Saint Helena or Saint Helen (Latin: Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; c. 250 – c. 330) was the consort of the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the emperor Constantine the Great, an important figure in the history of Christianity. She is traditionally credited with a pilgrimage to Syria Palaestina, during which she discovered the True Cross of Jesus's crucifixion. She is revered as a saint by the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, the Roman Catholic, and the Anglican as well as commemorated by the Lutheran Church.

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  • 1. [True Cross] The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
    Many churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross. Their authenticity is not accepted universally by those of the Christian faith and
  • 2. [Constantine the Great] Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman army officer, and his consort Helena. His father became
  • 3. [Constantius Chlorus] Constantius I Latin: Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus; 31 March c. 250 – 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus,, (in greek Κωνσταντίνος Χλωρός), was Roman Emperor from 293 to 306. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty. As Caesar he defeated the usurper Allectus in
  • 4. [Macarius of Jerusalem] Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was Bishop of Jerusalem from 312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen.
    St. Athanasius, in one of his orations against Arianism, refers to St. Macarius as an example of "the honest and simple style of apostolical men." The date 312 for Macarius's accession to the episcopate is found in St. Jerome's version of Eusebius of Caesarea's Chronicles; Tillement .
  • 5. [Church of the Holy Sepulchre] The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (in Arabic كنيسة القيامة kanissat al Qi'yama) also called the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a church within the Christian Quarter of the walled Old City of Jerusalem. It is a few steps away from the Muristan.
  • 6. [Flavia Maximiana Theodora] Flavia Maximiana Theodora, also known as Theodora, was an Roman Empress, wife of Constantius Chlorus.
    She is often referred to as a stepdaugher of Emperor Maximian by ancient sources, leading to claims by historians Otto Seeck and Ernest Stein that she was born from an earlier marriage between Eutropia, wife of Maximian, and Afranius Hannibalianus. According to this theory, Theodora's father would have been consul in 292 and praetorian prefect under Diocletian.
  • 7. [Coel Hen] Coel (Old Welsh: Coil) or Coel Hen ("Coel the Old") is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages. Early Welsh tradition knew of a Coel Hen (Coel the Old), a leader in Roman or Sub-Roman Britain and the progenitor of several kingly lines in the Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"),
  • 8. [Calvary] Calvary, also Golgotha /ˈɡɒlɡəθə/, was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified. Golgotha is the Greek transcription in the New Testament of an Aramaic term that has traditionally been presumed to be Gûlgaltâ (but see below for an alternative). The Bible translates the term to mean place of
  • 9. [Nail (relic)] Relics that are claimed to be the Holy Nails with which Christ was crucified are objects of veneration among some Christians, i.e., among Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox. In Christian symbolism and art they figure among the Instruments of the Passion or Arma Christi, the objects associated with Jesus' Passion. Like the other Instruments the Holy Nails have become an object of veneration among many Christians and have been pictured in paintings and supposedly recovered.
  • 10. [Maxentius] Maxentius (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son of former Emperor Maximian and the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius.
  • 11. [Seamless robe of Jesus] The Seamless Robe of Jesus (also known as the Holy Robe, the Holy Tunic, the Honorable Robe, and the Chiton of the Lord) is the robe said to have been worn by Jesus during or shortly before his crucifixion. Competing traditions claim that the robe has been preserved to the present day. One tradition places it in the Cathedral of Trier, another places it in Argenteuil, and several traditions claim that it is now in various Eastern Orthodox churches.
  • 12. [Jerusalem in Christianity] For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
  • 13. [Church of the Nativity] The Church of the Nativity is a basilica located in Bethlehem, Palestine. The church was originally commissioned in 327 AD by Constantine and his mother Helena over the site that is still traditionally considered to be located over the cave that marks the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth. The Church of the Nativity site's original
  • 14. [Aelia Capitolina] Aelia Capitolina (/ˈiːliə ˌkæpɨtəˈlaɪnə/; Latin in full: COLONIA ÆLIA CAPITOLINA) was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins since siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136.
  • 15. [Saint Elen] Saint Elen (Welsh: Elen Luyddog, lit. "Helen of the Hosts"), often anglicized as Helen, was a late 4th-century founder of churches in Wales. Traditionally, she is said to have been a daughter of the Romano-British ruler Eudaf Hen (Octavius) and the wife of Macsen (Magnus Clemens Maximus), the 4th-century emperor in Britain, Gaul, and Spain
  • 16. [Santa Croce in Gerusalemme] The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem (Latin: Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem, Italian: Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme) is a Roman Catholic parish church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy. It is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.
