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Aesthetics (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks/; also spelled æsthetics and esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."

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More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. An example from art theory is aesthetic theory as a set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement: such as the Cubist aesthetic.

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      Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely…
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      Immanuel Kant (German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.…

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      Immanuel Kant (German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.
      Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781), aimed to explain the relationship between reason and human experience. With this project, he hoped to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. He attempted to put an end to what he considered an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
      Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level, all human experience shares certain essential structural features. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause and effect. One important consequence of this view is that one never has direct experience of things, the so-called noumenal world, and that what we do experience is the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses. These claims summarize Kant's views upon the subject–object problem. Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
      Kant aimed to resolve disputes between empirical and rationalist approaches. The former asserted that all knowledge comes through experience; the latter maintained that reason and innate ideas were prior. Kant argued that experience is purely subjective without first being processed by pure reason. He also said that using reason without applying it to experience only leads to theoretical illusions. The free and proper exercise of reason by the individual was a theme both of the Age of Enlightenment, and of Kant's approaches to the various problems of philosophy. His ideas influenced many thinkers in Germany during his lifetime, and he moved philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists and empiricists. Kant is seen as a major figure in the history and development of philosophy.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Immanuel Kant

    • Kant, Immanuel (1790), Critique of Judgement, Translated by Werner S. Pluhar, Hackett Publishing Co., 1987. from Aesthetics

    • For Kant "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. from Aesthetics

    • Immanuel Kant, writing in 1790, observes of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own (sense of) taste". from Aesthetics

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    • For Immanuel Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a judgment of a subjective but similar human truth, since all people should agree that "this rose is beautiful" if it in fact is. from Aesthetics

    • Also in Aesthetics, Clement Greenberg, in his classic essay "Modernist Painting", uses Kantian criticism, what Greenberg refers to as "immanent criticism", to justify the aims of Abstract painting, a movement Greenberg saw as aware of the key limitiaton—flatness—that makes up the medium of painting. from Immanuel Kant

    • These included the Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology. from Immanuel Kant

    • His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics. from Immanuel Kant

    • Dewey's treatment of art was a move away from the transcendental approach to aesthetics in the wake of Immanuel Kant who emphasized the unique character of art and the disinterested nature of aesthetic appreciation. from Pragmatism

    • In aesthetics he held a position that he called "subjective finalism", a label later adopted by Immanuel Kant: rather than being an objective property of objects, beauty is the relationship between the object and the representative power of the observer. from Johann Augustus Eberhard

    • Professor Moggach has written on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Hegel, Friedrich Schiller, Bruno Bauer, aesthetics, Republicanism, and history of ancient and modern political thought. from Douglas Moggach

    • Immanuel Kant developed a new variant of the idea of sensus communis, noting how having a sensitivity for what opinions are widely shared and comprehensible gives a sort of standard for judgment, and objective discussion, at least in the field of aesthetics and taste: The common Understanding of men [gemeine Menschenverstand], which, as the mere sound (not yet cultivated) Understanding, we regard as the least to be expected from any one claiming the name of man, has therefore the doubtful honour of being given the name of common sense [Namen des Gemeinsinnes] (sensus communis); and in such a way that by the name common (not merely in our language, where the word actually has a double signification, but in many others) we understand vulgar, that which is everywhere met with, the possession of which indicates absolutely no merit or superiority. from Common sense

    • In his works on aesthetics he combined the views of Schelling with those of Winckelmann, Lessing, Kant, Herder, Schiller and others. from Georg Anton Friedrich Ast

    • On the other, they threatened the reality of the world of nature by seeing it too much in the manner of subjective idealism. Fichte, in this view, had not managed to unite his system with the aesthetic view of nature to which Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment had pointed. from Naturphilosophie

    • Kleist is also famous for his essays on subjects of aesthetics and psychology which, to the closer look, show a keen insight into the metaphysical questions discussed by philosophers of his time, such as Kant, Fichte and Schelling. from Heinrich von Kleist

    • Vuillemin also took an interest into aesthetics, beside writing several books on Kant, Anselm or on Diodorus's master argument (see problem of future contingents). from Jules Vuillemin

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      Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831)…
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      Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.…

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      Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.
      Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence.
      Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions, including both his admirers and his detractors. Karl Barth compared Hegel to a "Protestant Aquinas". Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote, "All the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel...". In the study of war, scholars point out a Hegelian approach in Carl von Clausewitz's magnum opus On War. Michel Foucault has contended that contemporary philosophers may be "doomed to find Hegel waiting patiently at the end of whatever road we travel". Hegel's influential conceptions are those of speculative logic or "dialectic", "absolute idealism". They include "Geist" (spirit), negativity, sublation (Aufhebung in German), the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life" and the importance of history.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

    • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1975), Aesthetics. Lectures on Fine Art, trans. from Aesthetics

    • Friedrich von Schlegel, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel have also given lectures on aesthetics as philosophy of art after 1800. from Aesthetics

    • For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. from Aesthetics

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    • A number of other works on the philosophy of history, religion, aesthetics, and the history of philosophy were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

    • Lectures on Aesthetics ( ) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on aesthetics given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in Heidelberg in 1818 and in Berlin in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29. from Lectures on Aesthetics

    • His interests included thought, feeling, philosophy of art, theories of representation, philosophical psychology, Hegel's aesthetics, and the philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. from Arthur Danto

    • Erwin, Vier Gespräche über das Schöne und die Kunst (2 vols., 1815) A work on aesthetics, in which he took issue with August Wilhelm Schlegel, and which influenced both Hegel and Heinrich Heine. from Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger

    • Professor Moggach has written on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Hegel, Friedrich Schiller, Bruno Bauer, aesthetics, Republicanism, and history of ancient and modern political thought. from Douglas Moggach

    • Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for such 18th- and 19th-century philosophers as Kant or Hegel. from Painting

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      Beauty Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of…
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      Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. An "ideal beauty" is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture, for perfection.…

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      Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. An "ideal beauty" is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture, for perfection.
      The experience of "beauty" often involves an interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. Because this can be a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder."
      There is evidence that perceptions of beauty are evolutionarily determined, that things, aspects of people and landscapes considered beautiful are typically found in situations likely to give enhanced survival of the perceiving human's genes.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Beauty

    • To thoroughly comprehend goodness, Aristotle also studied Beauty. from Aesthetics

    • Schmidhuber's theory explicitly distinguishes between what's beautiful and what's interesting, stating that interestingness corresponds to the first derivative of subjectively perceived beauty. from Aesthetics

    • Aesthetics ( ; also spelled æsthetics and esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. from Aesthetics

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    • Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. from Beauty

    • Kant held that there was no purpose represented in the aesthetic judgement of an object's beauty. from Critique of Judgment

    • Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical traits are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful. from Physical attractiveness

    • Aesthetics – branch of philosophy and axiology concerned with the nature of beauty. from Outline of aesthetics

    • Along with traits such as averageness and youthfulness it influences judgements of aesthetic traits of physical attractiveness and beauty. from Facial symmetry

    • In aesthetics, the human figure or human form in art, sculpture and other art forms involves a study and appreciation of the beauty of the human body in its depiction or presentation. from Human figure (aesthetics)

    • Theological aesthetics is the interdisciplinary study of theology and aesthetics, and has been defined as being "concerned with questions about God and issues in theology in the light of and perceived through sense knowledge ( , feeling, imagination), through beauty, and the arts". from Theological aesthetics

    • The three travelers were important authors in the burgeoning Romanticism movement and thus the trip itinerary was in part a literary pilgrimage to the places associated with Scottish figures significant to Romanticists such as Robert Burns, Ossian, Rob Roy, William Wallace, and contemporary Sir Walter Scott. Dorothy's descriptions and judgments of the countryside and landscapes were a mixture of her own personal aesthetics and the in-fashion aesthetics of the sublime, beautiful and picturesque—in fact Recollections is considered today a classic of picturesque travel writing. from Recollections of a Tour Made in Scotland, A. D. 1803

    • In the fields of philosophy and æsthetics, the term philistinism describes "the manners, habits, and character, or mode of thinking of a philistine"; the social attitude of anti-intellectualism that undervalues and despises art, beauty, spirituality, and intellect. from Philistinism

    • In aesthetics, the beauty of La Grande Jatte might supervene on the physical composition of the painting (the specific molecules that make up the painting), the artistic composition of the painting (in this case, dots), the figures and forms of the painted image, or the painted canvas as a whole. from Supervenience

    • Art historical analysis has also evolved into studying the social and political use of art, rather than focusing solely on the aesthetic appreciation of its craftsmanship (beauty). from History of art

    • is a Japanese term literally meaning "beautiful youth (boy)" and describes an aesthetic that can be found in disparate areas in East Asia: a young man whose beauty (and sexual appeal) transcends the boundary of gender or sexual orientation. from Bishōnen

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      Postmodernism Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from…
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      Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.…

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      Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.
      The term postmodernism has been applied to a host of movements, many in art, music, and literature, that reacted against tendencies in modernism, and are typically marked by revival of historical elements and techniques.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Postmodernism

    • Another view, as important to the philosophy of art as "beauty," is that of the "sublime," elaborated upon in the twentieth century by the postmodern philosopher Jean-François Lyotard. A further approach, elaborated by André Malraux in works such as The Voices of Silence, is that art is fundamentally a response to a metaphysical question ('Art', he writes, 'is an 'anti-destiny'). from Aesthetics

    • Various attempts have been made to define Post-modern aesthetics. from Aesthetics

    • New Sincerity is a term that has been used in music, aesthetics, film criticism, poetry, literary criticism and philosophy, generally to describe art or concepts that run against prevailing modes of postmodernist irony or cynicism. from New Sincerity

