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In the visual arts, style is a "...distinctive manner which permits the grouping of works into related categories." or "...any distinctive, and therefore recognizable, way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made." It refers to the visual appearance of a work of art that relates it to other works by the same artist or one from the same period, training, location, "school", art movement or archaeological culture: "The notion of style has long been the art historian's principal mode of classifying works of art. By style he selects and shapes the history of art".

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Style is often divided into the general style of a period, country or cultural group, group of artists or art movement, and the individual style of the artist within that group style. Divisions within both types of styles are often made, such as between "early", "middle" or "late". In some artists, such as Picasso for example, these divisions may be marked and easy to see, in others they are more subtle. Style is seen as…

…usually dynamic, in most periods always changing by a gradual process, though the speed of this varies greatly, between the very slow development in style typical of Prehistoric art or Ancient Egyptian art to the rapid changes in Modern art styles. Style often develops in a series of jumps, with relatively sudden changes followed by periods of slower development.
After dominating academic discussion in art history in the 19th and early 20th century, so-called "style art history" has come under increasing attack in recent decades, and many art historians now prefer to avoid stylistic classifications where they can.

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      Artistic rendering Rendering in visual art and technical drawing means the process of formulating, adding color, shading, and…
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      Rendering in visual art and technical drawing means the process of formulating, adding color, shading, and texturing of an image. It can also be used to describe the quality of execution of that process. When used as a means of expression, it is synonymous with illustrating. However, it may be used for mere visualization of…

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      Rendering in visual art and technical drawing means the process of formulating, adding color, shading, and texturing of an image. It can also be used to describe the quality of execution of that process. When used as a means of expression, it is synonymous with illustrating. However, it may be used for mere visualization of existing data regardless of any preconceived message or idea to express. Rendering is also a technique that can be used while designing packaging and branding.

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      Counter-Maniera Counter-Maniera or Counter-Mannerism (variously capitalized and part-italicized) is a term in art history for a…
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      Counter-Maniera or Counter-Mannerism (variously capitalized and part-italicized) is a term in art history for a trend in 16th-century Italian painting that forms a sub-category or phase of Mannerism, the dominant movement in Italian art between about 1530 and 1590. The term was devised by the art historian Sydney Joseph Freedberg (1914–1997), and has gained a…

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      Counter-Maniera or Counter-Mannerism (variously capitalized and part-italicized) is a term in art history for a trend in 16th-century Italian painting that forms a sub-category or phase of Mannerism, the dominant movement in Italian art between about 1530 and 1590. The term was devised by the art historian Sydney Joseph Freedberg (1914–1997), and has gained a good degree of acceptance, although it is by no means universally adopted by other art historians. Counter-Maniera or Counter-Mannerism reacted against the artificiality of the second generation of Mannerist painters in the second half of the 16th century. It was in part due to artists wishing to follow the vague prescriptions for clarity and simplicity in art issued by the Council of Trent in its final session in 1563, and represented a rejection of the distortions and artificiality of high Mannerist style, and a partial return to the classicism and balance of High Renaissance art, with "clarity in formal order and legibility in content".
      Counter-Mannerism was one of the four phases of 16th-century Italian painting defined by Freedberg in his Painting in Italy, 1500–1600, first published in 1971 and long the standard textbook on the period, as: "First Maniera, High Maniera, Counter-Maniera and Late Maniera". The styles did not neatly succeed each other but existed side by side for much of the time, with High Maniera remaining the dominant style during the main period of Counter-Maniera in the third quarter of the 16th century. In many cases Counter-Mannerism was a development of an artist's style in mid or late career, or a style used for some works, especially religious commissions, while other works by the same artist continued to use a high maniera style.
      Freedberg's contemporary Federico Zeri had in 1957 introduced or revived his own term arte sacra ("sacred art") for pre-Baroque Counter-Reformation style in Roman painting, overlapping to a large degree with Freedberg's Counter-Mannerism, though rather wider both in the dates and styles included. The use of the term Counter-Maniera may be in decline, as impatience with such "style labels" grows among art historians. In 2000 Marcia B. Hall, a leading art historian of the period and mentee of Freedberg, was criticised by a reviewer of her After Raphael: Painting in Central Italy in the Sixteenth Century for her "fundamental flaw" in continuing to use this and other terms, despite an apologetic "Note on style labels" at the beginning of the book and a promise to keep their use to a minimum.

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    • The use of terms such as Counter-Maniera appears to be in decline, as impatience with such "style labels" grows among art historians. from Style (visual arts)

    • The use of the term Counter-Maniera may be in decline, as impatience with such "style labels" grows among art historians. from Counter-Maniera

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      Heinrich Wölfflin Heinrich Wölfflin (21 June 1864, Winterthur – 19 July 1945, Zurich) was an important Swiss art historian, whose…
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      Heinrich Wölfflin (21 June 1864, Winterthur – 19 July 1945, Zurich) was an important Swiss art historian, whose objective classifying principles ("painterly" vs. "linear" and the like) were influential in the development of formal analysis in art history in the early 20th century. He taught at Basel, Berlin and Munich in the generation that raised…

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      Heinrich Wölfflin (21 June 1864, Winterthur – 19 July 1945, Zurich) was an important Swiss art historian, whose objective classifying principles ("painterly" vs. "linear" and the like) were influential in the development of formal analysis in art history in the early 20th century. He taught at Basel, Berlin and Munich in the generation that raised German art history to pre-eminence. His three great books, still consulted, are Renaissance und Barock (1888), Die Klassische Kunst (1898, "Classic Art"), and Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe (1915, "Principles of Art History").

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    • Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and initially mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, and Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century. from Style (visual arts)

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      Sydney Joseph Freedberg Sydney Joseph Freedberg (November 11, 1914 – May 7, 1997) was an art historian, mainly of Italian Renaissance…
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      Sydney Joseph Freedberg (November 11, 1914 – May 7, 1997) was an art historian, mainly of Italian Renaissance art.
      Freedberg was born in Boston and attended the Boston Latin School. He graduated from Harvard College in 1939, and acquired a doctoral degree a year later. One of his mentors was Bernard Berenson. He taught Fine Arts…

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      Sydney Joseph Freedberg (November 11, 1914 – May 7, 1997) was an art historian, mainly of Italian Renaissance art.
      Freedberg was born in Boston and attended the Boston Latin School. He graduated from Harvard College in 1939, and acquired a doctoral degree a year later. One of his mentors was Bernard Berenson. He taught Fine Arts at Harvard from 1954–83. At the time of his retirement in 1983 he was the Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Fine Arts at Harvard. He became chief curator from 1983–88 of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC in 1983 upon retiring from Harvard.
      During the Second World War, Freedberg risked disciplinary action by refusing as a matter of conscience to work on intelligence about Rome. Later he would say that "I was worried that the information I might gather might be used in a military operation against that city," and thus lead to irreparable damage to works of art there. Despite his decision, he was made an Honorary Member of the Order of the British Empire (Military Division) for his contributions to the war effort.
      In November 1966, after disastrous floods in Italy, Freedberg served as National Vice Chairman (1966–74) of the Committee to Rescue Italian Art. In 1970, Freedberg began service on the board of directors of Save Venice, of which he was a founding member.
      For these many contributions to the preservation and greater understanding of Italian art and culture, Freedberg was made a Grand Officer in the Order of the Star of Solidarity (Italy) in 1968 and a Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1982. He was also awarded honors in 1986 by the Socio del Ateneo Veneto and the Academia Clementina Bologna. A year later he began service on the Advisory Council to the Vatican Museums for the Sistine Chapel Restoration (serving as president from 1990–93). In 1995, he was awarded the International Galileo Galilei Prize. In 1988, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.

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    Connects To Sydney Joseph Freedberg

    • In 2000 Marcia B. Hall, a leading art historian of 16th-century Italian painting and mentee of Sydney Joseph Freedberg (1914-1997), who invented the term, was criticised by a reviewer of her After Raphael: Painting in Central Italy in the Sixteenth Century for her "fundamental flaw" in continuing to use this and other terms, despite an apologetic "Note on style labels" at the beginning of the book and a promise to keep their use to a minimum. from Style (visual arts)

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      Alois Riegl Alois Riegl (14 January 1858, Linz – 17 June 1905, Vienna) was an Austrian art historian, and is considered a…
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      Alois Riegl (14 January 1858, Linz – 17 June 1905, Vienna) was an Austrian art historian, and is considered a member of the Vienna School of Art History. He was one of the major figures in the establishment of art history as a self-sufficient academic discipline, and one of the most influential practitioners of formalism.

