Saint Helena or Saint Helen (Latin: Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; c. 250 – c. 330) was the consort of the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the emperor Constantine the Great. She is an important figure in the history of Christianity and the world due to her major influence on her son and her own contributions in placing Christianity at the heart of Western Civilization. She is traditionally credited with a pilgrimage to Syria Palaestina, during which she is claimed to have discovered the True Cross.

She is revered as a saint by the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, the Roman Catholic, and the Anglican as well as commemorated by the Lutheran Church.

  • 1. [True Cross] The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
    Many churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross. Their authenticity is not accepted universally by those of the Christian faith and
  • 2. [Constantine the Great] Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of
  • 3. [Constantius Chlorus] Constantius I (Latin: Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus; 31 March c. 250 – 25 July 306) was Roman Emperor from 293 to 306, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Greek: Κωνστάντιος Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, lit. "Constantius the Pale"). He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty.
  • 4. [Church of the Holy Sepulchre] The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Latin: ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; Hebrew: כנסיית הקבר הקדוש‎, Knesiyyat HaKever HaKadosh), also called the Church of the Resurrection by Orthodox Christians (Arabic: كنيسة القيامة‎, kanīssat al Qi'yāma; Armenian: Սուրբ Յարութեան տաճար, Surb Harut’ian tačar; Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naós tēs Anastáseōs), is a church within the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is a few steps away from the Muristan.
  • 5. [Macarius of Jerusalem] Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was Bishop of Jerusalem from 312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen.
    St. Athanasius, in one of his orations against Arianism, refers to St. Macarius as an example of "the honest and simple style of apostolical men." The date 312 for Macarius's accession to the episcopate is found in St. Jerome's version of Eusebius of Caesarea's Chronicles; Tillement .
  • 6. [Flavia Maximiana Theodora] Flavia Maximiana Theodora, also known as Theodora, was a Roman Empress, wife of Constantius Chlorus.
    She is often referred to as a stepdaugher of Emperor Maximian by ancient sources, leading to claims by historians Otto Seeck and Ernest Stein that she was born from an earlier marriage between Eutropia, wife of Maximian, and Afranius Hannibalianus. This man was consul in 292 and praetorian prefect under Diocletian.
  • 7. [Coel Hen] Coel (Old Welsh: Coil) or Coel Hen ("Coel the Old") is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages. Early Welsh tradition knew of a Coel Hen (Coel the Old), a leader in Roman or Sub-Roman Britain and the progenitor of several kingly lines in the Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"),
  • 8. [Calvary] Calvary, also Golgotha /ˈɡɒlɡəθə/, was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified. Golgotha(s) (Γολγοθάς) is the Greek transcription in the New Testament of an Aramaic term that has traditionally been presumed to be Gûlgaltâ (but see below for an alternative). The Bible translates the term to mean place
  • 9. [Roodmas] Roodmas (from Old English rood "rod", "cross" and mas, Mass; similar to the etymology of Christmas), was the celebration of the Feast of the Cross observed on May 3 in some Christian churches and rites, particularly the historical Gallican Rite of the Catholic Church. It commemorates the finding by Saint Helena of the True Cross in Jerusalem in 355.
  • 10. [Nail (relic)] Relics that are claimed to be the Holy Nails with which Christ was crucified are objects of veneration among some Christians, i.e., among Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox. In Christian symbolism and art they figure among the Instruments of the Passion or Arma Christi, the objects associated with Jesus' Passion. Like the other Instruments the Holy Nails have become an object of veneration among many Christians and have been pictured in paintings and supposedly recovered.
  • 11. [Maxentius] Maxentius (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son of former Emperor Maximian and the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius.
  • 12. [Saint Elen] Saint Elen (Welsh: Elen Luyddog, lit. "Helen of the Hosts"), often anglicized as Helen, was a late 4th-century founder of churches in Wales. Traditionally, she is said to have been a daughter of the Romano-British ruler Eudaf Hen (Octavius) and the wife of Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus), the 4th-century emperor in Britain, Gaul, and Spain
  • 13. [Jerusalem in Christianity] For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
  • 14. [Seamless robe of Jesus] The Seamless Robe of Jesus (also known as the Holy Robe, the Holy Tunic, the Honorable Robe, and the Chiton of the Lord) is the robe said to have been worn by Jesus during or shortly before his crucifixion. Competing traditions claim that the robe has been preserved to the present day. One tradition places it in the Cathedral of Trier, another places it in Argenteuil, and several traditions claim that it is now in various Eastern Orthodox churches.
