare cases can be a life-threatening condition. from Demodicosis

    • In humans, sexual intercourse and sexual activity in general have been reported as having health benefits as varied as improved sense of smell, stress and blood pressure reduction, increased immunity, and decreased risk of prostate cancer. from Sexual intercourse

    • Unless the individual has an impaired immune system, e.g., owing to HIV or cancer-related immune suppression, recurrent infections tend to be mild in nature and may be brought on by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress. from Oral and maxillofacial pathology

    • In humans, sexual intercourse and sexual activity in general have been reported as producing health benefits as varied as improved sense of smell, stress and blood pressure reduction, increased immunity, and decreased risk of prostate cancer. from Human sexuality

    • Singing may positively influence the immune system through the reduction of stress. from Singing

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    1. 44
      Neuropeptide Y Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and in the…
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      Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and in the autonomic nervous system of humans; slight variations of the peptide are found in many other animals. In the autonomic system it is produced mainly by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and serves as a strong…

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      Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and in the autonomic nervous system of humans; slight variations of the peptide are found in many other animals. In the autonomic system it is produced mainly by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and serves as a strong vasoconstrictor and also causes growth of fat tissue. In the brain, it is produced in various locations including the hypothalamus, and is thought to have several functions, including: increasing food intake and storage of energy as fat, reducing anxiety and stress, reducing pain perception, affecting the circadian rhythm, reducing voluntary alcohol intake, lowering blood pressure, and controlling epileptic seizures.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Neuropeptide Y

    • Neuropeptide Y is a protein that is synthesized in the hypothalamus and acts as a chemical messenger in the brain. from Stress (biology)

    • Studies of mice and monkeys show that repeated stress — and a high-fat, high-sugar diet — stimulate the release of neuropeptide Y, causing fat to build up in the abdomen. from Neuropeptide Y

    1. 45
      Limbic system The limbic system (or paleomammalian brain) is a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the…
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      The limbic system (or paleomammalian brain) is a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. It is not a separate system, but a collection of structures from the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. It includes the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, fornix, columns of fornix, mammillary body, septum pellucidum, habenular commissure, cingulate gyrus, Parahippocampal gyrus, limbic cortex, and limbic midbrain areas.…

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      The limbic system (or paleomammalian brain) is a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. It is not a separate system, but a collection of structures from the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. It includes the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, fornix, columns of fornix, mammillary body, septum pellucidum, habenular commissure, cingulate gyrus, Parahippocampal gyrus, limbic cortex, and limbic midbrain areas.
      The limbic system supports a variety of functions, including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. It appears to be primarily responsible for emotional life, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.
      Although the term only originated in the 1940s, some neuroscientists, including Joseph LeDoux, have suggested that the concept of a functionally unified limbic system should be abandoned as obsolete because it is grounded mainly in historical concepts of brain anatomy that are no longer accepted as accurate.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Limbic system

    • When the hypothalamus receives signals from one of its many inputs (e.g., cerebral cortex, limbic system, visceral organs) about conditions that deviate from an ideal homeostatic state (e.g., alarming sensory stimulus, emotionally charged event, energy deficiency), this can be interpreted as the initiation step of the stress-response cascade. from Stress (biology)

    • The amygdala is a small, "almond"-shaped structure located bilaterally, deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain and is a part of the brain’s limbic system, with projections to and from the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and locus coeruleus among other areas. from Stress (biology)

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      Corticosteroid Corticosteroids are a class of chemicals that includes the steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex…
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      Corticosteroids are a class of chemicals that includes the steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, and synthetic analogues of these hormones. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.…

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      Corticosteroids are a class of chemicals that includes the steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, and synthetic analogues of these hormones. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
      Some common natural hormones are corticosterone (C
      21H
      30O
      4), cortisone (C
      21H
      28O
      5, 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone) and aldosterone.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Corticosteroid

    • Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. from Corticosteroid

    • The adrenal cortex responds by signaling the release of the corticosteroids cortisol and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) directly into the bloodstream. from Stress (biology)

    • Each of these areas is densely packed with stress corticosteroid receptors which process the intensity of physical and psychological stressors acting upon the body through a process of hormone reception. from Stress (biology)

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    • They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. from Adrenal gland

    • Lymphocytopenia, but not idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia, is associated with corticosteroid use, infections with HIV and other viral, bacterial, and fungal agents, malnutrition, systemic lupus erythematosus, severe stress, intense or prolonged physical exercise (due to cortisol release), rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, and iatrogenic (caused by other medical treatments) conditions. from Lymphocytopenia

    • Oxidative stress, stress, and withdrawal of a systemic corticosteroid have each been suggested as a trigger for psoriasis. from Psoriasis

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    1. 47
      Over-illumination Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than what is appropriate for a specific activity…
    1. 47

      Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than what is appropriate for a specific activity. Over-illumination was commonly ignored between 1950 and 1995, especially in office and retail environments. Since then, however, the interior design community has begun to reconsider this practice. Over-illumination encompasses two separate concerns:…

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      Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than what is appropriate for a specific activity. Over-illumination was commonly ignored between 1950 and 1995, especially in office and retail environments. Since then, however, the interior design community has begun to reconsider this practice. Over-illumination encompasses two separate concerns:
      Over-illumination can be reduced by installing occupancy sensors, using natural sunlight whenever possible, turning-off lights when leaving a room, or changing the type of lightbulb. Over-illumination does not refer to snowblindness, where high exposure to ultraviolet light causes physical damage to the eye. Too little light, the opposite of over-illumination, is associated with seasonal affective disorder.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Over-illumination

    • Sensory input such as pain, bright light, noise, temperatures, or environmental issues such as a lack of control over environmental circumstances, such as food, air and/or water quality, housing, health, freedom, or mobility. from Stress (biology)