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    • Metamodernism is a set of developments in philosophy, aesthetics, and culture which are emerging from and reacting to postmodernism. from Metamodernism

    • Another reason for the attention paid by continental philosophy to metaphor is the questioning of boundaries – between subject areas and between the wider concepts of ethics, epistemology and aesthetics – which has occurred within postmodernism. from Metaphor in philosophy

    • Law and Critique takes a critical perspective on all aspects of legal theory, jurisprudence, and substantive law and covers the influences of a variety of schools of thought into legal scholarship (such as postmodernism, feminism, queer theory, critical race theory, literary approaches to law, psychoanalysis, law and the humanities, law and aesthetics, and post-colonialism). from Law and Critique

    • Equally, CLS has introduced new frameworks to the legal field, such as postmodernism, queer theory, literary approaches to law, psychoanalysis, law and aesthetics, and post-colonialism. from Critical legal studies

    • In all three novels, Harris engaged the aesthetics of late twentieth-century literature; they may be considered examples of literary postmodernism. from Bertha Harris

    • While in many ways his father was avant-garde in art and aesthetics, he did not approve of the postmodern and deconstruction schools. from Donald Barthelme

    • Dieselpunk is a genre that combines the aesthetics of diesel-based technology influenced by the interwar period to the 1950s with futurist postmodern technology. from Dieselpunk

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      Epistemology Epistemology (/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/ from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος…
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      Epistemology (/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/ from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as "theory of knowledge". It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent…

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      Epistemology (/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/ from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as "theory of knowledge". It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. The term "epistemology" was introduced by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864).

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Epistemology

    • Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. from Aesthetics

    • His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics. from Immanuel Kant

    • A philosopher is any intellectual who has made contributions in one or more current fields of philosophy, such as aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, social theory, and political philosophy. from Philosopher

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    • In contemporary philosophy, specialties within the field are more commonly divided into metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and aesthetics (the latter two of which together comprise axiology). from Western philosophy

    • Holding that there can be no distinctions which are not "privileged" between the alethic, the ontic, and the epistemic, he maintains that a many valued logic just might be the most apt for aesthetics or history since, because in these practices, we are loath to hold to simple binary logic; and he also holds that many-valued logic is relativistic. from Relativism

    • His work still has a major influence in the academe of Continental Europe, South America and all other countries where continental philosophy is predominant, particularly in debates around ontology, epistemology (especially concerning social sciences), ethics, aesthetics, hermeneutics, and the philosophy of language. from Jacques Derrida

    • Deconstruction still has a major influence in the academe of Continental Europe and South America where Continental philosophy is predominant, particularly in debates around ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, hermeneutics, and the philosophy of language. from Deconstruction

    • Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he also wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, art, logic, social theory, and ethics. from John Dewey

    • As such, the philosophy of engineering includes aspects of ethics and aesthetics, as well as the ontology, epistemology, etc. that might be studied in, for example, the philosophy of science. from Philosophy of engineering

    • Irrealism is a philosophical position first advanced by Nelson Goodman in "Ways of Worldmaking", encompassing epistemology, metaphysics, and aesthetics. from Irrealism (philosophy)

    • Nevertheless, the conditions for creative philosophical work began to emerge in the mid-1950s, after the 20th Congress of the CPSU in 1956, albeit only on the 'outskirts' of philosophy: the philosophy of the natural science (B. Kedrov, I. Frolov), theory of perception and gnoseology (P. Kopnin, V. Lektorsky, M. Mamardashvili, E. Ilyenkov), the history of philosophy (V. Asmus, A. Losev, I. Narski), ethics (O. Dobronitski), aesthetics (M. Kagan, L. Stolovitsh), logics (G. Shtshedrovitski, A. Zinovyev) and semiotics and system theories (Y. Lotman, who set up the Sign Systems Studies journal, the oldest semiotics periodical; V. Sadovsky). from Philosophy in the Soviet Union

    • A subset of philosophers of biology with a more explicitly naturalistic orientation hope that biology will provide scientific answers to such fundamental problems of epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, anthropology and even metaphysics. from Philosophy of biology

    • He calls for a naturalistic anthropology, epistemology, scientific methodology, ethics and esthetics. from Gerhard Vollmer

    • His research interests include epistemology, free will, rational consensus, Thomas Reid and, recently, aesthetics. from Keith Lehrer

    • Several essays about aesthetics followed, whereupon Schlick turned his attention to problems of epistemology, the philosophy of science, and more general questions about science. from Moritz Schlick

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      Sublime (philosophy) In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral…
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      In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic. The term especially refers to a greatness beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement, or imitation.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Sublime (philosophy)

    • Seeing a sublime view of a landscape may give us a reaction of awe, which might manifest physically as an increased heart rate or widened eyes. from Aesthetics

    • Jean-François Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime. from Aesthetics

    • In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin ) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic. from Sublime (philosophy)

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    • His interdisciplinary discourse spans such topics as knowledge and communication, the human body, modernist and postmodern art, literature and critical theory, music, film, time and memory, space, the city and landscape, the sublime, and the relation between aesthetics and politics. from Jean-François Lyotard

    • The poem was a poetic treatment of sublimity and had a profound influence on the young Edmund Burke, whose philosophic investigations and writings on the Sublime and the Beautiful were a pivotal turn in 18th-century aesthetic theory. from Edward Young

    • The movement validated intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities: both new aesthetic categories. from Romanticism

    • The three travelers were important authors in the burgeoning Romanticism movement and thus the trip itinerary was in part a literary pilgrimage to the places associated with Scottish figures significant to Romanticists such as Robert Burns, Ossian, Rob Roy, William Wallace, and contemporary Sir Walter Scott. Dorothy's descriptions and judgments of the countryside and landscapes were a mixture of her own personal aesthetics and the in-fashion aesthetics of the sublime, beautiful and picturesque—in fact Recollections is considered today a classic of picturesque travel writing. from Recollections of a Tour Made in Scotland, A. D. 1803

    • While the location and design of the building has been described as a "spectacular" example of the aesthetic idea of the Sublime, contemporary opinion was not always positive. from Downhill House

    • One branch of this area of study is aesthetics, which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty. from Art history

    • The British Romantic movement of the early nineteenth century introduced new aesthetic ideas to literary study, including the idea that the object of literature need not always be beautiful, noble, or perfect, but that literature itself could elevate a common subject to the level of the sublime. from Literary criticism

    • Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries philosophies of aesthetics had been developing, particularly through the work of Kant and Schopenhauer and notions of the sublime. from Expressionist architecture

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      Theodor W. Adorno Theodor W. Adorno (/əˈdɔːrnoʊ/; German: [aˈdɔʀno]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6…
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      Theodor W. Adorno (/əˈdɔːrnoʊ/; German: [aˈdɔʀno]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of society.…

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      Theodor W. Adorno (/əˈdɔːrnoʊ/; German: [aˈdɔʀno]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of society.
      He was a leading member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, whose work has come to be associated with thinkers such as Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse, for whom the work of Freud, Marx and Hegel were essential to a critique of modern society. He is widely regarded as one of the 20th century's foremost thinkers on aesthetics and philosophy, as well as one of its preeminent essayists. As a critic of both fascism and what he called the culture industry, his writings—such as Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), Minima Moralia (1951) and Negative Dialectics (1966)—strongly influenced the European New Left.
      Amidst the vogue enjoyed by existentialism and positivism in early 20th-century Europe, Adorno advanced a dialectical conception of natural history that critiqued the twin temptations of ontology and empiricism through studies of Kierkegaard and Husserl. As a classically trained pianist whose sympathies with the twelve-tone technique of Arnold Schoenberg resulted in his studying composition with Alban Berg of the Second Viennese School, Adorno's commitment to avant-garde music formed the backdrop of his subsequent writings and led to his collaboration with Thomas Mann on the latter's novel Doctor Faustus, while the two men lived in California as exiles during the Second World War. Working for the newly relocated Institute for Social Research, Adorno collaborated on influential studies of authoritarianism, anti-semitism and propaganda that would later serve as models for sociological studies the Institute carried out in post-war Germany.
      Upon his return to Frankfurt, Adorno was involved with the reconstitution of German intellectual life through debates with Karl Popper on the limitations of positivist science, critiques of Heidegger's language of authenticity, writings on German responsibility for the Holocaust, and continued interventions into matters of public policy. As a writer of polemics in the tradition of Nietzsche and Karl Kraus, Adorno delivered scathing critiques of contemporary Western culture. Adorno's posthumously published Aesthetic Theory, which he planned to dedicate to Samuel Beckett, is the culmination of a lifelong commitment to modern art which attempts to revoke the "fatal separation" of feeling and understanding long demanded by the history of philosophy and explode the privilege aesthetics accords to content over form and contemplation over immersion.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Theodor W. Adorno

    • Theodor W. Adorno, Aesthetic Theory, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1997. from Aesthetics

    • Theodor Adorno felt that aesthetics could not proceed without confronting the role of the culture industry in the commodification of art and aesthetic experience. from Aesthetics

    • His ideas exist as a complete and original theory of aesthetics based on Marx and Althusser in the modernist Marxist tradition (Brecht, Althusser, Benjamin, Adorno). from Gary Tedman

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    • His works include books and articles about Aesthetics, Critical Theory, Ethics, Modernity, and Postmodernity and as well as thinkers such as Adorno, Habermas, Rorty, and Wittgenstein. from Albrecht Wellmer

    • Babette E. Babich (born November 14, 1956 in New York City) is an American philosopher known for her studies of Nietzsche, Heidegger, Adorno, and Hölderlin as well as for her work in aesthetics, including music, philosophy of music, the history of ancient Greek sculpture, and Continental philosophy, especially continental philosophy of science and technology. from Babette Babich

    • In this regard he was a vital participant in the aesthetic debates of his era—particularly over the "high art/popular culture" dichotomy—vying with the likes of Adorno, Lukács, Ernst Bloch, and developing a close friendship with Benjamin. from Bertolt Brecht

    • Surrealist music is music which uses unexpected juxtapositions and other surrealist techniques. Discussing Theodor Adorno, Max Paddison (1993, 90) defines surrealist music as that which "juxtaposes its historically devalued fragments in a montage-like manner which enables them to yield up new meanings within a new aesthetic unity," though Lloyd Whitesell says this is Paddison's gloss of the term (Whitesell 2004, 118). from Surrealist music

    • Ehlers became interested in aesthetic theory, particularly the work of Theodor Adorno, as an university student in Frankfurt. from Ekkehard Ehlers

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      Modernism Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and…
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      Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped Modernism was the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.…

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      Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped Modernism was the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.
      Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, and activities of daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. Nevertheless, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel, twelve-tone music and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
      A notable characteristic of Modernism is self-consciousness, which often led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, poem, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody.
      Some commentators define Modernism as a socially progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end. Others focus on Modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, and anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) to Samuel Beckett (1906–1989).