  • 17. [Mausoleum of Helena] The Mausoleum of Helena is an ancient building in Rome, Italy, currently located on the Via Casilina, corresponding to the 3rd mile of the ancient Via Labicana. It was built by the Roman emperor Constantine I between 326 and 330, originally as a tomb for himself, but later assigned to his mother, Helena, who died in 328.
  • 18. [Priestess of Avalon] Priestess of Avalon is a 2001 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley and completed posthumously by Diana L. Paxson. It follows detailing the life of Helena, first wife of Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and mother of Constantine.
  • 19. [Nicomedia] Nicomedia (/ˌnɪkəˈmiːdiə/; Greek: Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient city in what is now Turkey, founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian colony and was originally known as Astacus (/ˈæstəkəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀστακός, "lobster"). After being destroyed by Lysimachus, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of
  • 20. [Sozomen] Salminius Hermias Sozomenus (Greek: Σωζομενός; c. 400 – c. 450) was a historian of the Christian Church.
  • 21. [Helenopolis] Helenopolis (Greek: Ἑλενόπολις) or Drepana (Δρέπανα) was an ancient Roman and Byzantine town in Bithynia, Asia Minor, on the southern side of the Gulf of Astacus. It has been identified with the modern village of Hersek, in the district of Altınova, Yalova Province. It is traditionally considered as the birthplace of Saint Helena.
  • 22. [Historia Regum Britanniae] The Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written c. 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth. It chronicles the lives of the kings of the Britons in a chronological narrative spanning a time of two thousand years, beginning with the Trojans founding the British nation
  • 23. [Stavrovouni Monastery] 34.885875°N 33.435499°E / 34.885875; 33.435499
    Stavrovouni Monastery (Greek: Ιερά Μονή Σταυροβουνίου) is a Greek Orthodox monastery which stands on the top of a hill called Stavrovouni (Greek: Σταυροβούνι) in Cyprus; it is sometimes simply known as Stavrovouni. The monastery is one of the few places where one can see a piece of the Holy Cross. Stavrovouni
  • 24. [Helena (1950 novel)] Helena, published in 1950, is the sole historical novel of Evelyn Waugh.
    It follows the quest of Helena to find the relics of the cross on which Christ was crucified. Helena, a Christian, was the mother of the Roman emperor Constantine I.
  • 25. [Ambrose] Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Saint Ambrose (c. 340 – 4 April 397), was an archbishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was consular prefect of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism, and also fostered persecutions of both Jews and pagans.
  • 26. [Tyrannius Rufinus] Tyrannius Rufinus or Rufinus of Aquileia (Rufinus Aquileiensis; 340/345 – 410) was a monk, historian, and theologian. He is most known as a translator of Greek patristic material into Latin—especially the work of Origen.
  • 27. [Eusebius] Eusebius (/juːˈsiːbiəs/; Greek: Εὐσέβιος; 260/265 – 339/340 AD; also called Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius Pamphili), was a Roman historian, of Greek descent, exegete and Christian polemicist. He became the Bishop of Early centers of Caesarea about the year 314 A.D. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded
  • 28. [Augustus (honorific)] Augustus (plural augusti), /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/; Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs], Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable", was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor. On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by
  • 29. [Saint Catherine's Monastery] Saint Catherine's Monastery (Greek: Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης, Monì tìs Agìas Ekaterìnis), in Arabic دير القدّيسة كاترينا commonly known as Santa Katarina, its official name being Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai (Greek: Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά, Ierà Monì tou Theovadìstou Òrous Sinà), lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of
  • 30. [Aurelian] Aurelian (Latin: Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275), was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians,
  • 31. [Theodoret] Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. 393 – c. 457) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria (423-457). He played a pivotal role in many early Byzantine church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. He is considered blessed by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
  • 32. [Churches in Colchester] Colchester in Essex, England, has a number of notable churches.