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    Connects To Alois Riegl

    • Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and initially mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, and Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century. from Style (visual arts)

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      Giovanni Morelli Giovanni Morelli (Verona 25 February 1816  – 28 February 1891 Milan) was an Italian art critic and political…
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      Giovanni Morelli (Verona 25 February 1816  – 28 February 1891 Milan) was an Italian art critic and political figure. As an art historian, he developed the "Morellian" technique of scholarship, identifying the characteristic "hands" of painters through scrutiny of diagnostic minor details that revealed artists' scarcely conscious shorthand and conventions for portraying, for example, ears.…

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      Giovanni Morelli (Verona 25 February 1816  – 28 February 1891 Milan) was an Italian art critic and political figure. As an art historian, he developed the "Morellian" technique of scholarship, identifying the characteristic "hands" of painters through scrutiny of diagnostic minor details that revealed artists' scarcely conscious shorthand and conventions for portraying, for example, ears.
      Morelli studied medicine in Switzerland and Germany where he, although he never practiced, taught anatomy at the University of Munich. During this time he also studied the Goethe's morphology, Lavater's physiognomy, F. Schelling's natural philosophy and befriended Bettina von Arnim. With his return to Italy he acted as a conduit for intellectual life of the North. His fully developed technique was published as Die Werke Italienischer Meister, ("The work of the Italian masters"); it appeared under the anagrammatic pseudonym "Ivan Lermolieff".
      The Morellian method is based on clues offered by trifling details rather than identities of composition and subject matter or other broad treatments that are more likely to be seized upon by students, copyists and imitators. Instead, as Carlo Ginzburg analysed the Morellian method, the art historian operates in the manner of a detective, "each discovering, from clues unnoticed by others, the author in one case of a crime, in the other of a painting". These unconscious traces— in the shorthand for rendering the folds of an ear in secondary figures of a composition, for example— are unlikely to be imitated and, once deciphered, serve as fingerprints do at the scene of the crime. The identity of the artist is expressed most reliably in the details that are least attended to. The Morellian method has its nearest roots in Morelli's own discipline of medicine, with its identification of disease through numerous symptoms, each of which may be apparently trivial in itself.
      Morelli's connoisseurship was developed to a high degree by Bernard Berenson, who met Morelli in 1890. The first generation of Morellian scholars also included Gustavo Frizzoni, Jean Paul Richter, Adolfo Venturi and Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes. Morellian scholarship penetrated the English field from 1893, with the translation of his master work. The Morellian technique of connoisseurship was extended to the study of Attic vase-painters by J.D. Beazley and by Michael Roaf to the study of the Persepolis reliefs, with results that further confirmed its validity. Morellian recognition of "handling" in undocumented fifteenth and sixteenth-century sculpture, in the hands of scholars like John Pope-Hennessy, have resulted in a broad corpus of securely attributed work. At the same time, modern examination of Classical Greek sculpture, in the wake of pioneering reassessments by Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway, has also turned away from attributions based on broad aspects of subject and style that are reflected in copies and later Roman classicising pastiche.
      The complementary field of document-supported art history traces its origins to the somewhat earlier work of Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle.
      The Morellian method of finding essence and hidden meaning in details had also a much wider cultural influence. There are references to his work in the Sherlock Holmes novels by Arthur Conan Doyle and in the works of Sigmund Freud. Like Morelli, both Freud and Doyle had a medical background)
      Morellian method was re-examined by R. Wollheim, "Giovanni Morelli and the origins of scientific connoisseurship", On Art and the Mind: Essays and Lectures, 1973.

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    • Giovanni Morelli (1816 – 1891) pioneered the systematic study of the scrutiny of diagnostic minor details that revealed artists' scarcely conscious shorthand and conventions for portraying, for example, ears or hands, in Western old master paintings. from Style (visual arts)

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      Svetlana Alpers Svetlana Leontief Alpers (born 1936) is an American art historian, also an artist and critic. She was a professor…
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      Svetlana Leontief Alpers (born 1936) is an American art historian, also an artist and critic. She was a professor of art history at the University of California at Berkeley from 1962 to 1998, where she is now Professor Emerita, and is one of the most influential American art historians of her generation. Her specialty was…

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      Svetlana Leontief Alpers (born 1936) is an American art historian, also an artist and critic. She was a professor of art history at the University of California at Berkeley from 1962 to 1998, where she is now Professor Emerita, and is one of the most influential American art historians of her generation. Her specialty was Dutch Golden Age painting, although she has also written on Tiepolo, Rubens, Breugel, and Velázquez, among others. She is a consultant to both National Public Radio and the National Endowment for the Humanities, and has held many visiting academic appointments around the world.

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    • "Alpers in Lang": Alpers, Svetlana, "Style is What You Make It", in The Concept of Style, ed. from Style (visual arts)

    • Although style was well-established as a central component of art historical analysis, seeing it as the over-riding factor in art history had fallen out of fashion by World War II, as other ways of looking at art were developing, and a reaction against the emphasis on style developing; for Svetlana Alpers, "the normal invocation of style in art history is a depressing affair indeed". from Style (visual arts)

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      Art valuation Art valuation, an art-specific subset of financial valuation, is the process of estimating the potential market…
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      Art valuation, an art-specific subset of financial valuation, is the process of estimating the potential market value of works of art and as such is more of a financial rather than an aesthetic concern, however, subjective views of cultural value play a part as well. Art valuation involves comparing data from multiple sources such as…

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      Art valuation, an art-specific subset of financial valuation, is the process of estimating the potential market value of works of art and as such is more of a financial rather than an aesthetic concern, however, subjective views of cultural value play a part as well. Art valuation involves comparing data from multiple sources such as art auction houses, private and corporate collectors, curators, art dealer activities, gallerists (gallery owners), experienced consultants, and specialized market analysts to arrive at a value. Art valuation is accomplished not only for collection, investment, divestment, and financing purposes, but as part of estate valuations, for charitable contributions, for tax planning, insurance, and loan collateral purposes. This article deals with the valuation of works of fine art, especially contemporary art, at the top end of the international market, but similar principles apply to the valuation of less expensive art and antiques.

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    • When used it is often in the context of imitations of the individual style of an artist, and it is one of the hierarchy of discreet or diplomatic terms used in the art trade for the relationship between a work for sale and that of a well-known artist, with "Manner of Rembrandt" suggesting a distanced relationship between the style of the work and Rembrandt's own style. from Style (visual arts)

    • The identification of individual styles is especially important in the attribution of works to artists, which is a dominant factor in their valuation for the art market, above all for works in the Western tradition since the Renaissance. from Style (visual arts)

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      Erwin Panofsky Erwin Panofsky (30 March 1892 – 14 March 1968) was a German art historian. His academic career was pursued mostly…
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      Erwin Panofsky (30 March 1892 – 14 March 1968) was a German art historian. His academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime. Panofsky's work remains highly influential in the modern academic study of iconography, and many of his works are still in print, including Studies in Iconology: Humanist Themes in the Art of the Renaissance (1939), and his eponymous 1943 study of Albrecht Dürer.

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      George Kubler George Alexander Kubler (26 July 1912 - 3 October 1996) was an American art historian and among the foremost…
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      George Alexander Kubler (26 July 1912 - 3 October 1996) was an American art historian and among the foremost scholars on the art of Pre-Columbian America and Ibero-American Art.…

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      George Alexander Kubler (26 July 1912 - 3 October 1996) was an American art historian and among the foremost scholars on the art of Pre-Columbian America and Ibero-American Art.
      Kubler was born in Hollywood, California, but most of his early education was in Europe. He attended high school at Western Reserve Academy, a private, coeducational boarding school in Hudson, Ohio. He then went to Yale University, where he obtained an A.B. (1934), A.M. (1936) and Ph.D. degree (1940), the latter two under guidance of Henri Focillon. From 1938 onwards, Kubler was a member of the Yale Faculty and was the first Robert Lehman Professor (1964-1975), Sterling Professor of the History of Art (1975-1983) and after his retirement, a senior resident scholar. He received several awards, including three Guggenheim Fellowships, an American Council of Learned Societies Grant-in-Aid for research in Mexico and the Order of the Aztec Eagle by the Mexican Government. He also was honored with several visiting lectureships and honorary degrees and was appointed the 1985-86 Kress Professor at the Center for Advanced Studies at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. He was awarded the William Clyde DeVane Medal in 1991.
      Kubler's major theoretical work, The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things was a major influence on Robert Smithson, Donald Judd, Ad Reinhardt, and Robert Morris, among others.
      He also had a big importance in the definition of "portuguese plain architecture", naming this architectural period in light of his direct knowledge about a set of buildings with almost no ornaments, and therefore, plain, simple, that dated from the 16th century.