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Modernism

    • From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism. from Aesthetics

    • The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist style are replaced by diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound. from Postmodern architecture

    • Fauteux sculpture deals with itself and not external subjects and is a part of a modernism, which is an international contemporary aesthetic. from André Fauteux

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    • Joseph McKenzie, an American Thomistic theologian specialising in aesthetics, said in Taki's Magazine that the portrait revealed not only Paul Emsley's systemic limitations, but the fundamental crisis of Modernism itself. from Portrait of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

    • Eliasson became familiar with classical and modernist aesthetics while still a student. from Anders Eliasson

    • The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist movement are replaced by unapologetically diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound. from History of architecture

    • The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist movement are replaced by unapologetically diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound. from Church architecture

    • The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist movement are replaced by unapologetically diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound. from Architecture of cathedrals and great churches

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      Ontology Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic…
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      Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Ontology

    • British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art aesthetics, Peter Osborne, makes the point that post-conceptual art aesthetic does not concern a particular type of contemporary art so much as the historical-ontological condition for the production of contemporary art in general ..". Osborne noted that in a public lecture delivered in 2010. from Aesthetics

    • His work still has a major influence in the academe of Continental Europe, South America and all other countries where continental philosophy is predominant, particularly in debates around ontology, epistemology (especially concerning social sciences), ethics, aesthetics, hermeneutics, and the philosophy of language. from Jacques Derrida

    • It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics. from Ancient Greek philosophy

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    • Deconstruction still has a major influence in the academe of Continental Europe and South America where Continental philosophy is predominant, particularly in debates around ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, hermeneutics, and the philosophy of language. from Deconstruction

    • As such, the philosophy of engineering includes aspects of ethics and aesthetics, as well as the ontology, epistemology, etc. that might be studied in, for example, the philosophy of science. from Philosophy of engineering

    • Roman Witold Ingarden (February 5, 1893 – June 14, 1970) was a Polish philosopher who worked in phenomenology, ontology and aesthetics. from Roman Ingarden

    • He is particularly noted for his work on the aesthetics of music, as well as for his search for meaning and ontology in film, art and humour. from Jerrold Levinson

    • The entry, "Perfection" (vol. XII, 1765), discussed only technical perfection, in the sense of the matching of human products to the tasks set for them; no mention was made of ontological, moral or esthetic perfection. from Perfection

    • These concepts have historically been addressed in a number of discrete disciplines, notably mathematics, physics, chemistry, ethics, aesthetics, ontology, and theology. from Perfection

    • It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics. from History of Western civilization

    • He has an encyclopedical conception of Philosophy and has spread his ideas in very diverse fields such as Ethics, Politics, Aesthetics, Philosophy of Religion, Philosophy of History, Theory of Knowledge and Ontology. from Eugenio Trías Sagnier

    • Author of more than 50 books, his thoughts cover many themes including: theology, politics, philosophy, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and ontology. from Enrique Dussel

    • Marxist philosophy is not a strictly defined sub-field of philosophy, because the diverse influence of Marxist theory has extended into fields as varied as aesthetics, ethics, ontology, epistemology, theoretical psychology and philosophy of science, as well as its obvious influence on political philosophy and the philosophy of history. The key characteristics of Marxism in philosophy are its materialism and its commitment to political practice as the end goal of all thought. from Marxist philosophy

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      Art Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities; this article focuses primarily on…
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      Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities; this article focuses primarily on the visual arts, which includes the creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative…

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      Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities; this article focuses primarily on the visual arts, which includes the creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts, it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example. Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of art or the arts. Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts.
      Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis (its representation of reality), expression, communication of emotion, or other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science". Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
      The nature of art, and related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Art

    • It can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can be understood as a way of communicating these feelings. from Art

    • The purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art; to create a sense of beauty (see aesthetics); to explore the nature of perception; for pleasure; or to generate strong emotions. from Art

    • The nature of art, and related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. from Art

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    • Aesthetics ( ; also spelled æsthetics and esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. from Aesthetics

    • A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. from Work of art

    • The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. from Dada

    • Art historians and philosophers of art have long had classificatory disputes about art regarding whether a particular cultural form or piece of work should be classified as art. from Classificatory disputes about art

    • Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. from Conceptual art

    • He is particularly noted for his work on the aesthetics of music, as well as for his search for meaning and ontology in film, art and humour. from Jerrold Levinson

    • Empirical aesthetics takes a scientific approach to the study of aesthetic perceptions of art and music. from Neuroesthetics

    • Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as Folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. from The arts

    • From his beginnings as a Catholic academic, he developed a groundbreaking philosophy that influenced literary, social and political theory, art and aesthetics, architecture, cultural anthropology, design, environmentalism, psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. from Martin Heidegger

    • In the context of aesthetics and art, Jean-François Lyotard is a major philosopher of postmodernism. from Postmodern art

    • Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic, and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as Folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. from Humanities

    • He is known for his studies of the consequences of new technology in art and aesthetics, which introduced a new theoretical perspective through concepts such as the "communication aesthetics", the "technological sublime", the "communication block", and the "aesthetics of flux". from Mario Costa (philosopher)

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      Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (German: [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher…
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      Arthur Schopenhauer (German: [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy,…

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      Arthur Schopenhauer (German: [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers (e.g., asceticism). The influence of "transcendental ideality" led him to choose atheism.
      At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has been influential in the history of phenomenology. He has influenced many thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Otto Weininger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges, among others.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Arthur Schopenhauer

    • For Arthur Schopenhauer aesthetic contemplation of beauty is the most free that the pure intellect can be from the dictates of will; here we contemplate perfection of form without any kind of worldly agenda, and thus any intrusion of utility or politics would ruin the point of the beauty. from Aesthetics

    • His interests included thought, feeling, philosophy of art, theories of representation, philosophical psychology, Hegel's aesthetics, and the philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. from Arthur Danto

    • In this conception of genius and the role of the poet, Verlaine referred indirectly to the aesthetics of Arthur Schopenhauer, the philosopher of pessimism, who maintained that the purpose of art was to provide a temporary refuge from the world of strife of the will. from Symbolism (arts)

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    • His recent research has been on Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and aesthetics. from Christopher Janaway

    • He was influenced by the philosophies of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Bergson, and, like Meyerhold, the aesthetics of symbolism and the commedia dell'arte (particularly in its use of mask and ). from Nikolai Evreinov

    • The aesthetic philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche has contributed greatly to neo-romantic thinking. from Neo-romanticism

    • In 1854, Wagner first read Schopenhauer, and was struck by the philosopher's theories on aesthetics. from Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg

    • Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries philosophies of aesthetics had been developing, particularly through the work of Kant and Schopenhauer and notions of the sublime. from Expressionist architecture

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    1. 12
      Critique of Judgment The Critique of Judgment (German: Kritik der Urteilskraft), or in the new Cambridge translation Critique of the…
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      The Critique of Judgment (German: Kritik der Urteilskraft), or in the new Cambridge translation Critique of the Power of Judgment, also known as the third critique, is a 1790 philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. In it, Kant lays the foundations for modern aesthetics.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Critique of Judgment

    • Kant, Immanuel (1790), Critique of Judgement, Translated by Werner S. Pluhar, Hackett Publishing Co., 1987. from Aesthetics

    • For Kant "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. from Aesthetics

    • The core of modern Aesthetics utilized the Kantian critique of judgement as a framework in which aesthetic questions could be debated. from Critique of Judgment

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    • Kant held that there was no purpose represented in the aesthetic judgement of an object's beauty. from Critique of Judgment

    • In it, Kant lays the foundations for modern aesthetics. from Critique of Judgment

    • These included the Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology. from Immanuel Kant

    • On the other, they threatened the reality of the world of nature by seeing it too much in the manner of subjective idealism. Fichte, in this view, had not managed to unite his system with the aesthetic view of nature to which Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment had pointed. from Naturphilosophie

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    1. 13
      Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked…
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      Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1929–1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

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      Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1929–1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921), one article, one book review and a children's dictionary. His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953 and by the end of the century it was considered an important modern classic. Philosopher Bertrand Russell described Wittgenstein as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".
      Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a large fortune from his father in 1913. He gave some considerable sums to poor artists. In a period of severe personal depression after the first World War, he then gave away his entire fortune to his brothers and sisters. Three of his brothers committed suicide, with Wittgenstein contemplating it too. He left academia several times: serving as an officer on the frontline during World War I, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage; teaching in schools in remote Austrian villages, where he encountered controversy for hitting children when they made mistakes in mathematics; and working during World War II as a hospital porter in London, where he told patients not to take the drugs they were prescribed, and where he largely managed to keep secret the fact that he was one of the world's most famous philosophers. He described philosophy, however, as "the only work that gives me real satisfaction."
      His philosophy is often divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus, and a later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations. The early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world, and believed that by providing an account of the logic underlying this relationship he had solved all philosophical problems. The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game.
      Wittgenstein's influence has been felt in nearly every field of the humanities and social sciences, yet there are diverging interpretations of his thought. In the words of his friend and colleague Georg Henrik von Wright:
      "He was of the opinion... that his ideas were generally misunderstood and distorted even by those who professed to be his disciples. He doubted he would be better understood in the future. He once said he felt as though he were writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of present-day men."