  • 33. [Mount of Olives] The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet ( Arabic: جبل الزيتون, الطور‎, Jabal az-Zaytūn, Aț-Țūr; Hebrew: הַר הַזֵּיתִים, Har HaZeitim) is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to the Jerusalem's Old City. It is named for the olive groves that once covered its slopes. The southern part of the Mount was the necropolis of
  • 34. [Diocese of Pontus] The Diocese of Pontus (Latin: Dioecesis Pontica, Greek: Διοίκησις Πόντου/Ποντικής) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of northern and northeastern Asia Minor up to the border with the Sassanid Empire in Armenia. The diocese was established after the reforms of Diocletian, and its vicarius, headquartered at Amaseia, was subordinate to
  • 35. [Timothy Barnes] Timothy David Barnes (born 1942) is a British classicist.
    Barnes was born in Yorkshire in 1942. He was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Wakefield until 1960, going up to Balliol College, Oxford, where he read Literae Humaniores, taking his BA in 1964 and MA in 1967. He was Harmsworth Senior Scholar of Merton College, Oxford
  • 36. [Burning bush] The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus[3:1–22] as being located on Mount Horeb; according to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name. In the narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by Yahweh (God) to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan.
  • 37. [Geoffrey of Monmouth] Geoffrey of Monmouth (Latin: Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Galfridus Artur, Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a Welsh cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur. He is best known for his chronicle Historia Regum
  • 38. [Pashons 9 (Coptic Orthodox liturgics)] 8 Pashons - Coptic calendar - 10 Pashons
  • 39. [Henry of Huntingdon] Henry of Huntingdon (c. 1088 – c. 1157), the son of a canon in the diocese of Lincoln, was a 12th-century English historian, the author of a history of England, the Historia Anglorum, "the most important Anglo-Norman historian to emerge from the secular clergy". He served as archdeacon of Huntingdon. The few details of Henry's
  • 40. [Jerome] Saint Jerome (Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Greek: Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c.  347 – 30 September 420) was an Illyrian Latin Christian priest, confessor, theologian and historian, who also became a Doctor of the Church. He was the son of Eusebius, of the city of Stridon, on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia. He is best
  • 41. [Via Labicana] The Via Labicana was an ancient road of Italy, leading east-southeast from Rome. It seems possible that the road at first led to Tusculum, that it was then extended to Labici, and later still became a road for through traffic; it may even have superseded the Via Latina as a route to the southeast, for,
  • 42. [Church History (Eusebius)] The Church History (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Latin: Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century. It was written in Koine Greek, and survives also in Latin, Syriac and Armenian manuscripts.
  • 43. [Panegyrici Latini] XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman panegyric orations. The authors of most of the speeches in the collection are anonymous, but appear to have been Gallic in origin. Aside from the first panegyric, composed by Pliny the Younger in 100 CE, the other
  • 44. [Eutropius (historian)] Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. He held the office of secretary (magister memoriae) at Constantinople, accompanied the Emperor Julian (361–363) on his expedition against the Persians (363), and was alive during the reign of Valens (364–378), to whom he dedicates his Breviarium historiae Romanae and where his history ends.
  • 45. [Early Christianity] Early Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325. It is typically divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
  • 46. [Hadrian] Hadrian (/ˈheɪdriən/; Latin: Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. In Latin, the full imperial title of Hadrian was also rendered as Tito Ael[io] Hadriano, just as it appears in ancient epigraphic records. He re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of
  • 47. [Louis de Wohl] Louis de Wohl, earlier Ludwig von Wohl, was a Hungarian-born British Catholic author, and had served as an astrologer notable for his work with MI5 during World War II. Sixteen of his popular pre-war novels were the basis of movies. His later novels are literary hagiographies of notable Roman Catholic saints and of different periods of the Bible.
  • 48. [Diana L. Paxson] Diana L. Paxson (born 1943) is an author, primarily in the fields of Paganism and Heathenism. Her published works include fantasy and historical fiction novels, as well as numerous short stories. More recently she has also published books about Pagan and Heathen religions and practices.
  • 49. [Diocletian] Diocletian (Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus, Greek Διοκλητιανός) (245–311) was Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian
  • 50. [Emaré] Emaré is a Middle English Breton lai, a form of Mediaeval romance poem, told in 1035 lines. The author of Emaré is unknown and it exists in only one manuscript, Cotton Caligula A. ii, which contains ten metrical narratives. Emaré seems to date from the late fourteenth century, possibly written in the North East Midlands. The iambic pentameter is rather rough.
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