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    • Meyer Schapiro, James Ackerman, Ernst Gombrich and George Kubler ( , 1962) have made notable contributions to the debate, which has also drawn on wider developments in critical theory. from Style (visual arts)

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      Josef Strzygowski Josef Strzygowski (March 7, 1862 – January 2, 1941) was a Polish-Austrian art historian known for his theories…
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      Josef Strzygowski (March 7, 1862 – January 2, 1941) was a Polish-Austrian art historian known for his theories promoting influences from the art of the Near East on European art, for example that of Early Christian Armenian architecture on the early Medieval architecture of Europe, outlined in his book, Die Baukunst der Armenier und Europa (an aspect of his thinking that has survived better than many others). He is considered a member of the Vienna School of Art History.

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    • Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space. from Style (visual arts)

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      Formalism (art) In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made…
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      In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. In painting formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape and texture rather than iconography or the historical and social context. At its extreme, formalism in art history posits…

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      In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. In painting formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape and texture rather than iconography or the historical and social context. At its extreme, formalism in art history posits that everything necessary to comprehending a work of art is contained within the work of art. The context for the work, including the reason for its creation, the historical background, and the life of the artist, is considered to be of secondary importance. In archaeology, where it tends to be called morphology, the study and comparison of form remains an essential method of identifying objects.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Formalism (art)

    • As in art history, formal analysis of the morphology (shape) of individual artefacts is the starting point. from Style (visual arts)

    • This type of art history is also known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. from Style (visual arts)

    • Elements of a formal analysis include descriptions of color, space, line, volume, mass, and composition, and putting these together to analyse artistic style. from Formalism (art)

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    • In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. from Formalism (art)

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      Culture-historical archaeology Culture-historical archaeology is an archaeological theory that emphasises defining historical societies into…
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      Culture-historical archaeology is an archaeological theory that emphasises defining historical societies into distinct ethnic and cultural groupings according to their material culture.…

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      Culture-historical archaeology is an archaeological theory that emphasises defining historical societies into distinct ethnic and cultural groupings according to their material culture.
      Originating in the late nineteenth century as cultural evolutionism began to fall out of favor with many antiquarians and archaeologists, it gradually began to become unpopular amongst the archaeological community, being superseded by new archaeological theories, namely processual archaeology, in the mid twentieth century. Cultural-historical archaeology had in many cases been influenced by a nationalist political agenda, being utilised to prove a direct cultural and/or ethnic link from prehistoric and ancient peoples to modern nation-states, something that has in many respects been disproved by later research and archaeological evidence.
      First developing in Germany among those archaeologists surrounding Rudolf Virchow, culture-historical ideas would later be popularised by Gustaf Kossinna. Culture-historical thought would be introduced to British archaeology by V. Gordon Childe in the late 1920s. In the United Kingdom and United States, culture-history came to be supplanted as the dominant theoretical paradigm in archaeology during the 1960s, with the rise of processual archaeology. Nevertheless, elsewhere in the world, culture-historical ideas continue to dominate.

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    Connects To Culture-historical archaeology

    • In contrast to recent trends in academic art history, the succession of schools of archaeological theory in the last century, from culture-historical archaeology to processual archaeology and finally the rise of post-processual archaeology in recent decades has not significantly reduced the importance of the study of style in archaeology, as a basis for classifying objects before further interpretation. from Style (visual arts)

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      Post-processual archaeology Post-processual archaeology, which is sometimes alternately referred to as the interpretative archaeologies by its…
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      Post-processual archaeology, which is sometimes alternately referred to as the interpretative archaeologies by its adherents, is a movement in archaeological theory that emphasizes the subjectivity of archaeological interpretations. Despite having a vague series of similarities, post-processualism consists of "very diverse strands of thought coalesced into a loose cluster of traditions". Within the post-processualist movement, a…

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      Post-processual archaeology, which is sometimes alternately referred to as the interpretative archaeologies by its adherents, is a movement in archaeological theory that emphasizes the subjectivity of archaeological interpretations. Despite having a vague series of similarities, post-processualism consists of "very diverse strands of thought coalesced into a loose cluster of traditions". Within the post-processualist movement, a wide variety of theoretical viewpoints have been embraced, including structuralism and Neo-Marxism, as have a variety of different archaeological techniques, such as phenomenology.
      The post-processual movement originated in the United Kingdom during the late 1970s and early 1980s, pioneered by archaeologists such as Ian Hodder, Daniel Miller, Christopher Tilley and Peter Ucko, who were influenced by French Marxist anthropology, postmodernism and similar trends in sociocultural anthropology. Parallel developments soon followed in the United States. Initially post-processualism was primarily a reaction to and critique of processual archaeology, a paradigm developed in the 1960s by 'New Archaeologists' such as Lewis Binford, and which had become dominant in Anglophone archaeology by the 1970s. Post-processualism was heavily critical of a key tenet of processualism, namely its assertion that archaeological interpretations could, if the scientific method was applied, come to completely objective conclusions. Post-processualists also criticized previous archaeological work for overemphasizing materialist interpretations of the past and being ethically and politically irresponsible.
      In the United States, archaeologists widely see post-processualism as an accompaniment to the processual movement, while in the United Kingdom, they remain largely thought of as separate and opposing theoretical movements. In other parts of the world, post-processualism has made less of an impact on archaeological thought. Various archaeologists have criticized post-processual archaeology, for a variety of reasons.

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    Connects To Post-processual archaeology

    • In contrast to recent trends in academic art history, the succession of schools of archaeological theory in the last century, from culture-historical archaeology to processual archaeology and finally the rise of post-processual archaeology in recent decades has not significantly reduced the importance of the study of style in archaeology, as a basis for classifying objects before further interpretation. from Style (visual arts)

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      Meyer Schapiro Meyer Schapiro (23 September 1904 – 3 March 1996) was a Lithuanian-born American art historian known for forging…
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      Meyer Schapiro (23 September 1904 – 3 March 1996) was a Lithuanian-born American art historian known for forging new art historical methodologies that incorporated an interdisciplinary approach to the study of works of art. An expert on early Christian, Medieval, and Modern art, Schapiro explored art historical periods and movements with a keen eye towards the social, political, and the material construction of art works.…

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      Meyer Schapiro (23 September 1904 – 3 March 1996) was a Lithuanian-born American art historian known for forging new art historical methodologies that incorporated an interdisciplinary approach to the study of works of art. An expert on early Christian, Medieval, and Modern art, Schapiro explored art historical periods and movements with a keen eye towards the social, political, and the material construction of art works.
      Credited with fundamentally changing the course of the art historical discipline, Schapiro's scholarly approach was dynamic and it engaged other scholars, philosophers, and artists. An active professor, lecturer, writer, and humanist, Schapiro maintained a long professional association with Columbia University in New York as a student, lecturer, and professor.

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    • Meyer Schapiro, James Ackerman, Ernst Gombrich and George Kubler ( , 1962) have made notable contributions to the debate, which has also drawn on wider developments in critical theory. from Style (visual arts)

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      Colin Martindale Colin Martingdale (March 21, 1943 – November 16, 2008) was a professor of psychology at the University of Maine for…
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      Colin Martingdale (March 21, 1943 – November 16, 2008) was a professor of psychology at the University of Maine for 35 years.
      He wrote and did research analyzing artistic processes. His most popular work was The Clockwork Muse (1990), in which he argued that all artistic development over time in written, visual and musical works was the result of a search for novelty.

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    Connects To Colin Martindale

    • A rare recent attempt to create a theory to explain the process driving changes in artistic style, rather than just theories of how to describe and categorize them, is by the behavioural psychologist Colin Martindale, who has proposed an evolutionary theory based on Darwinian principles. from Style (visual arts)

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      Seriation (archaeology) In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the…
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      In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order. Where absolute dating methods, such as carbon dating, cannot be applied, archaeologists have to use relative dating methods to date archaeological finds and features. Seriation is a standard method of…

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      In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order. Where absolute dating methods, such as carbon dating, cannot be applied, archaeologists have to use relative dating methods to date archaeological finds and features. Seriation is a standard method of dating in archaeology. It can be used to date stone tools, pottery fragments, and other artifacts. In Europe, it has been used frequently to reconstruct the chronological sequence of graves in a cemetery (e.g. Jørgensen 1992; Müssemeier, Nieveler et al. 2003).