  • 15. [Aelia Capitolina] Aelia Capitolina (/ˈliə ˌkæpɨtəˈlnə/; Latin in full: COLONIA ÆLIA CAPITOLINA) was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins since the siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD. Aelia Capitolina remained the official name of Jerusalem until 638 AD when the Arabs conquered the city and kept the first part of it as 'إلياء' (Iliyā').
  • 16. [Santa Croce in Gerusalemme] The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem (Latin: Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem, Italian: Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy. It is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.
  • 17. [Constantina] Constantina (also named Constantia and Constantiana; b. after 307/before 317 - d. 354), and later known as Saint Constance, was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta, daughter of Emperor Maximian. Constantina received the title of Augusta by her father, and is venerated as a saint, having developed a medieval legend wildly at variance with what is known of her actual character. In English she is also known as Saint Constance.
  • 18. [Nicomedia] Nicomedia (/ˌnɪkəˈmdiə/; Greek: Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient city in what is now Turkey.
  • 19. [Flores de Mayo] Flores de Mayo (Spanish for "Flowers of May") is a festival held in the Philippines in the month of May. It is one of the May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary and lasts for the entire month.
  • 20. [Church of the Nativity] The Church of the Nativity is a basilica located in Bethlehem, Palestine. The church was originally commissioned in 327 by Constantine and his mother Helena over the site that is still traditionally considered to be located over the cave that marks the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth. The Church of the Nativity site's original basilica
  • 21. [Sozomen] Salminius Hermias Sozomenus (Greek: Σωζομενός; c. 400 – c. 450) was a historian of the Christian Church.
  • 22. [Priestess of Avalon] Priestess of Avalon is a 2001 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley and completed posthumously by Diana L. Paxson. It follows detailing the life of Helena, first wife of Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and mother of Constantine.
  • 23. [Mausoleum of Helena] The Mausoleum of Helena is an ancient building in Rome, Italy, located on the Via Casilina, corresponding to the 3rd mile of the ancient Via Labicana. It was built by the Roman emperor Constantine I between 326 and 330, originally as a tomb for himself, but later assigned to his mother, Helena, who died in 328.
  • 24. [Augustus (honorific)] Augustus (plural augusti), /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/; Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs], Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable", was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor. On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors
  • 25. [Ambrose] Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Saint Ambrose (/ˈæmbrz/; c. 340 – 4 April 397), was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was consular prefect of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism, and has been accused of fostering persecutions of Arians, Jews, and pagans.
  • 26. [Helenopolis]
    Helenopolis (Greek: Ἑλενόπολις) or Drepana (Δρέπανα) was an ancient Roman and Byzantine town in Bithynia, Asia Minor, on the southern side of the Gulf of Astacus. It has been identified with the modern village of Hersek, in the district of Altınova, Yalova Province. It is traditionally considered as the birthplace of Saint Helena.
  • 27. [Eusebius] Eusebius of Caesarea (/juːˈsbiəs/; Greek: Εὐσέβιος, Eusébios; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a Roman historian, exegete, and Christian polemicist of Greek descent. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely well learned
  • 28. [Historia Regum Britanniae] Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth. It chronicles the lives of the kings of the Britons over the course of two thousand years, beginning with the Trojans founding the British nation and continuing until the Anglo-Saxons assumed control of much of Britain around the 7th century. It is one of the central pieces of the Matter of Britain.
  • 29. [Saint Catherine's Monastery] Saint Catherine's Monastery (Greek: Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης, Monì tìs Agìas Ekaterìnis, Arabic: دير القدّيسة كاترينا ), commonly known as Santa Katarina, its official name being Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai (Greek: Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά, Ierà Monì tou Theovadìstou Òrous Sinà), lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of
  • 30. [Tyrannius Rufinus] Tyrannius Rufinus or Rufinus of Aquileia (Rufinus Aquileiensis; 340/345 – 410) was a monk, historian, and theologian. He is most known as a translator of Greek patristic material into Latin—especially the work of Origen.