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Ludwig Wittgenstein

    • Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lectures on aesthetics, psychology and religious belief, Oxford, Blackwell, 1966. from Aesthetics

    • Perhaps art should be thought of as a cluster of related concepts in a Wittgensteinian fashion (as in Weitz or Beuys). from Aesthetics

    • For Ludwig Wittgenstein aesthetics consisted in the description of a whole culture which is a linguistic impossibility. from Aesthetics

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    • His works include books and articles about Aesthetics, Critical Theory, Ethics, Modernity, and Postmodernity and as well as thinkers such as Adorno, Habermas, Rorty, and Wittgenstein. from Albrecht Wellmer

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      Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (July 17, 1714 – May 26, 1762) was a German philosopher.
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      Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (July 17, 1714 – May 26, 1762) was a German philosopher.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

    • For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the sense experiences, a younger sister of logic, and beauty is thus the most perfect kind of knowledge that sense experience can have. from Aesthetics

    • The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning in the German form Æsthetik (modern spelling Ästhetik) by Alexander Baumgarten in 1735. from Aesthetics

    • While the meanings of words often change as a result of cultural developments, Baumgarten's reappraisal of aesthetics is often seen as a key moment in the development of aesthetic philosophy. from Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

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    • He nonetheless devoted himself privately to Greek art and literature and followed the lectures of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, who coined the term "aesthetics". from Johann Joachim Winckelmann

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      Formalism (art) In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made…
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      In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. In painting formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape and texture rather than iconography or the historical and social context. At its extreme, formalism in art history posits…

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      In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style—the way objects are made and their purely visual aspects. In painting formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape and texture rather than iconography or the historical and social context. At its extreme, formalism in art history posits that everything necessary to comprehending a work of art is contained within the work of art. The context for the work, including the reason for its creation, the historical background, and the life of the artist, is considered to be of secondary importance. In archaeology, where it tends to be called morphology, the study and comparison of form remains an essential method of identifying objects.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Formalism (art)

    • Leading proponents of a formalist approach to art history were, from the Vienna School of Art History, Moritz Thausing, who in 1879 became the second Ordinarius (full professor) of art history at Vienna, who advocated an autonomous art history and promoted the separation of art history from aesthetics. from Formalism (art)

    • Bell was one of the most prominent proponents of formalism in aesthetics. from Clive Bell

    • Like the Situationists, he rejected formalism as an exercise in aesthetics, with its function to be aesthetic. from Joseph Kosuth

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    • Moore's aesthetic idea of the organic whole provided artistic guidance for modernists like Virginia Woolf, and fed into Bell's concept of Significant form. from Principia Ethica

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      Literary theory Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for…
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      Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. However, literary scholarship since the 19th century often includes—in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of intellectual history, moral philosophy, social prophecy, and other interdisciplinary themes which…

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      Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. However, literary scholarship since the 19th century often includes—in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of intellectual history, moral philosophy, social prophecy, and other interdisciplinary themes which are of relevance to the way humans interpret meaning. In humanities in modern academia, the latter style of scholarship is an outgrowth of critical theory and is often called simply "theory." As a consequence, the word "theory" has become an umbrella term for a variety of scholarly approaches to reading texts. Many of these approaches are informed by various strands of Continental philosophy and sociology.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Literary theory

    • More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. from Aesthetics

    • The practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece (Aristotle's Poetics is an often cited early example), ancient India (Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra), ancient Rome (Longinus's On the Sublime) and medieval Iraq (Al-Jahiz's al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan, and ibn al-Mu'tazz's Kitab al-Badi), and the aesthetic theories of philosophers from ancient philosophy through the 18th and 19th centuries are important influences on current literary study. from Literary theory

    • In literary theory and aesthetics, authorial intent refers to an author's intent as it is encoded in his or her work. from Authorial intent

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    • From his beginnings as a Catholic academic, he developed a groundbreaking philosophy that influenced literary, social and political theory, art and aesthetics, architecture, cultural anthropology, design, environmentalism, psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. from Martin Heidegger

    • Jan Mukařovský (11 November 1891 – 8 February 1975) was a Czech literary and aesthetic theorist. from Jan Mukařovský

    • Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theorist who had a powerful impact on 20th century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetorical theory. from Kenneth Burke

    • Hamid Dabashi is the Hagop Kevorkian Professor of Iranian Studies and Comparative Literature specializing in history of Iran, Islamic Studies, Shi'ism, aesthetics and cultural and literary theory. from Columbia University Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies

    • He works on Greek philosophy, aesthetics, Friedrich Nietzsche, Michel Foucault, and literary theory. from Alexander Nehamas

    • His work is often described as postdisciplinary, drawing on such diverse traditions as political philosophy, critical theory, cultural studies, film theory, international relations theory, literary theory, African American studies, comparative politics, geography, sociology, urban planning, economics, psychoanalysis, crime fiction, genre studies, new musicology, aesthetics and Indigenous Politics. from Michael J. Shapiro

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      Dada Dada /ˈdɑːdɑː/ or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many claim…
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      Dada /ˈdɑːdɑː/ or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many claim Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter but the height of New York Dada was the year before, in 1915. To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge,…

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      Dada /ˈdɑːdɑː/ or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many claim Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter but the height of New York Dada was the year before, in 1915. To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge,
      Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words "da, da," meaning "yes, yes" in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to 'dada', a French word for 'hobbyhorse'.
      The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti-bourgeois and had political affinities with the radical left.
      Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, Richard Huelsenbeck, George Grosz, John Heartfield, Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, and Hans Richter, among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.
      Marc Lowenthal, in I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, And Provocation, tells us:
      Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that laid the foundation for Surrealism.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Dada

    • The Dadaist Tristan Tzara on the other hand saw the function of art in 1918 as the destruction of a mad social order. from Aesthetics

    • Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. from Dada

    • The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. from Dada

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    • Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics completely. from Anti-art

    • He later attended Tamagawa University to study fine art, at which he majored in painting and art theory. While at university, he became interested in the ideas of Dada and surrealism and also studied Butoh dance. from Merzbow

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      Jean-François Lyotard Jean-François Lyotard (French: [ʒɑ̃ fʁɑ̃swa ljɔtaʁ]; 10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher…
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      Jean-François Lyotard (French: [ʒɑ̃ fʁɑ̃swa ljɔtaʁ]; 10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist. His interdisciplinary discourse spans such topics as knowledge and communication, the human body, modernist and postmodern art, literature and critical theory, music, film, time and memory, space, the city and landscape, the sublime, and…

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      Jean-François Lyotard (French: [ʒɑ̃ fʁɑ̃swa ljɔtaʁ]; 10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist. His interdisciplinary discourse spans such topics as knowledge and communication, the human body, modernist and postmodern art, literature and critical theory, music, film, time and memory, space, the city and landscape, the sublime, and the relation between aesthetics and politics. He is best known for his articulation of postmodernism after the late 1970s and the analysis of the impact of postmodernity on the human condition. He was co-founder of the International College of Philosophy with Jacques Derrida, François Châtelet, and Gilles Deleuze.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Jean-François Lyotard

    • Lyotard, Jean-François (1979), The Postmodern Condition, Manchester University Press, 1984. from Aesthetics

    • Another view, as important to the philosophy of art as "beauty," is that of the "sublime," elaborated upon in the twentieth century by the postmodern philosopher Jean-François Lyotard. A further approach, elaborated by André Malraux in works such as The Voices of Silence, is that art is fundamentally a response to a metaphysical question ('Art', he writes, 'is an 'anti-destiny'). from Aesthetics

    • Jean-François Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime. from Aesthetics

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    • Lyotard was a frequent writer on aesthetic matters. from Jean-François Lyotard

    • His interdisciplinary discourse spans such topics as knowledge and communication, the human body, modernist and postmodern art, literature and critical theory, music, film, time and memory, space, the city and landscape, the sublime, and the relation between aesthetics and politics. from Jean-François Lyotard

    • In the context of aesthetics and art, Jean-François Lyotard is a major philosopher of postmodernism. from Postmodern art

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      Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German…
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      Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature.…

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      Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature.
      Schelling's thought in the large has been neglected, especially in the English-speaking world, as has been his later work on mythology and revelation, much of which remains untranslated. An important factor was the ascendancy of Hegel, whose mature works portray Schelling as a mere footnote in the development of idealism. Schelling's Naturphilosophie also has been attacked by scientists for its analogizing tendency and lack of empirical orientation. However, some 20th century philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Slavoj Žižek have shown interest in re-examining Schelling's body of work.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

    • For Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the philosophy of art is the "organon" of philosophy concerning the relation between man and nature. from Aesthetics

    • In his works on aesthetics he combined the views of Schelling with those of Winckelmann, Lessing, Kant, Herder, Schiller and others. from Georg Anton Friedrich Ast

    • Kleist is also famous for his essays on subjects of aesthetics and psychology which, to the closer look, show a keen insight into the metaphysical questions discussed by philosophers of his time, such as Kant, Fichte and Schelling. from Heinrich von Kleist