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Seriation (archaeology)

    • This is used to construct typologies for different types of artefacts, and by the technique of seriation a relative dating based on style for a site or group of sites is achieved where scientific absolute dating techniques cannot be used, in particular where only stone, ceramic or metal artefacts or remains are available, which is often the case. from Style (visual arts)

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      Hugh Honour Hugh Honour FRSL (born 26 September 1927) is a British art historian, well known for his writing partnership with…
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      Hugh Honour FRSL (born 26 September 1927) is a British art historian, well known for his writing partnership with John Fleming. Their A World History of Art, is now in its seventh edition and Honour's Chinoiserie: The Vision of Cathay (1961) first set the phenomenon of chinoiserie in its European cultural context.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Hugh Honour

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      Relative dating Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events, without necessarily determining…
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      Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events, without necessarily determining their absolute age. In geology rock or superficial deposits, fossils and lithologies can be used to correlate one stratigraphic column with another. Prior to the discovery of radiometric dating which provided a means of absolute dating in the early 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of relative dating techniques to determine the age of geological events.…

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      Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events, without necessarily determining their absolute age. In geology rock or superficial deposits, fossils and lithologies can be used to correlate one stratigraphic column with another. Prior to the discovery of radiometric dating which provided a means of absolute dating in the early 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of relative dating techniques to determine the age of geological events.
      Though relative dating can only determine the sequential order in which a series of events occurred, not when they occur, it remains a useful technique especially in materials lacking radioactive isotopes. Relative dating by biostratigraphy is the preferred method in paleontology, and is in some respects more accurate (Stanley, 167–69). The Law of Superposition was the summary outcome of 'relative dating' as observed in geology from the 17th century to the early 20th century.
      The regular order of occurrence of fossils in rock layers was discovered around 1800 by William Smith. While digging the Somerset Coal Canal in southwest England, he found that fossils were always in the same order in the rock layers. As he continued his job as a surveyor, he found the same patterns across England. He also found that certain animals were in only certain layers and that they were in the same layers all across England. Due to that discovery, Smith was able to recognize the order that the rocks were formed. Sixteen years after his discovery, he published a geological map of England showing the rocks of different geologic time eras.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Relative dating

    • This is used to construct typologies for different types of artefacts, and by the technique of seriation a relative dating based on style for a site or group of sites is achieved where scientific absolute dating techniques cannot be used, in particular where only stone, ceramic or metal artefacts or remains are available, which is often the case. from Style (visual arts)

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      Absolute dating Absolute dating is the process of determining an approximate computed age in archaeology and geology. Some…
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      Absolute dating is the process of determining an approximate computed age in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty and precision. Absolute dating provides a computed numerical age in contrast with relative dating which provides only an order of events.…

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      Absolute dating is the process of determining an approximate computed age in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty and precision. Absolute dating provides a computed numerical age in contrast with relative dating which provides only an order of events.
      In archeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical or chemical properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans. Absolute dates do not necessarily tell us precisely when a particular cultural event happened, but when taken as part of the overall archaeological record they are invaluable in constructing a more specific sequence of events.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Absolute dating

    • This is used to construct typologies for different types of artefacts, and by the technique of seriation a relative dating based on style for a site or group of sites is achieved where scientific absolute dating techniques cannot be used, in particular where only stone, ceramic or metal artefacts or remains are available, which is often the case. from Style (visual arts)

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      Mimesis Mimesis (Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate," from μῖμος (mimos)…
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      Mimesis (Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate," from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.…

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      Mimesis (Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate," from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
      In ancient Greece, mimesis was an idea that governed the creation of works of art, in particular, with correspondence to the physical world understood as a model for beauty, truth, and the good. Plato contrasted mimesis, or imitation, with diegesis, or narrative. After Plato, the meaning of mimesis eventually shifted toward a specifically literary function in ancient Greek society, and its use has changed and been reinterpreted many times since then.
      One of the best-known modern studies of mimesis, understood as a form of realism in literature, is Erich Auerbach's Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature, which opens with a famous comparison between the way the world is represented in Homer's Odyssey and the way it appears in the Bible. From these two seminal Western texts, Auerbach builds the foundation for a unified theory of representation that spans the entire history of Western literature, including the Modernist novels being written at the time Auerbach began his study. In art history, "mimesis", "realism" and "naturalism" are used, often interchangeably, as terms for the accurate, even "illusionistic", representation of the visual appearance of things.
      The Frankfurt school critical theorist T. W. Adorno made use of mimesis as a central philosophical term, interpreting it as a way in which works of art embodied a form of reason that was non-repressive and non-violent.
      Mimesis has been theorised by thinkers as diverse as Plato, Aristotle, Philip Sidney, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin, Paul Ross, Theodor Adorno, Erich Auerbach, Luce Irigaray, Jacques Derrida, René Girard, Nikolas Kompridis, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Michael Taussig, Merlin Donald, and Homi Bhabha.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Mimesis

    • Stylization and stylized (or "stylisation" and "stylised" in British English, respectively) have a more specific meaning, referring to visual depictions that use simplified ways of representing objects or scenes that do not attempt a full, precise and accurate representation of their visual appearance (mimesis or "realistic"), preferring an attractive or expressive overall depiction. from Style (visual arts)

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      Processual archaeology Processual archaeology (formerly the New Archaeology) is a form of archaeological theory that had its genesis in…
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      Processual archaeology (formerly the New Archaeology) is a form of archaeological theory that had its genesis in 1958 with the work of Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips, Method and Theory in American Archeology, in which the pair stated that "American archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing" (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2), a rephrasing of Frederic…

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      Processual archaeology (formerly the New Archaeology) is a form of archaeological theory that had its genesis in 1958 with the work of Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips, Method and Theory in American Archeology, in which the pair stated that "American archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing" (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2), a rephrasing of Frederic William Maitland's comment that "[m]y own belief is that by and by, anthropology will have the choice between being history and being nothing." This idea implied that the goals of archaeology were, in fact, the goals of anthropology, which were to answer questions about humans and human society. This was a critique of the former period in archaeology, the Culture-Historical phase in which archaeologists thought that any information which artifacts contained about past people and past ways of life was lost once the items became included in the archaeological record. All they felt could be done was to catalogue, describe, and create timelines based on the artifacts.
      Proponents of this new phase in archaeology claimed that with the rigorous use of the scientific method it was possible to get past the limits of the archaeological record and learn something about how the people who used the artifacts lived. Colin Renfrew, a proponent of the new processual archaeology, observed in 1987 that it focuses attention on "the underlying historical processes which are at the root of change". Archaeology, he noted "has learnt to speak with greater authority and accuracy about the ecology of past societies, their technology, their economic basis and their social organization. Now it is beginning to interest itself in the ideology of early communities: their religions, the way they expressed rank, status and group identity."

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Processual archaeology

    • In contrast to recent trends in academic art history, the succession of schools of archaeological theory in the last century, from culture-historical archaeology to processual archaeology and finally the rise of post-processual archaeology in recent decades has not significantly reduced the importance of the study of style in archaeology, as a basis for classifying objects before further interpretation. from Style (visual arts)

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      Paul Frankl Paul Frankl (2 January 1878, Prague – 22 April 1962, Princeton, New Jersey) was a German art historian.After…
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      Paul Frankl (2 January 1878, Prague – 22 April 1962, Princeton, New Jersey) was a German art historian.
      After starting with architecture, Frankl studied art history in Munich. He earned his Ph.D. in 1910 and became professor for art history in Halle in 1921. As a result of his Jewish origin he was put on leave…

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      Paul Frankl (2 January 1878, Prague – 22 April 1962, Princeton, New Jersey) was a German art historian.
      After starting with architecture, Frankl studied art history in Munich. He earned his Ph.D. in 1910 and became professor for art history in Halle in 1921. As a result of his Jewish origin he was put on leave in 1933 after the rise to power of Nazism. Later he emigrated to the United States where he worked at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton since 1940.
      Amongst his most famous works are books on the architecture of Renaissance and Gothic.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Paul Frankl

    • Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and initially mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, and Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century. from Style (visual arts)

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      Typology (archaeology) In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical…
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      In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics. The products of the classification, i.e. the classes, are also called types. Most archaeological typologies organize artifacts into types, but typologies of larger structures, including buildings, field monuments, fortifications or roads, are equally possible. A typology helps to…

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      In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics. The products of the classification, i.e. the classes, are also called types. Most archaeological typologies organize artifacts into types, but typologies of larger structures, including buildings, field monuments, fortifications or roads, are equally possible. A typology helps to manage a large mass of archaeological data. According to Doran and Hodson, "this superficially straightforward task has proved one of the most time consuming and contentious aspects of archaeological research".

