Ibn al-Haytham (latinized Alhazen full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was a mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age. He made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular, his most influential work being his Kitāb al-Manāẓir (كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, survived in the Latin edition. He was also an early proponent of the concept that a hypothesis must be proved by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence, as such anticipating the scientific method.
Born in Basra, he spent most of his productive period in the Fatimid capital of Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises and tutoring members of the nobilities.
Ibn al-Haytham is also sometimes given the byname al-Baṣrī after his birthplace, or al-Miṣrī ("of Egypt"). In Latin tradition, he was occasionally nicknamed Ptolemaeus secundus (the "Second Ptolemy") or simply as "The Physicist".Ibn al-Haytham paved the way for the modern science of physical optics....LESS