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      Abraham Moles Abraham Moles (1920 – 22 May 1992) was an engineer of electrical engineering and acoustics, and a doctor of physics…
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      Abraham Moles (1920 – 22 May 1992) was an engineer of electrical engineering and acoustics, and a doctor of physics and philosophy. He was one of the first researchers to establish and analyze links between aesthetics and information theory.…

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      Abraham Moles (1920 – 22 May 1992) was an engineer of electrical engineering and acoustics, and a doctor of physics and philosophy. He was one of the first researchers to establish and analyze links between aesthetics and information theory.
      He taught sociology and psychology at the Universities of Ulm, Strasbourg, San Diego, Mexico, Compiègne, and founded the Institute of Social Psychology of Communication in Strasbourg.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Abraham Moles

    • In the 1970s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to analyze links between aesthetics, information processing, and information theory. from Aesthetics

    • He was one of the first researchers to establish and analyze links between aesthetics and information theory. from Abraham Moles

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      Marxist aesthetics Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. It involves a…
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      Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. It involves a dialectical and materialist, or dialectical materialist, approach to the application of Marxism to the cultural sphere, specifically areas related to taste such as art, beauty, etc. Marxists believe that economic and social conditions, and especially…

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      Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. It involves a dialectical and materialist, or dialectical materialist, approach to the application of Marxism to the cultural sphere, specifically areas related to taste such as art, beauty, etc. Marxists believe that economic and social conditions, and especially the class relations that derive from them, affect every aspect of an individual's life, from religious beliefs to legal systems to cultural frameworks. From one classic Marxist point of view, the role of art is not only to represent such conditions truthfully, but also to seek to improve them (social/socialist realism), however, this is a contentious interpretation of the limited but significant writing by Marx and Engels on art and especially on aesthetics. For instance Nikolay Chernyshevsky, who greatly influenced the art of the early Soviet Union, was not following Marx's statements on the subject so much as the humanist Ludwig Feuerbach.
      Marxist aesthetics overlaps and bleeds into the Marxist theory of art and there is no clear separation of the two, although there is an obvious distinction in that aesthetics represents a tackling of the more fundamental and philosophical questions. It is also very concerned with art practice, and so with defining a prescription of what art should be like and what it should do socially rather than only act as an interpretation of it.
      The aim of science is also important to a Marxist aesthetics, although it may not appear to be an obvious target for all theorists, the materialist economic and social foundations of the subject imply that this is necessary in order to be properly Marxian in the sense of scientific socialism.
      Some notable Marxist aestheticians include Anatoly Lunacharsky, William Morris, Theodor W. Adorno, Bertolt Brecht, Herbert Marcuse, Walter Benjamin, Antonio Gramsci, Georg Lukács, Terry Eagleton, Fredric Jameson, Louis Althusser, Jacques Rancière, Gary Tedman, and Raymond Williams.
      Not all of these figures are solely concerned with aesthetics - in many cases Marxist aesthetics forms only an important sub section of their work, depending on how you define the term; for example, Brecht may be said to have a Marxist aesthetic that is revealed through his artistic work, but his aesthetic theory is something distinct and appears as theory by him about his own artistic production, about art in general, and on questions of taste and its role in society.
      One of the chief concerns of Marxist aesthetics is to unite Marx and Engels’ social and economic theory, or theory of the social base, to the domain of art and culture, the superstructure, seamlessly (base and superstructure of society being an important Marxist concept since at least Marx's The German Ideology). In this respect Marx’s early Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 have always been seen to be important, given the themes of sensuousness and alienation. Its late publication (because of the decision to cancel publication in 1846, the text first appeared only in 1932, an English translation only became available in 1959 ) meant, however, that it was not available to art theorists during, for instance, the often antagonistic debates on art in the early Soviet Union between the constructivist avant garde and those championing socialist realism, and as it turned out a lot was at stake; the controversy over the unusual design Marx created with the original documents of the 1844 Manuscripts adds another twist to this (see notes, Margaret Fay, Gary Tedman).
      Many theorists touch upon important themes of Marxist aesthetics without strictly being Marxist aestheticians, Joel Kovel, for instance, has extended the concepts of Marxian ecology which deeply implicates aesthetics. He is also a part of the struggle to bridge the space between Marx and Freud, which has Marxist aesthetics as a central concern (see the journal Capitalism, Nature, Socialism). Current themes within the field include research on the affect of mass-produced industrial materials on the sensed environment, such as paints and colors (Singh 2007).
      Visual artists, as diverse as Isaak Brodsky or Diego Rivera and Kasimir Malevich or Lyubov Popova, for example, for whom written theory is secondary, nevertheless may be said to be connected to Marxist aesthetics through their production of art, without necessarily declaring themselves aestheticians or Marxists in writing. Likewise, in this spirit Oscar Wilde, Dziga Vertov. Sergei Eisenstein, Orson Welles, Jean-Luc Godard, Pablo Picasso, Richard Paul Lohse, for example. Such a view could apply to many visual and other artists in many fields, even those who have no apparent and/or voiced connection to Marxist politics or even those ostensibly opposed. In this respect consider Anton Webern.
      Probably it would be fair to say that two of the most influential writings in Marxist aesthetics in recent times, and apart from Marx himself and Lukacs, have been Walter Benjamin's essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, and Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man. Louis Althusser has also contributed some small but significant essays on art and his theory of ideology also impacts in this area (Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses). In terms of a deep materialist philosophy/epistemology with implications for aesthetics the writings of Maurice Merleau-Ponty come to the fore.
      The field remains polemical, with camps of modernists, post modernists, anti modernists, the avant garde, constructivists, social realists and socialist realists all referencing back to an ostensible Marxist aesthetic theory that would underpin their art practices by grounding an art theory.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Marxist aesthetics

    • As already stated, the relation of Marxist aesthetics to postmodern aesthetics is still a contentious area of debate. from Aesthetics

    • The relation of Marxist aesthetics to postmodern aesthetics is still a contentious area of debate. from Aesthetics

    • Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. from Marxist aesthetics

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    • Marxist understandings of history and of society have been adopted by academics in the disciplines of archaeology and anthropology, media studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and art theory, cultural studies, education, economics, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, critical psychology, and philosophy. from Marxism

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      Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert (born 1945) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Hagen, Germany.
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      Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert (born 1945) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Hagen, Germany.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert

    • Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert (1995), Einführung in die Ästhetik, Munich, W. Fink. from Aesthetics

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      Walter Benjamin Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (German: [ˈvaltɐ ˈbɛnjamiːn]; 15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German…
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      Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (German: [ˈvaltɐ ˈbɛnjamiːn]; 15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German literary critic, philosopher, social critic, translator, radio broadcaster and essayist. Combining elements of German idealism or Romanticism, historical materialism and Jewish mysticism, Benjamin made enduring and influential contributions to aesthetic theory and Western Marxism. He is associated with the Frankfurt School.…

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      Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (German: [ˈvaltɐ ˈbɛnjamiːn]; 15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German literary critic, philosopher, social critic, translator, radio broadcaster and essayist. Combining elements of German idealism or Romanticism, historical materialism and Jewish mysticism, Benjamin made enduring and influential contributions to aesthetic theory and Western Marxism. He is associated with the Frankfurt School.
      Among Benjamin's major works as a literary critic are essays on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Franz Kafka, Karl Kraus, Nikolai Leskov, Marcel Proust, Charles Baudelaire, and translation theory. He also made major translations into German of the Tableaux Parisiens section of Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal and parts of Proust's À la recherche du temps perdu.
      His turn to Marxism in the 1930s was partly due to the influence of Bertolt Brecht, who developed a theater notable for its Verfremdungseffekt (defamiliarization, alienation). An earlier influence was friend Gershom Scholem, founder of the academic study of the Kabbalah and of Jewish mysticism.
      Influenced by the Swiss anthropologist Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815–87), Benjamin coined the term "auratic perception", denoting the aesthetic faculty by means of which civilization may recover an appreciation of myth. Scholars often cite Benjamin's most famous works, especially the essays "The Task of the Translator" (1923) and The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936).
      Benjamin committed suicide in Portbou at the French–Spanish border while attempting to escape from the Nazis.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Walter Benjamin

    • Marxist attempts to define art focus on its place in the mode of production, such as in Walter Benjamin's essay The Author as Producer, and/or its political role in class struggle. from Aesthetics

    • Combining elements of German idealism or Romanticism, historical materialism and Jewish mysticism, Benjamin made enduring and influential contributions to aesthetic theory and Western Marxism. from Walter Benjamin

    • His ideas exist as a complete and original theory of aesthetics based on Marx and Althusser in the modernist Marxist tradition (Brecht, Althusser, Benjamin, Adorno). from Gary Tedman

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    • She followed this with research into aesthetics, based primarily around a study of the work of Walter Benjamin. from Christine Buci-Glucksmann

    • In this regard he was a vital participant in the aesthetic debates of his era—particularly over the "high art/popular culture" dichotomy—vying with the likes of Adorno, Lukács, Ernst Bloch, and developing a close friendship with Benjamin. from Bertolt Brecht

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      Clement Greenberg Clement Greenberg, occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh, (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994) was an…
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      Clement Greenberg, occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh, (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994) was an American essayist known mainly as an influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art of the mid-20th century. In particular, he is best remembered for his promotion of the abstract expressionist movement and was among the first published critics to praise the work of painter Jackson Pollock.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Clement Greenberg

    • Clement Greenberg, for instance, argued in 1960 that each artistic medium should seek that which makes it unique among the possible mediums and then purify itself of anything other than expression of its own uniqueness as a form. from Aesthetics