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Typology (archaeology)

    • This is used to construct typologies for different types of artefacts, and by the technique of seriation a relative dating based on style for a site or group of sites is achieved where scientific absolute dating techniques cannot be used, in particular where only stone, ceramic or metal artefacts or remains are available, which is often the case. from Style (visual arts)

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      Art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of…
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      An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were especially important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Art movement

    • Style is often divided into the general style of a period, country or cultural group, group of artists or art movement, and the individual style of the artist within that group style. from Style (visual arts)

    • It refers to the visual appearance of a work of art that relates it to other works by the same artist or one from the same period, training, location, "school", art movement or archaeological culture: "The notion of style has long been the art historian's principal mode of classifying works of art. from Style (visual arts)

    • The development of Zurenborg coincided with the peak of Art Nouveau popularity, and that movement had the greatest impact on the stylistic language of the area. from Zurenborg

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    • Rockwell's work came to be categorized within art movements and styles such as Regionalism and American scene painting. from Freedom from Want (painting)

    • Art Nouveau ( , Anglicised to ; cz Secese; at. Sezession, germ. Jugendstil, eng. Modern Style) or Jugendstil is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that was most popular during 1890–1910. from Art Nouveau

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      Uffington White Horse The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylized prehistoric hill figure, 110 m long (374 feet), formed from deep…
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      The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylized prehistoric hill figure, 110 m long (374 feet), formed from deep trenches filled with crushed white chalk. The figure is situated on the upper slopes of White Horse Hill in the English civil parish of Uffington (in the county of Oxfordshire, historically Berkshire), some 8 km (5…

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      The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylized prehistoric hill figure, 110 m long (374 feet), formed from deep trenches filled with crushed white chalk. The figure is situated on the upper slopes of White Horse Hill in the English civil parish of Uffington (in the county of Oxfordshire, historically Berkshire), some 8 km (5 mi) south of the town of Faringdon and a similar distance west of the town of Wantage; or 2.5 km south of Uffington. The hill forms a part of the scarp of the Berkshire Downs and overlooks the Vale of White Horse to the north. Best views of the figure are obtained from the air, or from directly across the Vale, particularly around the villages of Great Coxwell, Longcot and Fernham. The site is owned and managed by the National Trust and is a Scheduled Ancient Monument.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Uffington White Horse

    • The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylized prehistoric hill figure, 110 m long (374 feet), formed from deep trenches filled with crushed white chalk. from Uffington White Horse

    • The two Picasso paintings illustrated here show a movement to a more stylized representation of the human figure within the painter's style, and the Uffington White Horse is an example of a highly stylized prehistoric depiction of a horse. from Style (visual arts)

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      Paul Jacobsthal Paul Jacobsthal (1880, Berlin – 27 October 1957, Oxford) was a scholar of Greek vase painting and Celtic art. He…
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      Paul Jacobsthal (1880, Berlin – 27 October 1957, Oxford) was a scholar of Greek vase painting and Celtic art. He wrote his dissertation at the University of Bonn under the supervision of Georg Loeschcke. In 1912 he published a catalog of the Greek vases in Göttingen, and received a position as a professor at the University of Marburg.…

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      Paul Jacobsthal (1880, Berlin – 27 October 1957, Oxford) was a scholar of Greek vase painting and Celtic art. He wrote his dissertation at the University of Bonn under the supervision of Georg Loeschcke. In 1912 he published a catalog of the Greek vases in Göttingen, and received a position as a professor at the University of Marburg.
      In the 1920s Jacobsthal became interested in the work of John Beazley on vase painting, and began to adopt Beazley's taxonomical methodologies. His 1927 work, Ornamente griechischer Vasen, was dedicated to Beazley In 1930 Jacobsthal and Beazley began to collaborate on an inventory of early Greek vases, the Bilder griechischer Vasen, a project which they concluded in 1939. After World War II, the two scholars served as co-editors of the Oxford Classical Monographs.
      In 1935 Jacobsthal was forced to leave Nazi Germany on account of his Jewish heritage. He settled in England, and in 1937 was appointed as a lecturer at Christ Church, Oxford. There he continued his collaboration with Beazley.
      Soon after his arrival in England, Jacobsthal began to study the art of the Celts, and in 1944 published his study of Early Celtic Art. This book focused on the impact of Greek ornament on Celtic decorative arts, and was one of the earliest English-language works to employ the terminology established by Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen. From 1947 through 1950 Jacobsthal served as University Reader in Celtic Archaeology at Oxford University.
      Jacobsthal's final study, Greek pins and their connexions with Europe and Asia (1956), returned to the cataloguing of material from Greek antiquity, while remaining engaged with issues of the reception of Greek art abroad.
      Jacobsthal's students included the Swiss archaeologist Karl Schefold and Hans Möbius.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Paul Jacobsthal

    • Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space. from Style (visual arts)

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      Stilfragen Stilfragen: Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik is a book on the history of ornament by the Austrian…
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      Stilfragen: Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik is a book on the history of ornament by the Austrian art historian Alois Riegl. It was published in Berlin in 1893. The English translation renders the title as Problems of style: foundations for a history of ornament, although this has been criticized by some. It has been called "the one great book ever written about the history of ornament."

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Stilfragen

    • Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and initially mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, and Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century. from Style (visual arts)

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      Carl Friedrich von Rumohr Carl Friedrich von Rumohr (6 January 1785 – 25 July 1843) was a German art historian, writer, draughtsman and…
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      Carl Friedrich von Rumohr (6 January 1785 – 25 July 1843) was a German art historian, writer, draughtsman and painter, agricultural historian, connoisseur of and writer about the culinary arts, art collector and patron of artists.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Carl Friedrich von Rumohr

    • Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and initially mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, and Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century. from Style (visual arts)

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      James Elkins (art historian) James Elkins (1955 – ) is an art historian and art critic. He is E.C. Chadbourne Chair of art history, theory, and…
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      James Elkins (1955 – ) is an art historian and art critic. He is E.C. Chadbourne Chair of art history, theory, and criticism at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He also coordinates the Stone Summer Theory Institute, a short term school on contemporary art history based at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To James Elkins (art historian)

    • According to James Elkins "In the later 20th century criticisms of style were aimed at further reducing the Hegelian elements of the concept while retaining it in a form that could be more easily controlled". from Style (visual arts)

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      James S. Ackerman James Sloss Ackerman (born November 8, 1919) is a prominent American architectural historian, a major scholar of…
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      James Sloss Ackerman (born November 8, 1919) is a prominent American architectural historian, a major scholar of Michelangelo's architecture, of Palladio and of Italian Renaissance architectural theory.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To James S. Ackerman

    • Meyer Schapiro, James Ackerman, Ernst Gombrich and George Kubler ( , 1962) have made notable contributions to the debate, which has also drawn on wider developments in critical theory. from Style (visual arts)

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      Connoisseur A connoisseur (French traditional (pre-1835) spelling of connaisseur, from Middle-French connoistre, then connaître…
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      A connoisseur (French traditional (pre-1835) spelling of connaisseur, from Middle-French connoistre, then connaître meaning "to be acquainted with" or "to know somebody/something.") is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the fine arts, cuisines, or an expert judge in matters of taste. In many areas the term now has an air of…

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      A connoisseur (French traditional (pre-1835) spelling of connaisseur, from Middle-French connoistre, then connaître meaning "to be acquainted with" or "to know somebody/something.") is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the fine arts, cuisines, or an expert judge in matters of taste. In many areas the term now has an air of pretension, and may be used in a partly ironic sense, but in the art trade connoisseurship remains a crucial skill for the identification and attribution to individual artists of works, where documentary evidence of provenance is lacking. The situation in the wine trade is similar, for example in assessing the potential for ageing in a young wine through wine tasting.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Connoisseur

    • The identification of individual style in works is "essentially assigned to a group of specialists in the field known as conoisseurs", a group who centre in the art trade and museums, often with tensions between them and the community of academic art historians. from Style (visual arts)

    • Connoisseurs evaluate works of art on the basis of their experience of the style and technique of artists. from Connoisseur

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      College Art Association The College Art Association of America (usually referred to as simply CAA) is the principal professional…
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      The College Art Association of America (usually referred to as simply CAA) is the principal professional association in the United States for practitioners and scholars of art, art history, and art criticism. Founded in 1911, it aims to "cultivate the ongoing understanding of art as a fundamental form of human expression." CAA currently has 13,000…

