Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a variety of reasons: self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, entertainment, as well as mental, physical, and spiritual development.

Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of eastern Asia, it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s. The term is derived from Latin, and means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used

or created by professional warriors.

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  • 1. [Karate] Karate (空手) (English /kəˈrɑːt/; Japanese pronunciation: [kaɽate]; Okinawan pronunciation: IPA: [kaɽati]) is a martial art developed on the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It developed from the indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands (called te (), literally "hand"; tii in Okinawan) under the influence of Chinese martial arts,
  • 2. [Chinese martial arts] Chinese martial arts, which are called kung fu (/ˈkʊŋ ˈf/) (Chinese: 功夫; pinyin: gong fu) or wushu (武術), are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common traits, identified as "families" (; jiā), "sects" (;
  • 3. [Taekwondo] Taekwondo (English pronunciation /ˌtˌkwɒnˈd/ or /ˌtˌkwɒnˈd/ or (thai-KWAN-doh): Korean 태권도 (hangul) / 跆拳道 (hanja) [tʰɛk͈wʌndo]), also transcribed as Taekwon-Do or Tae Kwon Do) is a Korean martial art with a heavy emphasis on kicks. Taekwondo was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by various Korean martial artists, as a blend of the indigenous Korean fighting styles of taekkyeon, gwonbeop, and subak, with influence from foreign martial arts, such as Karate and Chinese martial arts.
  • 4. [Judo] Judo (柔道, jūdō, meaning "gentle way") is a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎). Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with
  • 5. [Jujutsu] Jujutsu (/ˈts/ joo-JOOT-soo; Japanese: 柔術, jūjutsu  listen ) is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses no weapon or only a short weapon. The word jujutsu can be spelled as ju-jitsu/jujitsu, jiu jitsu, ju-jutsu.
  • 6. [Bruce Lee] Bruce Lee (Chinese: 李小龍; born Lee Jun-fan, Chinese: 李振藩; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Hong Kong American martial artist, Hong Kong action film actor, martial arts instructor, philosopher, filmmaker, and the founder of Jeet Kune Do. Lee was the son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-Chuen. He is widely considered by
  • 7. [Muay Thai] Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย, rtgsMuai Thai,  [mūaj.tʰāj]) is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. This physical and mental discipline which includes combat on shins is known as "the art of eight limbs" because it is characterized by the combined use of fists, elbows, knees, shins, being
  • 8. [Aikido] Aikido (Japanese: 合気道, Hepburn: Aikidō) [a.i.ki.doː] is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as "the way of unifying (with) life energy" or as "the way of harmonious spirit." Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury.
  • 9. [Kickboxing] Kickboxing (in Japanese キックボクシング kikkubokushingu) is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate, Muay Thai, Taekwondo and Western boxing. Kickboxing is practiced for self-defense, general fitness, or as a contact sport.
  • 10. [Brazilian jiu-jitsu] Brazilian jiu-jitsu (/ˈɪts/; Portuguese: [ˈʒiw ˈʒitsu], [ˈʒu ˈʒitsu], [dʒiˈu dʒiˈtsu]) (BJJ; Portuguese: jiu-jitsu brasileiro) is a martial art, combat sport, and a self defense system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting. Brazilian jiu-jitsu was formed from Kodokan Judo ground fighting (newaza) fundamentals that were taught by a number of individuals including Takeo Yano,
  • 11. [Kendo] Kendo (剣道, kendō, lit. "sword way"), is a modern Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship (kenjutsu) and uses bamboo swords (shinai) and protective armour (bōgu). Today, it is widely practiced within Japan and many other nations across the world.
  • 12. [Shaolin Kung Fu] Shaolin Kung Fu (Chinese: 少林功夫; pinyin: Shàolín gōngfu), also called Shaolin Wushu (少林武术; Shàolín wǔshù), is among the oldest institutionalized style of Chinese martial arts. Known in Chinese as Shaolinquan (Chinese: 少林拳; pinyin: Shàolínquán or Shaolin wugong (Chinese: 少林武功; pinyin: Shàolín wǔgōng), it originated and was developed in the Buddhist Shaolin temple in
  • 13. [Arnis] Arnis, also known as Eskrima and Kali, is the national sport and martial art of the Philippines. The three are roughly interchangeable umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines ("Filipino Martial Arts," or FMA) that emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives, bladed weapons and various improvised weapons. It is also known as
  • 14. [Koryū] Koryū (古流, old style) and kobudō (古武道, ancient martial arts) are Japanese terms that are used to describe Japanese martial arts that predate the Meiji restoration (1868). The term is contrasted with Gendai budo "modern martial arts" (or shinbudo "new martial arts") which refer to schools developed after the Meiji Restoration.
  • 15. [Kata] Kata (型 or 形, literally: "form"), a Japanese word, are the detailed choreographed patterns of movements practised either solo or in pairs. The term form is used for the corresponding concept in non-Japanese martial arts in general.