    • Also in Aesthetics, Clement Greenberg, in his classic essay "Modernist Painting", uses Kantian criticism, what Greenberg refers to as "immanent criticism", to justify the aims of Abstract painting, a movement Greenberg saw as aware of the key limitiaton—flatness—that makes up the medium of painting. from Immanuel Kant

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      Art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of…
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      An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were especially important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Art movement

    • Aestheticism (or the Aesthetic Movement) is an art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. from Aestheticism

    • In both accounts the term generative art does not describe an art movement, ideology, or theory of aesthetics. from Generative art

    • The album title derives from the Dutch art movement of the same name; common elements of the De Stijl aesthetic are demonstrated on the album cover, which sets the band members against an abstract background of rectangles and lines in red, black and white. from The White Stripes

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      Monroe Beardsley Monroe Curtis Beardsley (/ˈbɪərdzli/; December 10, 1915 – September 18, 1985) was an American philosopher of art…
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      Monroe Curtis Beardsley (/ˈbɪərdzli/; December 10, 1915 – September 18, 1985) was an American philosopher of art. He was born and raised in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and educated at Yale University (B.A. 1936, Ph.D. 1939), where he received the John Addison Porter Prize. He taught at a number of colleges and universities, including Mount Holyoke College…

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      Monroe Curtis Beardsley (/ˈbɪərdzli/; December 10, 1915 – September 18, 1985) was an American philosopher of art. He was born and raised in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and educated at Yale University (B.A. 1936, Ph.D. 1939), where he received the John Addison Porter Prize. He taught at a number of colleges and universities, including Mount Holyoke College and Yale University, but most of his career was spent at Swarthmore College (22 years) and Temple University (16 years). His wife and occasional coauthor, Elizabeth Lane Beardsley, was also a philosopher at Temple.
      His work in aesthetics is best known for its championing of the instrumentalist theory of art and the concept of aesthetic experience. Beardsley was elected president of the American Society for Aesthetics in 1956. He also wrote an introductory text on aesthetics and edited a well-regarded survey anthology of philosophy.
      Among literary critics, Beardsley is known for two essays written with W.K. Wimsatt, "The Intentional Fallacy" and "The Affective Fallacy," both key texts of New Criticism. His works also include: Practical Logic (1950), Aesthetics (1958), and Aesthetics: A Short History (1966). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976.
      He and his wife were over-all series editors for Prentice-Hall's "Foundations of Philosophy," a series of textbooks on different fields within philosophy, written in most cases by leading scholars in those fields.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Monroe Beardsley

    • Functionalists like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether or not a piece counts as art depends on what function it plays in a particular context; the same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context (carrying wine), and an artistic function in another context (helping us to appreciate the beauty of the human figure). from Aesthetics

    • In 1946, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled "The Intentional Fallacy", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author's intention, or "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work. from Aesthetics

    • His work in aesthetics is best known for its championing of the instrumentalist theory of art and the concept of aesthetic experience. from Monroe Beardsley

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      Plato Plato (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/; Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, "broad"; 428/427 or 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher, as well…
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      Plato (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/; Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, "broad"; 428/427 or 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, in Classical Greece and an influential figure in philosophy, central in Western philosophy. He was Socrates' student, and founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with…

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      Plato (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/; Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, "broad"; 428/427 or 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, in Classical Greece and an influential figure in philosophy, central in Western philosophy. He was Socrates' student, and founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with Socrates and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato."
      Plato's dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. His theory of Forms began a unique perspective on abstract objects, and led to a school of thought called Platonism. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Plato

    • While the date of composition varies wildly among scholars, ranging from the era of Plato and Aristotle to the seventh century CE. from Aesthetics

    • Plato believed that for us to have a perception of beauty there must be a transcendent form for beauty in which beautiful objects partake and which causes them to be beautiful also. from Aesthetics

    • This is contrasted to conceptual art, some but not all kinds of performance art, computer software, or objects of mathematical beauty, such as a mathematical proof, which do not exist in the mental world or in physical world, but have other ontological status, such as in Plato's world of ideals. Here, the art, may be realized in the physical world, such as a mathematical proof written on a chalkboard, but refer to objects that exists in the mind as concepts, not physical objects. from Physical art

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    • His dissertation, titled Plato’s Aesthetics: An Introduction to the Theory of Forms, drew from the concentration of his undergraduate and graduate work: ancient Greek philosophy. from J. Baird Callicott

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      Neuroesthetics Neuroesthetics (or neuroaesthetics) is a relatively recent sub-discipline of empirical aesthetics. Empirical…
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      Neuroesthetics (or neuroaesthetics) is a relatively recent sub-discipline of empirical aesthetics. Empirical aesthetics takes a scientific approach to the study of aesthetic perceptions of art and music. Neuroesthetics received its formal definition in 2002 as the scientific study of the neural bases for the contemplation and creation of a work of art. Neuroesthetics uses neuroscience…

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      Neuroesthetics (or neuroaesthetics) is a relatively recent sub-discipline of empirical aesthetics. Empirical aesthetics takes a scientific approach to the study of aesthetic perceptions of art and music. Neuroesthetics received its formal definition in 2002 as the scientific study of the neural bases for the contemplation and creation of a work of art. Neuroesthetics uses neuroscience to explain and understand the aesthetic experiences at the neurological level. The topic attracts scholars from many disciplines including neuroscientists, art historians, artists, and psychologists.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Neuroesthetics

    • Whenever the observer's learning process (which may be a predictive neural network; see also Neuroesthetics) leads to improved data compression such that the observation sequence can be described by fewer bits than before, the temporary interestingness of the data corresponds to the number of saved bits. from Aesthetics

    • Experimental aesthetics is strongly oriented towards the natural sciences. Modern approaches mostly come from the fields of cognitive psychology or neuroscience (neuroaesthetics ). from Aesthetics

    • Empirical aesthetics takes a scientific approach to the study of aesthetic perceptions of art and music. from Neuroesthetics

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    • Neuroesthetics (or neuroaesthetics) is a relatively recent sub-discipline of empirical aesthetics. from Neuroesthetics

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      Subjectivity Subjectivity is the condition of being a subject: i.e., the quality of possessing perspectives, experiences…
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      Subjectivity is the condition of being a subject: i.e., the quality of possessing perspectives, experiences, feelings, beliefs, desires, and/or power. Subjectivity is used as an explanation for what influences and informs people's judgments about truth or reality. It is the collection of the perceptions, experiences, expectations, personal or cultural understanding, and beliefs specific to a…

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      Subjectivity is the condition of being a subject: i.e., the quality of possessing perspectives, experiences, feelings, beliefs, desires, and/or power. Subjectivity is used as an explanation for what influences and informs people's judgments about truth or reality. It is the collection of the perceptions, experiences, expectations, personal or cultural understanding, and beliefs specific to a person. It is often used in contrast to the term objectivity, which is described as a view of truth or reality which is free of any individual's influence.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Subjectivity

    • In the 1990s, Jürgen Schmidhuber described an algorithmic theory of beauty which takes the subjectivity of the observer into account and postulates: among several observations classified as comparable by a given subjective observer, the aesthetically most pleasing one is the one with the shortest description, given the observer's previous knowledge and his particular method for encoding the data. from Aesthetics

    • Sturm und Drang ( , literally "Storm and Drive", "Storm and Urge", though conventionally translated as "Storm and Stress") is a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. from Sturm und Drang

    • Sturm und Drang (the conventional translation is "Storm and Stress"; a more literal translation, however, might be storm and urge, storm and longing, or storm and impulse) is the name of a movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. from German literature

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      Arthur Danto Arthur Coleman Danto (January 1, 1924 – October 25, 2013) was an American art critic and philosopher. He is best…
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      Arthur Coleman Danto (January 1, 1924 – October 25, 2013) was an American art critic and philosopher. He is best known for having been influential, long-time art critic for The Nation and for his work in philosophical aesthetics and philosophy of history, though he contributed significantly to a number of fields, including the philosophy of…

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      Arthur Coleman Danto (January 1, 1924 – October 25, 2013) was an American art critic and philosopher. He is best known for having been influential, long-time art critic for The Nation and for his work in philosophical aesthetics and philosophy of history, though he contributed significantly to a number of fields, including the philosophy of action. His interests included thought, feeling, philosophy of art, theories of representation, philosophical psychology, Hegel's aesthetics, and the philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Arthur Danto

    • Danto, Arthur (2003), The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art, Open Court. from Aesthetics

    • Arthur Danto has described this reaction as "kalliphobia" (after the Greek word for beauty, κάλλος kallos). from Aesthetics

    • The definition of the term “art” is a subject of constant contention and many books and journal articles have been published arguing over the answer to the question What is Art? Definitions can be categorized into conventional and non-conventional definitions. from Arthur Danto

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    • His interests included thought, feeling, philosophy of art, theories of representation, philosophical psychology, Hegel's aesthetics, and the philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. from Arthur Danto

    • He is best known for having been influential, long-time art critic for The Nation and for his work in philosophical aesthetics and philosophy of history, though he contributed significantly to a number of fields, including the philosophy of action. from Arthur Danto

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      William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr. William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr. (November 17, 1907 – December 17, 1975) was an American professor of English, literary…
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      William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr. (November 17, 1907 – December 17, 1975) was an American professor of English, literary theorist, and critic. Wimsatt is often associated with the discussion of the intentional fallacy which he developed with Monroe Beardsley in order to discuss the importance of an author's intentions with the creation of a work of art.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr.

    • In 1946, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled "The Intentional Fallacy", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author's intention, or "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work. from Aesthetics

    • A poem does not just derive its meaning from its rhyme and meter, but these are the domains of aesthetics (231) — to analyse poetry on the basis of its aesthetics, then, is insufficient in one is to adequately explore its meaning. from William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr.