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      The College Art Association of America (usually referred to as simply CAA) is the principal professional association in the United States for practitioners and scholars of art, art history, and art criticism. Founded in 1911, it aims to "cultivate the ongoing understanding of art as a fundamental form of human expression." CAA currently has 13,000 members, primarily academics, professors, and graduate students who study and/or teach art practice, history, or theory, including visual arts, visual culture, and aesthetics. Although the organization was founded in the United States and its offices are located in New York City, its membership, concerns, reputation, and influence are international in scope. The five-year strategic plan for 2010-15 includes a focus on artists and designers, developing student and emerging scholars, affiliated societies, and international memberships while continuing to serve members involved in related and interdisciplinary fields in the visual arts, including curatorial practice, scholarship, and education.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To College Art Association

    • Gotlieb, Marc, "The Painter's Secret: Invention and Rivalry from Vasari to Balzac", The Art Bulletin, Vol. from Style (visual arts)

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      Jas Elsner Jaś Elsner (born 19 December 1962) is a British art historian and classicist, who in 2013 was Humfry Payne Senior…
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      Jaś Elsner (born 19 December 1962) is a British art historian and classicist, who in 2013 was Humfry Payne Senior Research Fellow in Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford, based at Corpus Christi College (since 1999), and Visiting Professor of Art History at the University of Chicago (since 2003). He is mainly…

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      Jaś Elsner (born 19 December 1962) is a British art historian and classicist, who in 2013 was Humfry Payne Senior Research Fellow in Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford, based at Corpus Christi College (since 1999), and Visiting Professor of Art History at the University of Chicago (since 2003). He is mainly known for his work on Roman art, including Late Antiquity and Byzantine art, as well as the historiography of art history, and is a prolific writer on these and other topics. Elsner has been described as "one of the most well-known figures in the field of ancient art history, respected for his notable erudition, extensive range of interests and expertise, his continuing productivity, and above all, for the originality of his mind", and by Shadi Bartsch, a colleague at Chicago, as "the predominant contemporary scholar of the relationship between classical art and ancient subjectivity".

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Jas Elsner

    • Elsner, Jas, "Style" in Critical Terms for Art History, Nelson, Robert S. and Shiff, Richard, 2nd Edn. from Style (visual arts)

    • In 2010 Jas Elsner put it more strongly: "For nearly the whole of the 20th century, style art history has been the indisputable king of the discipline, but since the revolutions of the seventies and eighties the king has been dead", though his article explores ways in which "style art history" remains alive, and his comment would hardly be applicable to archaeology. from Style (visual arts)

    • In critical analysis of the visual arts, the style of a work of art is typically treated as distinct from its iconography, which covers the subject and the content of the work, though for Jas Elsner this distinction is "not, of course, true in any actual example; but it has proved rhetorically extremely useful". from Style (visual arts)

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      Ernst Gombrich Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who…
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      Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. He was the author of many works of cultural history and art history, including The Story of Art, a book widely regarded as one of the most accessible introductions to the visual arts.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Ernst Gombrich

    • Gombrich, E. from Style (visual arts)

    • Meyer Schapiro, James Ackerman, Ernst Gombrich and George Kubler ( , 1962) have made notable contributions to the debate, which has also drawn on wider developments in critical theory. from Style (visual arts)

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      Modello A modello (plural modelli), from Italian, is a preparatory study or model, usually at a smaller scale, for a work…
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      A modello (plural modelli), from Italian, is a preparatory study or model, usually at a smaller scale, for a work of art or architecture, especially one produced for the approval of the commissioning patron. The term gained currency in art circles in Tuscany in the fourteenth century. Modern definitions in reference works vary somewhat. Alternative…

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      A modello (plural modelli), from Italian, is a preparatory study or model, usually at a smaller scale, for a work of art or architecture, especially one produced for the approval of the commissioning patron. The term gained currency in art circles in Tuscany in the fourteenth century. Modern definitions in reference works vary somewhat. Alternative and overlapping terms are "oil sketch" (schizzo) and "cartoon" for paintings or stained glass, maquette, plastico or bozzetto for sculpture or architecture, or architectural model.
      Though in Gothic figural arts bishops and abbots are often represented carrying small simulacra of buildings they had constructed—"models" in the familiar modern sense—modello is only used of pieces which pre-date the finished work, and were at least in part produced by the main artist involved. The less frequently found term ricordo (Italian for "record" or "memory") means a similar piece produced as a small copy after completion of the work as a record for the workshop. Naturally it is not always easy for art historians to decide whether a particular piece is one or the other, and, especially in the Late Renaissance and Baroque periods, when several versions of a painting were made, the ricordo for the prime version might serve in the atelier as the modello for the subsequent ones. No doubt a modello was often modified after the main work was completed to reflect any changes in the composition during painting, thus making it a ricordo also; this would normally be impossible for art historians to distinguish from a modello altered during its original production.
      The Tiepolo at right was catalogued as a modello by Michael Levey, but recent x-ray investigation of the huge finished work in Munich has revealed that in its underpainting it was closer to another, very different and less finished modello, now in the Courtauld Institute, and it has been asserted that the National Gallery picture illustrated is a ricordo. The National Gallery still describe it as "probably a modello", presumably produced after work had already begun.
      "Cartoon", named for the sturdy cartone paper on which they were generally executed, is usually used of working drawings, often at full scale, but the distinction is not a firm one, and the terms cartoon and working drawing are often used interchangeably. Modello is especially used of older Italian art and architecture from the late Middle Ages onwards; initially these were mostly drawings, perhaps with some colour from chalk or watercolour, or with colours indicated in writing. The diminutive term modeletto will always be used of small-scale versions. As an Italian word, modello may be printed in italics, or not. The French version of the word, modèle, may be used of French works, and is normally italicised.
      Especially in the case of oil sketches, many modelli are greatly valued in their own right, as they may show a freedom in execution and freshness of inspiration missing in the final work, and also may show changes in composition from the finished work, throwing light on the process of artistic creation. Earlier stages of the creative process may be recorded in "preparatory drawings" or "studies", either for the whole composition, or a part of it, such as a single figure.
      An example of a modello of a fresco cycle, which was rescued for its intrinsic value is in Giorgio Vasari's vita of Rosso Fiorentino: Vasari reports that a modello for Rosso's frescoes in Santa Maria delle Lagrime, Arezzo, was carried out by Rosso for Giovanni Pollastra, the inventor of the complex program there, "un bellisimo modello di tutto l'opera, che è oggi nelle nostre case di Arezzo." A preliminary modello colorito in the form of a painted three-dimensional model was especially important to prejudge the finished effect of illusionistic sotto-in-su perspectives on the curved surfaces of vaulted ceilings, as Andrea Pozzo, the perfector of the illusionistic ceiling, noted in his Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (1700–17)
      Many modelli show versions of works which were never actually realised, or have been lost. Famous examples are the alternative designs produced for the competition in 1401 to design the North doors of the Florence Baptistry. Lorenzo Ghiberti won, beating six other artists, including Filippo Brunelleschi, Donatello and Jacopo della Quercia; the modelli survive, for a single panel, of the first two named (Bargello - picture above).
      There are alternative, unrealised, modelli for many famous buildings, including St Peter's, Rome and the "Great Model" of St Paul's Cathedral, London, showing a different design by Sir Christopher Wren from that actually built. When accepted, such models were retained during the work, as concrete expressions of what was expected under the terms of the contract, and afterwards were preserved in storage through salutary neglect.

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    • Drawings, modelli, and other sketches not intended as finished works for sale will also very often stylize. from Style (visual arts)

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      John Beazley Sir John Davidson Beazley, CH, FBA (13 September 1885 – 6 May 1970) was a British classical archaeologist and art…
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      Sir John Davidson Beazley, CH, FBA (13 September 1885 – 6 May 1970) was a British classical archaeologist and art historian, known for his classification of Attic Vases by artistic style. He was Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford from 1925 to 1956.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To John Beazley

    • His techniques were adopted by Bernard Berenson and others, and have been applied to sculpture and many other types of art, for example by Sir John Beazley to Attic vase painting. from Style (visual arts)

    • Sir John Davidson Beazley (13 September 1885 – 6 May 1970) was a British classical archaeologist and art historian, known for his classification of Attic Vases by artistic style. from John Beazley

    1. 38
      Literary topos Topos (τόπος, Greek 'place' from tópos koinós, common place; pl. topoi), in Latin locus (from locus communis)…
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      Topos (τόπος, Greek 'place' from tópos koinós, common place; pl. topoi), in Latin locus (from locus communis), referred in the context of classical Greek rhetoric to a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument. [See topoi in classical rhetoric.]…