  • 31. [Stavrovouni Monastery] 34.885875°N 33.435499°E / 34.885875; 33.435499
  • 32. [Geoffrey of Monmouth] Geoffrey of Monmouth (Latin: Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a Welsh cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur. He is best known for his chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae ("History
  • 33. [Theodoret] Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, Biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). He played a pivotal role in several 5th-century, Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. He is called "blessed" in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some Chalcedonian and East Syrian Christians regard him as a saint.
  • 34. [Aurelian] Aurelian (Latin: Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275), was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians,
  • 35. [Diocese of Pontus] The Diocese of Pontus (Latin: Dioecesis Pontica, Greek: Διοίκησις Πόντου/Ποντικής) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of northern and northeastern Asia Minor up to the border with the Sassanid Empire in Armenia. The diocese was established after the reforms of Diocletian, and its vicarius, headquartered at Amaseia, was subordinate to
  • 36. [Churches in Colchester] Colchester in Essex, England, has a number of notable churches.
  • 37. [Timothy Barnes] Timothy David Barnes (born 1942) is a British classicist.
    Barnes was born in Yorkshire in 1942. He was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Wakefield until 1960, going up to Balliol College, Oxford, where he read Literae Humaniores, taking his BA in 1964 and MA in 1967. He was Harmsworth Senior Scholar of Merton College, Oxford
  • 38. [Pashons 9 (Coptic Orthodox liturgics)] 8 Pashons - Coptic calendar - 10 Pashons
  • 39. [Magnus Maximus] Magnus Maximus (Latin: Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Welsh: Macsen Wledig) (ca. 335 – August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
  • 40. [Jerome] Saint Jerome (/əˈrm/; Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Greek: Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c.  347 – 30 September 420) was a Catholic priest, confessor, theologian and historian, who also became a Doctor of the Church. He was the son of Eusebius, born at Stridon, a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia, then part
  • 41. [Cathedral of Trier] The High Cathedral of Saint Peter in Trier (German: Hohe Domkirche St. Peter zu Trier) is a Roman Catholic church in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the oldest cathedral in the country. The edifice is notable for its extremely long life span under multiple different eras each contributing some elements to its design, including the
  • 42. [Henry of Huntingdon] Henry of Huntingdon (c. 1088 – c. 1157), the son of a canon in the diocese of Lincoln, was a 12th-century English historian, the author of a history of England, the Historia Anglorum, "the most important Anglo-Norman historian to emerge from the secular clergy". He served as archdeacon of Huntingdon. The few details of Henry's
  • 43. [Burning bush] The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus[3:1–4:17] as being located on Mount Horeb. According to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name. In the biblical narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by Yahweh (God) to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan.
  • 44. [Via Labicana] The Via Labicana was an ancient road of Italy, leading east-southeast from Rome. It seems possible that the road at first led to Tusculum, that it was then extended to Labici, and later still became a road for through traffic; it may even have superseded the Via Latina as a route to the southeast, for,
  • 45. [Church History (Eusebius)] The Church History (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Latin: Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century. It was written in Koine Greek, and survives also in Latin, Syriac and Armenian manuscripts.
  • 46. [May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary] May Devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary refers to special Marian devotions held in the Catholic Church during the month of May honoring the Virgin Mary as "the Queen of May". These services may take place inside or outside. A "May Crowning" is a traditional Roman Catholic ritual that occurs in the month of May.
  • 47. [Helena (Waugh novel)] Helena, published in 1950, is the sole historical novel of Evelyn Waugh.
    It follows the quest of Helena to find the relics of the cross on which Christ was crucified. Helena, a Christian, was the mother of the Roman emperor Constantine I.
  • 48. [Panegyrici Latini] XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman panegyric orations. The authors of most of the speeches in the collection are anonymous, but appear to have been Gallic in origin. Aside from the first panegyric, composed by Pliny the Younger in AD 100, the other
  • 49. [Hadrian] Hadrian (/ˈhdriən/; Latin: Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.
  • 50. [Camulodunum] Camulodunum (/ˌkæmjʊlˈdjnəm/ or /ˌkæmʊlˈdnəm/; Latin: CAMVLODVNVM), the Ancient Roman name for what is now Colchester in Essex, was an important town in Roman Britain, and the first capital of the province. It is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain. Originally the site of the Brythonic-Celtic oppidum of Camulodunon (meaning "The Stronghold of Camulos"),
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