    • There is no correlation between words and their subject, at least in terms of aesthetics — “the example of the dunghill (or equivalent object) beautifully described is one of the oldest in literary discussion” (228). from William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr.

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    • In “The Domain of Criticism,” Wimsatt “[defends] the domain of poetry and poetics from the encircling (if friendly) arm of the general aesthetician" (Verbal Icon 221) – that is, he discusses the problems with discussing poetry in purely aesthetic terms. from William Kurtz Wimsatt, Jr.

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      Peter Osborne (writer and academic) Peter Osborne (born 1958) is Professor of Modern European Philosophy and Director of the Centre for Research in…
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      Peter Osborne (born 1958) is Professor of Modern European Philosophy and Director of the Centre for Research in Modern European Philosophy (CRMEP), Kingston University, London. He is also an editor of the British journal Radical Philosophy.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Peter Osborne (writer and academic)

    • British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art aesthetics, Peter Osborne, makes the point that post-conceptual art aesthetic does not concern a particular type of contemporary art so much as the historical-ontological condition for the production of contemporary art in general ..". Osborne noted that in a public lecture delivered in 2010. from Aesthetics

    • The late work of Adorno anticipates the breakdown of the difference between the arts that Osborne is interested in coming to terms with (see Art Theory and Aesthetics, below). from Peter Osborne (writer and academic)

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      David Hume David Hume (/ˈhjuːm/; 7 May [O.S. 26 April] 1711 – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian…
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      David Hume (/ˈhjuːm/; 7 May [O.S. 26 April] 1711 – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and scepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment. Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist.…

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      David Hume (/ˈhjuːm/; 7 May [O.S. 26 April] 1711 – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and scepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment. Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist.
      Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic "science of man" that examined the psychological basis of human nature. In stark opposition to the rationalists who preceded him, most notably Descartes, he concluded that desire rather than reason governed human behaviour, saying: "Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions." A prominent figure in the sceptical philosophical tradition and a strong empiricist, he argued against the existence of innate ideas. He concluded instead that humans have knowledge only of things they directly experience. Thus he divides perceptions between strong and lively "impressions" or direct sensations and fainter "ideas", which are copied from impressions.
      He developed the position that mental behaviour is governed by "custom", that is acquired ability; our use of induction, for example, is justified only by our idea of the "constant conjunction" of causes and effects. Without direct impressions of a metaphysical "self", he concluded that humans have no actual conception of the self, only of a bundle of sensations associated with the self.
      Hume advocated a compatibilist theory of free will that proved extremely influential on subsequent moral philosophy. He was also a sentimentalist who held that ethics are based on feelings rather than abstract moral principles. Hume also examined the normative is–ought problem. He held notoriously ambiguous views of Christianity, but famously challenged the argument from design in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1777).
      Immanuel Kant credited Hume with waking him up from his "dogmatic slumbers" and Hume has proved extremely influential on subsequent philosophy, especially on utilitarianism, logical positivism, William James, philosophy of science, early analytic philosophy, cognitive philosophy, and other movements and thinkers. The philosopher Jerry Fodor proclaimed Hume's Treatise "the founding document of cognitive science". Also famous as a prose stylist, Hume pioneered the essay as a literary genre and engaged with contemporary intellectual luminaries such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith (who acknowledged Hume's influence on his economics and political philosophy), James Boswell, Joseph Butler, and Thomas Reid.

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    How Aesthetics
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    • The point is already made by Hume, but see Mary Mothersill, "Beauty and the Critic's Judgment", in The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics, 2004. from Aesthetics

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      George Dickie (philosopher) George Dickie (born 1926 in Palmetto, Florida) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University of Illinois at…
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      George Dickie (born 1926 in Palmetto, Florida) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University of Illinois at Chicago. His specialties include aesthetics, philosophy of art, & Eighteenth Century theories of taste.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To George Dickie (philosopher)

    • This "institutional definition of art" (see also Institutional Critique) has been championed by George Dickie. from Aesthetics

    • George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities. from Aesthetics

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      Gary Tedman Gary Tedman is an English artist and writer.He has written extensively on the theme of aesthetics and specifically…
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      Gary Tedman is an English artist and writer.
      He has written extensively on the theme of aesthetics and specifically on the concept of an aesthetic level of practice. His essay Ideology, the State and the Aesthetic Level of Practice was published in 1999 in the American peer-reviewed journal Rethinking Marxism. Since then he has published numerous…

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      Gary Tedman is an English artist and writer.
      He has written extensively on the theme of aesthetics and specifically on the concept of an aesthetic level of practice. His essay Ideology, the State and the Aesthetic Level of Practice was published in 1999 in the American peer-reviewed journal Rethinking Marxism. Since then he has published numerous essays exploring various aspects of the theme. He has put forward a comprehensive theory of aesthetics construed and influenced by Marx and Althusser in the modernist Marxist tradition (Brecht, Althusser, Benjamin, Adorno). There are four principal aspects to this: the aesthetic level of practice, aesthetic state apparatuses, aesthetic interpellation, and pseudo dialectics, all of which can be used to clarify the role of aesthetic experience in practical life. His book Aesthetics and Alienation was published by Zero Books in 2012. Texts by the author refer to an interpretation of Marx's Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 as a basis for extrapolating an aesthetic (sensual, felt) level to human social practice, and to corresponding Aesthetic State Apparatuses, that link with Althusser's concept of an ideological level and Ideological State Apparatuses (Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses).
      One aspect of this is the sentient political affect of alienation as Beverley Skeggs states;
      "Not only are the affects, or even metaphysics, of working-class injury used and converted into political value by the middle-class, but also, as Gary Tedman (l999) demonstrates, working-class affects are packaged and marketed at the aesthetic level..."
      and elsewhere
      "Beginning with the architectural metaphor of traditional Marxism, the base/superstructure model, Gary Tedman identifies a "missing" element, the aesthetic level of practice, which serves to complicate the rigid framework of the initial metaphor. For Tedman, the aesthetic level is concerned with the affective practices of human subjects, their emotions and feelings, within class society."
      Tedman's emphasis on the sensual affect of ideology and feelings as opposed to emphasising the intellectual and rational aspect of ideology has been extrapolated by others;
      "For artists and those working in disciplines that deal with the senses, the emphasis on ideology here as the product of ideas is a little too conscious, linguistic-based and does not quite adequately describe the realms of the senses and their contribution. Gary Tedman (Aesthetics and Alienation 2012) has attempted to ameliorate this by taking clues from Marx's own work, particularly the enigmatic 1844 Manuscripts..." (Singh 2012)
      See also where
      " the novel argument put forward by Fay and Tedman is that the textual design of these manuscripts reveals important aspects of the author's method. For example, the positive and negative aspects of Marx's "immanent criticism" of Adam Smith and G.W.F. Hegel are evidenced by such features as the use of varying numbers of columns..."
      Enabling parallels between Marx's work/working conditions (means of production) and modern media;
      "the young academic activist is Karl Marx; the peripheral zone of capital is Prussia; the indie-media platform the short lived liberal paper Das Rheinische Zeitung; the bio-commons story concerns peasants prosecuted by landlords for collecting firewood from the local forest; the foreign metropolis is Paris, the blog the Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts, episodic, broken-off, heavily hyper-linked to Hegel and Feuerbach (see Tedman, 2004), brilliant shards, with, in their time, zero-comments; and the idea that passes from its pages into oblivion at net-speed is that of ‘species-being’(Gattungswesen)."
      Tedman goes on to;
      "defend the idea that the level of human practice associated with feelings is founded on instincts and, yet, remains immune to the humanist, essentialist, and structuralist totality. His solution is to produce the concept of an "aesthetic dialectic"."
      Tedman's methodology apparently provides an approach for analysing the affects of culture: art, design and the media and particularly including a critique of anthropomorphism and kitsch:
      "For his part, Gary Tedman situates kitsch as an adjacent or perhaps determining cause to the centuries old battle over economic exploitation."... "(Amariglio 2010) Whereby Tedman's historical analysis of the art that was produced during the July Monarchy of 1830, indicates a seminal interrelation between politics and antropomorphic kitsch of disnesque proportions."
      He is a graduate of Fine-Art from Portsmouth Polytechnic and the Royal College of Art where he completed an MA in Cultural History.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Gary Tedman

    • Revising some concepts of the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, Gary Tedman defines art in terms of social reproduction of the relations of production on the aesthetic level. from Aesthetics

    • Gary Tedman has put forward a theory of a subjectless aesthetics derived from Karl Marx’s concept of alienation, and Louis Althusser’s anti humanism, using elements of Freud’s group psychology, defining a concept of the 'aesthetic level of practice'. from Aesthetics

    • His ideas exist as a complete and original theory of aesthetics based on Marx and Althusser in the modernist Marxist tradition (Brecht, Althusser, Benjamin, Adorno). from Gary Tedman

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    • He has written extensively on the theme of aesthetics and specifically on the concept of an aesthetic level of practice. from Gary Tedman

    • With regards to the philosophy of art, in Aesthetics and Alienation, a book published in 2012, Gary Tedman has developed the explorations begun by Althusser, which leads Tedman to reinterpret Marx’s early work from an anti-humanist position. from Louis Althusser

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      Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by…
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      Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of…

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      Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. Variants such as Futurism and Constructivism developed in other countries.
      A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne, which were displayed in a retrospective at the 1907 Salon d'Automne. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Cubism

    • An example from art theory is aesthetic theory as a set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement: such as the Cubist aesthetic. from Aesthetics