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      Topos (τόπος, Greek 'place' from tópos koinós, common place; pl. topoi), in Latin locus (from locus communis), referred in the context of classical Greek rhetoric to a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument. [See topoi in classical rhetoric.]
      The technical term topos is variously translated as "topic", "line of argument" or "commonplace." Ernst Robert Curtius expanded this concept in studying topoi as "commonplaces": reworkings of traditional material, particularly the descriptions of standardised settings, but extended to almost any literary meme. For example, Curtius notes the common observation in the ancient classical world that “all must die” as a topos in consolatory oratory; that is, one facing one’s own death often stops to reflect that greater men from the past died as well. A slightly different kind of topos noted by Curtius is the invocation of nature (sky, seas, animals, etc.) for various rhetorical purposes, such as witnessing to an oath, rejoicing or praising God, or sharing in the mourning of the speaker.
      Critics have traced the use and re-use of such topoi from the literature of classical antiquity to the 18th century and beyond into postmodern literature. This is illustrated in the study of archetypal heroes and in the theory of The Hero With A Thousand Faces (1949), a book written by modern theorist Joseph Campbell. For example, oral histories passed down from pre-historic societies contain literary aspects, characters, or settings that appear again and again in stories from ancient civilizations, religious texts, and even more modern stories. The biblical creation myths and "the flood" are two examples, as they are repeated in other civilizations' earliest texts such as the Epic of Gilgamesh or deluge myth), and are seen again and again in historical texts and references.[citation needed]

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • The idea of technical "secrets" closely guarded by the master who developed them, is a long-standing topos in art history from Vasari's probably mythical account of Jan van Eyck to the secretive habits of Georges Seurat. from Style (visual arts)

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      Lawrence Technological University Lawrence Technological University, also known as Lawrence Tech or simply LTU, is a private university located in…
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      Lawrence Technological University, also known as Lawrence Tech or simply LTU, is a private university located in Southfield, Michigan. The school offers undergraduate, masters, and doctoral programs in engineering, science, mathematics, architecture, graphic design, and business. Lawrence Technological University's four colleges are Architecture and Design, Arts and Sciences, Engineering, and Management.…

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      Lawrence Technological University, also known as Lawrence Tech or simply LTU, is a private university located in Southfield, Michigan. The school offers undergraduate, masters, and doctoral programs in engineering, science, mathematics, architecture, graphic design, and business. Lawrence Technological University's four colleges are Architecture and Design, Arts and Sciences, Engineering, and Management.
      Lawrence Tech was founded in 1932 in Highland Park, MI by the Lawrence brothers as the Lawrence Institute of Technology and adopted its current name in 1989. The school mascot is the blue devil, and the school colors are blue and white. Lawrence Tech moved to Southfield, Michigan from its site in Highland Park, Michigan in 1955. It is located at the John C. Lodge Freeway and 10 Mile Road, at the present time.
      Lawrence Tech has consistently been among the Top Tier for "Universities–Master's (Midwest)" by U.S. News & World Report. It was ranked 37th out of several hundred Midwestern Universities in 2006, and 47th in 2007, 40th in 2008, and 55th in 2009. In addition, the University tied for 49th of 100 "Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs" in U.S. News & World Report's Best Universities-Masters-Midwest in 2010. Other distinctions include: Princeton Review “Best in the Midwest" in 2010; Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching recognition, 2009; G. I. Jobs "Military Friendly School," 2010; State of Michigan Center of Excellence for Sustainable Infrastructure and Structural Testing; an Intel "Top 50 Unwired Campus"; a Michigan Green Leader; Architectural Record among "America's Best Architectural Schools" in construction methods and materials; and Michigan's Going Green Award." Bloomberg-Businessweek also reported that the earning power of a Lawrence Tech bachelor's degree ranks in the highest 30 percent of all U.S. universities.

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • In a 2012 experiment at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan, a computer analysed approximately 1,000 paintings from 34 well-known artists using a specially developed algorithm and placed them in similar style categories to human art historians. from Style (visual arts)

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      Johann Joachim Winckelmann Johann Joachim Winckelmann (9 December 1717 – 8 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a…
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      Johann Joachim Winckelmann (9 December 1717 – 8 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories…

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      Johann Joachim Winckelmann (9 December 1717 – 8 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art (1764) was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature. His subsequent influence on Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."
      Today, Humboldt University of Berlin's Winckelmann Institute is dedicated to the study of classical archaeology.
      Winckelmann was notably homosexual, and open homoeroticism informed his writings on aesthetics. This was recognized and accepted by his contemporaries, such as Goethe.

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • The theorist of Neoclassicism, Johann Joachim Winckelmann, analysed the stylistic changes in Greek classical art in 1764, comparing them closely to the changes in Renaissance art, and "Georg Hegel codified the notion that each historical period will have a typical style", casting a very long shadow over the study of style. from Style (visual arts)

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      Art of the Upper Paleolithic The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known (sometimes called prehistoric art). Older possible…
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      The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known (sometimes called prehistoric art). Older possible examples include the incised ochre from Blombos Cave. Upper Paleolithic art is found in Aurignacian Europe and the Levant some 40,000 years ago, and on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia at a similar date, suggesting a…

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      The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known (sometimes called prehistoric art). Older possible examples include the incised ochre from Blombos Cave. Upper Paleolithic art is found in Aurignacian Europe and the Levant some 40,000 years ago, and on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia at a similar date, suggesting a much older origin perhaps in Africa. Cave art in Europe continued to the Mesolithic (at the beginnings of the Holocene) about 12,000 years ago. As this corresponds to the final phase of the last glacial period, Upper Paleolithic art is also known as "Ice Age art".
      As a notable aspect of what some call the "Upper Paleolithic Revolution", and evidence for behavioral modernity, the appearance of art in part helps us define the Upper Paleolithic itself. Art helps define what makes us human - it is part of what we are or can be (e.g. Steven Mithen, and The Mind in the Cave by David Lewis-Williams). Paleolithic art includes rock and cave painting, jewelry, drawing, carving, engraving and sculpture in: clay, bone, antler, stone and ivory, such as the so-called Venus figurines, and musical instruments such as flutes.
      Decoration was also made on functional tools, such as spear throwers, perforated batons and lamps.
      Common subject matters include the animals that were hunted (e.g. reindeer, horses, bison, birds and mammoth) and predators and other animals that were not (e.g. lions, other big cats, bears and the woolly rhinoceros); the human form was often expressed - especially female shapes (they often look either: young, old, or pregnant). Men are also depicted, such as the so-called 'Pin Hole man'.

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    • The identification of individual styles of artists or artisans has also been proposed in some cases even for remote periods such as the Ice Age art of the European Upper Paleolithic. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 42
      African art African art is a term typically used for the art of Sub-Saharan Africa. Often, casual observers tend to generalize…
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      African art is a term typically used for the art of Sub-Saharan Africa. Often, casual observers tend to generalize "traditional" African art, but the continent is full of people, societies and civilizations, each with a unique visual culture. The definition may also include the art of the African Diasporas, such as the art of African…

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      African art is a term typically used for the art of Sub-Saharan Africa. Often, casual observers tend to generalize "traditional" African art, but the continent is full of people, societies and civilizations, each with a unique visual culture. The definition may also include the art of the African Diasporas, such as the art of African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the visual culture from the continent of Africa.
      The term African art does not usually include the art of the North African areas along the Mediterranean coast, as such areas had long been part of different traditions. For more than a millennium, the art of such areas had formed part of Islamic art, although with many particular characteristics. The Art of Ethiopia, with a long Christian tradition, is also different from that of most of Africa, where Traditional African religion (with Islam in the north) was dominant until relatively recently.
      Most African sculpture was historically in wood and other natural materials that have not survived from earlier than, at most, a few centuries ago; older pottery figures can be found from a number of areas. Masks are important elements in the art of many peoples, along with human figures, often highly stylized. There is a vast variety of styles, often varying within the same context of origin depending on the use of the object, but wide regional trends are apparent; sculpture is most common among "groups of settled cultivators in the areas drained by the Niger and Congo rivers" in West Africa. Direct images of deities are relatively infrequent, but masks in particular are or were often made for religious ceremonies; today many are made for tourists as "airport art". African masks were an influence on European Modernist art, which was inspired by their lack of concern for naturalistic depiction. Since the late 19th century there has been an increasing amount of African art in Western collections, the finest pieces of which are now prominently displayed.
      Later West African cultures developed bronze casting for reliefs, like the famous Benin Bronzes, to decorate palaces and for highly naturalistic royal heads from around the Yoruba town of Ife, in terracotta as well as metal, from the 12th–14th centuries. Akan goldweights are a form of small metal sculptures produced over the period 1400–1900; some apparently represent proverbs, contributing a narrative element rare in African sculpture; and royal regalia included impressive gold sculptured elements. Many West African figures are used in religious rituals and are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. The Mande-speaking peoples of the same region make pieces from wood with broad, flat surfaces and arms and legs shaped like cylinders. In Central Africa, however, the main distinguishing characteristics include heart-shaped faces that are curved inward and display patterns of circles and dots.
      Eastern Africans, in many areas shorter of large timber to carve, are known for Tinga Tinga paintings and Makonde sculptures. There is also tradition of producing textile art,. The culture from Great Zimbabwe left more impressive buildings than sculpture, but the eight soapstone Zimbabwe Birds appear to have had a special significance and were presumably mounted on monoliths. Modern Zimbabwean sculptors in soapstone have achieved considerable international success. Southern Africa’s oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600 AD and have cylindrical heads with a mixture of human and animal features.