  • 16. [Grappling] Grappling refers to techniques, maneuvers, and counters applied to an opponent in order to gain a physical advantage, such as improving relative position, escaping, submitting, or injury to the opponent. Grappling is a general term that covers techniques used in many disciplines, styles and martial arts that are practiced both as combat sports and for
  • 17. [Wing Chun] Wing Chun (Chinese: 詠春; pinyin: yǒng chūn; Jyutping: wing6 ceon1; literally: "spring chant"), also romanised as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun, (and sometimes substituted with the characters 永春 "eternal springtime"); is a concept-based Chinese martial art and form of self-defense utilising both striking and grappling while specialising in close-range combat.
  • 18. [Capoeira] Capoeira (/ˌkæpˈɛərə/; Portuguese pronunciation: [kapuˈejɾɐ]) is a Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance, acrobatics and music, and is sometimes referred to as a game. It was developed in Brazil mainly by West African descendents with native Brazilian influences, probably beginning in the 16th century. It is known for quick and complex moves, using mainly power, speed, and leverage for a wide variety of kicks, spins, and highly mobile techniques.
  • 19. [Combat sport] A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport with one-on-one combat. Determining the winner depends on the particular contest's rules. In many fighting sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Boxing, kickboxing, amateur wrestling, judo, Brazilian Jujitsu, mixed martial arts, and Muay Thai are examples of combat sports.
  • 20. [Kick] A kick is a physical strike using the foot, leg, or knee (the latter is also known as a knee strike). This type of attack is used frequently by hooved animals as well as humans in the context of stand-up fighting. Kicks play a significant role in many forms of martial arts, such as Taekwondo, Sikaran, Karate, Pankration, Kung fu, Vovinam, Kickboxing, Muay Thai, Capoeira, Silat, and Kalarippayattu.
  • 21. [Jeet Kune Do] Jeet Kune Do, abbreviated JKD, is an eclectic and hybrid style fighting art heavily influenced by the philosophy of martial artist Bruce Lee, who founded the system in 1967, referred it as "non-classical", suggesting that JKD is a form of Chinese Kung Fu, yet without form. Unlike more traditional martial arts, Jeet Kune Do is
  • 22. [Hapkido] Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do; Hangul: 합기도; hanja: 合氣道) is a highly eclectic Korean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks, grappling and throwing techniques of other martial arts, as well as kicks, punches, and other striking attacks. There is also the use of traditional weapons, including
  • 23. [Joint lock] A joint lock is a grappling technique involving manipulation of an opponent's joints in such a way that the joints reach their maximal degree of motion.
    In judo, the combining of standing locks with throws are forbidden due to the risk of physical harm to the falling opponent, while jujutsu, taijutsu, aikido and hapkido allow their use.
  • 24. [Iaido] Iaido (居合道, Iaidō), abbreviated with iai (居合), is a modern Japanese martial art/sport.
  • 25. [Kenjutsu] Kenjutsu (剣術) is the umbrella term for all (koryū) schools of Japanese swordsmanship, in particular those that predate the Meiji Restoration. The modern styles of kendo and iaido that were established in the 20th century included modern form of kenjutsu in their curriculum too. Kenjutsu, which originated with the samurai class of feudal Japan, means "the method, or technique, of the sword." This is opposed to kendo, which means "the way of the sword".
  • 26. [Stick-fighting] Stick-fighting or stickfighting (sometimes spelled stick fighting) is a generic term for martial arts which use simple long slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden 'sticks' for fighting; such as a staff, cane, walking stick, baton or similar. Some techniques can also be used with a sturdy umbrella or even a sword in its scabbard.
  • 27. [Kyokushin] Kyokushin (極真) is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Korean Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達, Ōyama Masutatsu) who was born under the name Choi Young-Eui. 최영의. Kyokushin is Japanese for "the ultimate truth." Kyokushin is rooted in a philosophy of self-improvement, discipline and hard training. Its full contact style has had international appeal (practitioners have over the last 40+ years numbered more than 12 million).
  • 28. [Savate] Savate (French pronunciation: ​[saˈvat]), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French kickboxing or French footfighting, is a traditional French martial art which uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques.
  • 29. [Jackie Chan] Jackie Chan, SBS, MBE (born Chan Kong-sang, 陳港生; 7 April 1954) is a Hong Kong actor, martial artist, film director, producer, stuntman, and singer. In his movies, he is known for his acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons, and innovative stunts, which he typically performs himself. Chan has been acting since the 1960s and has appeared in over 150 films.
  • 30. [Japanese martial arts] Japanese martial arts refer to the variety of martial arts native to the country of Japan. At least three Japanese terms are used interchangeably with the English phrase "Japanese martial arts".
  • 31. [Strike (attack)] A strike is a directed physical attack with either an inanimate object (such as a weapon) or with a part of the human body intended to cause blunt trauma or penetrating trauma upon an opponent. There are many different varieties of strikes. An attack with the hand closed into a fist is called a punch;
  • 32. [Wushu (sport)] Wushu (simplified Chinese: 武术; traditional Chinese: 武術) is both an exhibition and a full-contact sport derived from traditional Chinese martial arts. It was developed in China after 1949, in an effort to standardize the practice of traditional Chinese martial arts, although attempts to structure the various decentralized martial arts traditions date back earlier, when the
  • 33. [Sanshou] Sanshou, Sanda, Chinese boxing, Chinese kickboxing, or an "unsanctioned fight" is a Chinese self-defense system and combat sport. Sanshou is a martial art which was originally developed by the Chinese military based upon the study and practices of traditional Kung fu and modern combat fighting techniques; it combines full-contact kickboxing, which includes close range and rapid successive punches and kicks, with wrestling, takedowns, throws, sweeps, kick catches, and in some competitions, even elbow and knee strikes.