    • In addition, over-illumination can cause medical stress and even aggravate other psychological disorders like agoraphobia. from Over-illumination

    • In particular, over-illumination has been linked to headaches, fatigue, medically defined stress, anxiety, and decreases in sexual function. from Over-illumination

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    • However, health studies have demonstrated that headache, stress, blood pressure, fatigue and worker error all generally increase with the common over-illumination present in many workplace and retail settings. from Energy conservation

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    1. 48
      Endocrine system The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the…
    1. 48

      The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried toward a distant target organ. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract and adrenal glands. The endocrine system is…

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      The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried toward a distant target organ. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract and adrenal glands. The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its hormones using ducts. Examples of exocrine glands include the sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and liver. The endocrine system is an information signal system like the nervous system, yet its effects and mechanism are classifiably different. The endocrine system's effects are slow to initiate, and prolonged in their response, lasting from a few hours up to weeks. The nervous system sends information very quickly, and responses are generally short lived. In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The field of study dealing with the endocrine system and its disorders is endocrinology, a branch of internal medicine.
      Special features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and commonly the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones. In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen.
      In addition to the specialised endocrine organs mentioned above, many other organs that are part of other body systems, such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads, have secondary endocrine functions. For example the kidney secretes endocrine hormones such as erythropoietin and renin.
      A number of glands that signal each other in sequence are usually referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
      As opposed to endocrine factors that travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system, other signaling molecules, such as paracrine factors involved in paracrine signalling diffuse over a relatively short distance.
      The word endocrine derives from the Greek words ἐνδο- endo- "inside, within," and κρίνειν krinein "to separate, distinguish".

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Endocrine system

    • ;Endocrine system When a stressor acts upon the body, the endocrine system is triggered by the release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline by the autonomic nervous system. from Stress (biology)

    • Nevertheless, the central nervous system works closely with the body’s endocrine system to regulate these mechanisms. from Stress (biology)

    • Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. from Stress (biology)

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    • As a cryotherapy technique, cryomassage is said to reactivate the immune system, mobilize the endocrine system and neurohumoral system, improve health, and help to fight stress and fatigue. from Cryomassage

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    1. 49
      Locus coeruleus The locus coeruleus (also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the…
    1. 49

      The locus coeruleus (also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the brainstem) involved with physiological responses to stress and panic. It was discovered in the 18th century by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, or maybe later by Johann Christian Reil.…

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      The locus coeruleus (also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the brainstem) involved with physiological responses to stress and panic. It was discovered in the 18th century by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, or maybe later by Johann Christian Reil.
      The locus coeruleus is the principal site for brain synthesis of norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The locus coeruleus and the areas of the body affected by the norepinephrine it produces are described collectively as the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system or LC-NA system. Norepinephrine may also be released directly into the blood from the adrenal medulla.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Locus coeruleus

    • The locus coeruleus is an area located in the pons of the brainstem that is the principal site of the synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which plays an important role in the sympathetic nervous system’s fight-or-flight response to stress. from Stress (biology)

    • The locus coeruleus (also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the brainstem) involved with physiological responses to stress and panic. from Locus coeruleus

    1. 50
      Autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous system) is the part of the…
    1. 50

      The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system that functions largely below the level of consciousness to control visceral functions, including heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, micturition (urination), sexual arousal, breathing and…

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      The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system that functions largely below the level of consciousness to control visceral functions, including heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, micturition (urination), sexual arousal, breathing and swallowing. Most autonomous functions are involuntary but they can often work in conjunction with the somatic nervous system which provides voluntary control.
      Within the brain, the ANS is located in the medulla oblongata in the lower brainstem. The medulla's major ANS functions include respiration (the respiratory control center, or "rcc"), cardiac regulation (the cardiac control center, or "ccc"), vasomotor activity (the vasomotor center or "vmc"), and certain reflex actions (such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting and swallowing). Those are then subdivided into other areas and are also linked to ANS subsystems and nervous systems external to the brain. The hypothalamus, just above the brain stem, acts as an integrator for autonomic functions, receiving ANS regulatory input from the limbic system to do so.
      The ANS is divided into three main sub-systems: the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Depending on the circumstances, these sub-systems may operate independently of each other or interact co-operatively.
      ENS consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system. SNS is often considered the "fight or flight" system, while the PSNS is often considered the "rest and digest" or "feed and breed" system. In many cases, PSNS and SNS have "opposite" actions where one system activates a physiological response and the other inhibits it. An older simplification of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems as "excitory" and "inhibitory" was overturned due to the many exceptions found. A more modern characterization is that the sympathetic nervous system is a "quick response mobilizing system" and the parasympathetic is a "more slowly activated dampening system", but even this has exceptions, such as in sexual arousal and orgasm, wherein both play a role.
      In general, ANS functions can be divided into sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) subsystems. Within both, there are inhibitory and excitatory synapses between neurons. Relatively recently, a third subsystem of neurons that have been named 'non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic' neurons (because they use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter) have been described and found to be integral in autonomic function, in particular in the gut and the lungs.

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    How Stress (biology)
    Connects To Autonomic nervous system

    • The initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate, etc.). from Stress (biology)

    • ;Endocrine system When a stressor acts upon the body, the endocrine system is triggered by the release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline by the autonomic nervous system. from Stress (biology)

    • The signal acts as a nerve impulse and travels through the body in a process of electrical cell-to-cell communication until it reaches the automatic nervous system. from Stress (biology)

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    • ;Peripheral nervous system (PNS) The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of two subsystems: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. from Stress (biology)

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