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    • Ancient, traditional, and modern art, as well as popular forms such as cartoons or animation very often use stylized representations, so for example The Simpsons use highly stylized depictions, as does traditional African art. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 43
      Graphology Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to…
    1. 43

      Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics. It is generally considered pseudoscience. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination.…

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      Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics. It is generally considered pseudoscience. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination.
      Graphology has been controversial for more than a century. Although supporters point to the anecdotal evidence of positive testimonials as a reason to use it for personality evaluation, most empirical studies fail to show the validity claimed by its supporters.

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    • Calligraphy, also regarded as a fine art in the Islamic world and Japan, brings a new area within the ambit of personal style; the ideal of Western calligraphy tends to be to suppress individual style, while graphology, which relies upon it, regards itself as a science. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 44
      Ink wash painting Ink wash painting, also known as literati painting is an East Asian type of brush painting that uses black ink—the…
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      Ink wash painting, also known as literati painting is an East Asian type of brush painting that uses black ink—the same as used in East Asian calligraphy, in various concentrations. For centuries, this most prestigious form of Chinese art was practiced by highly educated scholar gentlemen or literati.…

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      Ink wash painting, also known as literati painting is an East Asian type of brush painting that uses black ink—the same as used in East Asian calligraphy, in various concentrations. For centuries, this most prestigious form of Chinese art was practiced by highly educated scholar gentlemen or literati.
      Names used in the cultures concerned include: in Chinese shui-mo hua (水墨畫), in Japanese sumi-e (墨絵) or suibokuga (水墨画), in Korean sumukhwa (수묵화), and in Vietnamese tranh thủy mặc (幀水墨).

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    • In Chinese art it is just as deeply held, but traditionally regarded as a factor in the appreciation of some types of art, above all calligraphy and literati painting, but not others, such as Chinese porcelain; a distinction also often seen in the so-called decorative arts in the West. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 45
      Islamic calligraphy Islamic calligraphy, or Arabic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the…
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      Islamic calligraphy, or Arabic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the Arabic language and alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage. It is known in Arabic as khatt (خط), which derived from the word 'line', 'design', or 'construction'.…

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      Islamic calligraphy, or Arabic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the Arabic language and alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage. It is known in Arabic as khatt (خط), which derived from the word 'line', 'design', or 'construction'.
      The development of Islamic calligraphy is strongly tied to the Qur'an; chapters, and excerpts from the Qur'an is a common and almost universal text of which Islamic calligraphy is based upon. Deep religious association with the Qur'an, as well as suspicion of figurative art as idolatrous has led calligraphy to become one of the major forms of artistic expression in Islamic cultures.
      As Islamic calligraphy is highly venerated, most works follow examples set by well established calligraphers, with the exception of secular or contemporary works. In antiquity, a pupil would copy a master's work repeatedly until their handwriting is similar. The most common style is divided into angular and cursive, each further divided into several sub-styles.

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • Calligraphy, also regarded as a fine art in the Islamic world and Japan, brings a new area within the ambit of personal style; the ideal of Western calligraphy tends to be to suppress individual style, while graphology, which relies upon it, regards itself as a science. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 46
      Gottfried Semper Gottfried Semper (pronounced [ˌɡɔtfriːt ˈzɛmpɐ]) (November 29, 1803 – May 15, 1879) was a German architect, art…
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      Gottfried Semper (pronounced [ˌɡɔtfriːt ˈzɛmpɐ]) (November 29, 1803 – May 15, 1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. In 1849 he took part in the May Uprising in Dresden and was put on the government's wanted list. Semper fled first to Zürich and later to London. Later he returned to Germany after the 1862 amnesty granted to the revolutionaries.…

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      Gottfried Semper (pronounced [ˌɡɔtfriːt ˈzɛmpɐ]) (November 29, 1803 – May 15, 1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. In 1849 he took part in the May Uprising in Dresden and was put on the government's wanted list. Semper fled first to Zürich and later to London. Later he returned to Germany after the 1862 amnesty granted to the revolutionaries.
      Semper wrote extensively about the origins of architecture, especially in his book The Four Elements of Architecture from 1851, and he was one of the major figures in the controversy surrounding the polychrome architectural style of ancient Greece. Semper designed works at all scales, from a baton for Richard Wagner to major urban interventions like the re-design of the Ringstraße in Vienna.

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and initially mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, and Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 47
      Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Italian: [ˈdʒordʒo vaˈzari]; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer…
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      Giorgio Vasari (Italian: [ˈdʒordʒo vaˈzari]; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.

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    • Giorgio Vasari set out a hugely influential but much-questioned account of the development of style in Italian painting (mainly) from Giotto to his own Mannerist period. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 48
      Palmette The palmette is a motif in decorative art which, in its most characteristic expression, resembles the fan-shaped…
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      The palmette is a motif in decorative art which, in its most characteristic expression, resembles the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree. It has a far-reaching history, originating in Ancient Egypt with a subsequent development through the art of most of Eurasia, often in forms that bear relatively little resemblance to the original. In Ancient…

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      The palmette is a motif in decorative art which, in its most characteristic expression, resembles the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree. It has a far-reaching history, originating in Ancient Egypt with a subsequent development through the art of most of Eurasia, often in forms that bear relatively little resemblance to the original. In Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman uses it is also known as the anthemion (from the Greek ανθέμιον, a flower). It is found in most artistic media, but especially as an architectural ornament, whether carved or painted, and painted on ceramics. It is very often a component of the design of a frieze or border. The complex evolution of the palmette was first traced by Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893.

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • Motifs in the decorative arts such as the palmette or arabesque are often highly stylized versions of the parts of plants. from Style (visual arts)

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      Prehistoric art In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning…
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      In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events. At…

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      In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events. At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures. The end-date for what is covered by the term thus varies greatly between different parts of the world.
      The very earliest human artifacts showing evidence of workmanship with an artistic purpose are the subject of some debate; it is clear that such workmanship existed by 40,000 years ago in the Upper Paleolithic era. From the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art such as figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings also seen on some utilitarian objects. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture and the construction of megaliths. Early rock art also first appeared in the Neolithic. The advent of metalworking in the Bronze Age brought additional media available for use in making art, an increase in stylistic diversity, and the creation of objects that did not have any obvious function other than art. It also saw the development in some areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art, as well as early writing systems. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China.
      Many indigenous peoples from around the world continued to produce artistics works distinctive to their geographic area and culture, until exploration and commerce brought record-keeping methods to them. Some cultures, notably the Maya civilization, independently developed writing during the time they flourished, which was then later lost. These cultures may be classified as prehistoric, especially if their writing systems have not been deciphered.

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    How Style (visual arts)
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    • Style is seen as usually dynamic, in most periods always changing by a gradual process, though the speed of this varies greatly, between the very slow development in style typical of Prehistoric art or Ancient Egyptian art to the rapid changes in Modern art styles. from Style (visual arts)

    1. 50
      Decorative arts The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also…
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      The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional. It includes interior design, but not usually architecture. The decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the "fine arts", namely, painting, drawing, photography, and large-scale sculpture, which generally have no function other than to be seen.

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    How Style (visual arts)
    Connects To Decorative arts

    • Motifs in the decorative arts such as the palmette or arabesque are often highly stylized versions of the parts of plants. from Style (visual arts)

    • In Chinese art it is just as deeply held, but traditionally regarded as a factor in the appreciation of some types of art, above all calligraphy and literati painting, but not others, such as Chinese porcelain; a distinction also often seen in the so-called decorative arts in the West. from Style (visual arts)

    • Art Nouveau ( , Anglicised to ; cz Secese; at. Sezession, germ. Jugendstil, eng. Modern Style) or Jugendstil is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that was most popular during 1890–1910. from Art Nouveau

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