  • 34. [Hand-to-hand combat] Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a lethal or non-lethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance) that does not involve the use of firearms or other distance weapons. While the phrase "hand-to-hand" appears to refer to unarmed combat, the term is generic and may include
  • 35. [Neijia] Nèijiā (Chinese: 內家; literally: "internal school") is a term in Chinese martial arts, grouping those styles that practice nèijìng (Chinese: 內勁; literally: "internal strength"), usually translated as internal martial arts, occupied with spiritual, mental or qi-related aspects, as opposed to an "external" (Chinese: ; pinyin: wài) approach focused on physiological aspects. The distinction dates to
  • 36. [Mixed martial arts] Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, from a variety of other combat sports and martial arts. Various mixed-style contests took place throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s. In 1980 CV Productions,
  • 37. [Kyū] Kyū (級)[kjuː] is a Japanese term used in modern martial arts as well as in tea ceremony, flower arranging, go, shogi, academic tests and other similar activities to designate various grades, levels or degrees of proficiency or experience. In China, kyū (級) is called "ji", and it is used for academic tests. In Korea, the term geup (급) is used (also transliterated as gup or kup). In Vietnamese martial arts, it is known as cấp (khớp).
  • 38. [Self-defense] Self-defense or self-defence (see spelling differences) is a countermeasure that involves defending the well-being of oneself or of another from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions, but the interpretation varies widely.
  • 39. [Stage combat] Stage combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. It is employed in live stage plays as well as operatic and ballet productions. The term is also used informally to describe Fight choreography for other production media including film and television. It is a common field of study for actors and dancers with some form of martial arts training, and is closely related to the practice of stunts.
  • 40. [Korean martial arts] Korean martial arts (Hangul: 무술 or 무예, Hanja: 武術 or 武藝) are military practices and methods which have their place in the history of Korea but have been adapted for use by both military and non-military personnel as a method of personal growth or recreation. Among the best recognized Korean practices using weapons are traditional
  • 41. [Silat] Silat is a collective word for a class of indigenous martial arts from a geo-cultural area of Southeast Asia encompassing most of the Nusantara, the Indonesian Archipelago, the Malay Archipelago and the entirety of the Malay Peninsula. Originally developed in what are now Indonesia, peninsular Malaysia, south Thailand, and Singapore, it is also traditionally practiced
  • 42. [Wrestling] Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with
  • 43. [Ultimate Fighting Championship] The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is the largest mixed martial arts promotion company in the world featuring most of the top-ranked fighters in the sport. Based in the United States, the UFC produces events worldwide. The organization showcases nine weight divisions and abides by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. The UFC has held
  • 44. [Okinawan kobudō] Okinawan kobudō (沖縄古武道) refers to the weapon systems of Okinawan martial arts.
    Okinawan kobudō is also known as Ryūkyū Kobujutsu (琉球古武術).
  • 45. [K-1] K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights. On January 2012, K-1 Global Holdings Limited, a company registered in Hong Kong, acquired the rights to K-1, and is the current organizer of K-1 events worldwide.
  • 46. [Morihei Ueshiba] Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平, Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883 – April 26, 1969) was a martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido. He is often referred to as "the founder" Kaiso (開祖) or Ōsensei (大先生/翁先生), "Great Teacher".
  • 47. [Kalaripayattu] Kalaripayattu (pronunciation: [kɐɭɐripɐjɐtːɨ̆]) is a Martial art which originated as a style in south India during 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD. The word kalari first appears in Sangam literature to describe both a battlefield and combat arena. The word kalari tatt denoted a martial feat, while kalari kozhai meant a coward in
  • 48. [Shuai jiao] Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; pinyin: Shuāijiāo; Wade–Giles: Shuai-chiao) was the term pertains to the jacket wrestling style of Beijing, Tianjin and Baoding of Hebei Province in the North China Plain which was codified by Shan Pu Ying (善撲营 The Battalion of Excellency in Catching) of the Nei Wu Fu (内務府, Internal Administration Unit
  • 49. [Jet Li] Li Lianjie ([lì ljæ̌ntɕjɛ̌]; born 26 April 1963), better known by his English stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese film actor, film producer, martial artist, and wushu champion who was born in Beijing. He is a naturalised Singaporean citizen.
  • 50. [Martial arts film] Martial arts film is a film genre. A subgenre of the action film, martial arts films contain numerous martial arts fights between characters, usually as the films' primary appeal and entertainment value, and often as a method of storytelling and character expression and development. Martial arts are frequently featured in training scenes and other sequences in addition to fights. Martial arts films commonly include other types of action, such as stuntwork, chases, and/or gunfights.
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