    • Cézanne syntax didn't just ripple outwards over the sphere, touching those that would become Cubists in France, Futurists in Italy and Die Brücke, Der Blaue Reiter, Expressionists in Germany, it also created currents that flowed throughout Parisian art world threatening to destabilize (if not topple) at least three of the core foundations of the academia: the geometrical method of perspective used to create the illusion of form, space and depth since the Renaissance; Figuratism, derived from real object sources (and therefore representational), and aesthetics. from Proto-Cubism

    • He had "a third life" centered on questions concerning the aesthetics and development of modernism in Europe and the United States; primarily influenced by the ideas of his friends the photographer Alfred Stieglitz and the cubist artist Stuart Davis (painter), and the paintings of the European modernists and their predecessors like Cézanne, Matisse, Picasso and Van Gogh. from Beauford Delaney

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      Peter Kivy Peter Kivy (born October 22, 1934) is a professor of philosophy at Rutgers University. He studies aesthetics and…
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      Peter Kivy (born October 22, 1934) is a professor of philosophy at Rutgers University. He studies aesthetics and the philosophy of art, particularly the philosophy of music.…

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      Peter Kivy (born October 22, 1934) is a professor of philosophy at Rutgers University. He studies aesthetics and the philosophy of art, particularly the philosophy of music.
      He earned master's degrees in both philosophy (University of Michigan, 1958) and musicology (Yale University, 1960). He earned his PhD at Columbia University in 1966. He joined the faculty at Rutgers the following year, and became full professor in 1976. He taught there for his whole career except one year as a visiting professor at University of California, Santa Barbara.
      His early work is on the 18th-century British aesthetics, and was influenced by Francis Hutcheson. From there he developed an interest in analytic aesthetics. From the late 1970s on, he has been interested mainly in music philosophy. His book The Corded Shell made him a central figure in music aesthetics.
      One preoccupation of his has been the problem of what it means for instrumental music to "express" an emotion. His answer is that common emotions have physical behavioral expression in people that can be understood by appearance and imitated in music; thus, music cannot express more complex emotions that do not have an obvious behavioral expression. A similar position is followed by Stephen Davies.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Peter Kivy

    • He studies aesthetics and the philosophy of art, particularly the philosophy of music. from Peter Kivy

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      Stephen Davies (philosopher) Stephen Davies is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He mainly…
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      Stephen Davies is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He mainly writes on aesthetics, particularly the philosophy of music but also works on political philosophy. He is a past president of the American Society for Aesthetics (2007–2008), and the New Zealand division of the Australasian Association of Philosophy (2001).…

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      Stephen Davies is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He mainly writes on aesthetics, particularly the philosophy of music but also works on political philosophy. He is a past president of the American Society for Aesthetics (2007–2008), and the New Zealand division of the Australasian Association of Philosophy (2001).
      One of his first journal publications was 'The Expression of Emotion in Music', published in Mind in 1980 (Vol. 89, pp.67-86). In this article Davies first outlined his theory that music is expressive of emotions in virtue of resembling the way that emotions appear. This theory is similar to one outlined by Peter Kivy in his book The Corded Shell, also published in 1980. However, Davies developed his view independently as an undergraduate in the 1970s, and the theory was part of his PhD thesis awarded in 1976 from the University of London. In contrast to Kivy, Davies also places a greater emphasis on the resemblance between music and physical gesture, where Kivy tends to emphasize the resemblance to the expressive vocalisations. Davies was inspired when seeing an advertisement for Hush Puppies shoes, with the thought that we recognize sadness in the face of Basset hounds, despite knowing that they do not feel sad.
      Davies also maintains a research interest in ethnomusicology, which he studied as an undergraduate, particularly the aesthetics of Balinese music.

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    Connects To Stephen Davies (philosopher)

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      Symbol A symbol is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material…
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      A symbol is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material entity. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture…

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      A symbol is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material entity. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose symbolizes love and compassion.
      In cartography, an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Symbol

    • Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience, or with representing them symbolically. from Aesthetics

    • This warfare will be conducted using aesthetics, symbols, and doctrines as camouflage that will ultimately influence our cultural meme pool. from Memetic engineering

    • Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy ( , Ānanda Kentiś Kumāraswāmī) (22 August 1877 − 9 September 1947) was a Ceylonese philosopher and metaphysician, as well as a pioneering historian and philosopher of Indian art, particularly art history and symbolism, and an early interpreter of Indian culture to the West. from Ananda Coomaraswamy

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    • It was argued that ritual and aesthetically impressive liturgy did not only provide a powerful contrast to the drabness of the lives of the poor, its emphasis on symbol and action rather than word was a more effective medium for spreading Christian faith in areas with poor literacy rates than the highly cerebral and logocentric worship that was focused on the Book of Common Prayer. from Ritualism in the Church of England

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      Taste (sociology) In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference. Taste is drawing…
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      In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference. Taste is drawing distinctions between things such as styles, manners, consumer goods and works of art and relating to these. Social inquiry of taste is about the human ability to judge what is beautiful, good and proper.…

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      In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference. Taste is drawing distinctions between things such as styles, manners, consumer goods and works of art and relating to these. Social inquiry of taste is about the human ability to judge what is beautiful, good and proper.
      Social and cultural phenomena concerning taste are closely associated to social relations and dynamics between people. The concept of social taste is therefore rarely separated from its accompanying sociological concepts. An understanding of taste as something that is expressed in actions between people helps to perceive many social phenomena that would otherwise be inconceivable.
      Aesthetic preferences and attendance to various cultural events are associated with education and social origin. Different socioeconomic groups are likely to have different tastes. Social class is one of the prominent factors structuring taste.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Taste (sociology)

    • Jean-François Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime. from Aesthetics

    • Aesthetics ( ; also spelled æsthetics and esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. from Aesthetics

    • Greenberg believed that the avant-garde arose in order to defend aesthetic standards from the decline of taste involved in consumer society, and seeing kitsch and art as opposites. from Avant-Garde and Kitsch

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    • In (La Distinction, 1979), Pierre Bourdieu described how the powers that be define aesthetic concepts such as “Taste”, whereby the social class of a person tends to determine his or her cultural interests, likes, and dislikes, and how political and socio-economic, racial and sexual distinctions, based upon social class, are reinforced in daily life within society. from Distinction (social)

    • In the essay Greenberg claimed that the avant-garde arose in order to defend aesthetic standards from the decline of taste involved in consumer society, and seeing kitsch and art as opposites. from Art history

    • In philosophy, emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics, the philosophy of art (for example, sensory–emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality), and the philosophy of music (see also Music and emotion). from Emotion

    • The connoisseur Horace Walpole, who shared many of the antiquaries' interests, was nonetheless emphatic in his insistence that the study of cultural relics should be selective and informed by taste and aesthetics. from Antiquarian

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      Fine art In Western European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing it from…
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      In Western European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing it from applied art that also has to serve some practical function.…

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      In Western European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing it from applied art that also has to serve some practical function.
      Historically, the five main fine arts were painting, sculpture, architecture, music and poetry, with performing arts including theater and dance. Today, the fine arts commonly include additional forms, such as film, photography, conceptual art, and printmaking. However, in some institutes of learning or in museums, fine art and frequently the term fine arts (pl.) as well, are associated exclusively with visual art forms.
      One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created primarily for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness, specifically, painting, sculpture, drawing, watercolor, graphics, and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the Fine Arts and the Applied Arts. As originally conceived, and as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment usually referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment. However in the Postmodern era, the value of good taste is disappearing, to the point that having bad taste has become synonymous with being avant-garde. The term "fine art" is now rarely found in art history, but remains common in the art trade and as a title for university departments and degrees, even if rarely used in teaching.
      The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. This definition originally excluded the applied or decorative arts, and the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become essentially meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Fine art

    • Architecture is frequently considered a fine art, especially if its aesthetic components are spotlighted — in contrast to structural-engineering or construction-management components. from Fine art

    • Fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing it from applied art that also has to serve some practical function. from Fine art

    • Because of their diminished reliance on making objects for functionality, the studio craft object becomes more viable for the kind of aesthetic critical theory which occurs in fine art theory. from Studio craft

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    • Aestheticism (or the Aesthetic Movement) is an art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. from Aestheticism

    • In the United States the abstract expressionism art movement was dominant during the post-war period, and it held not only to "fine art" values and aesthetics but also to a mystical inclination. from Campbell's Soup Cans

    • The emphasis of fine arts is aesthetics and creativity; and any erotic interest, although often present, is secondary. from Nude photography

    • Leonhard Lapin (born 29 December 1947) is a versatile Estonian artist who has been active in fine art, art theory and architecture as well as in literature. from Leonhard Lapin

    • The Museum seeks to bridge the gap between that which is commercial, and often misidentified as pornographic, with that which is aesthetic, often identified as folk, pop and fine art through a common visual language. from Harry Mohney

    • He was educated at the Edinburgh University, where he studied philosophy under Sir William Hamilton, and acquired the habit of applying notions derived from eclectic psychology to the analysis of aesthetic effects in poetry, rhetoric, and the fine arts. from Eneas Sweetland Dallas

    • Faculties include Fine Arts, Architecture, Ceramic Design, Industrial Design, Jewelry, Photography, Visual Communication, Animation, Film, and Art History & Theory. from Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design

    • He later attended Tamagawa University to study fine art, at which he majored in painting and art theory. While at university, he became interested in the ideas of Dada and surrealism and also studied Butoh dance. from Merzbow

    • Patience satirised the self-indulgent Aesthetic movement of the 1870s and '80s in England, part of the 19th-century European movement that emphasised aesthetic values over moral or social themes in literature, fine art, the decorative arts, and interior design. from D'Oyly Carte Opera Company

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      Film theory Film theory, or cinema studies, is an academic discipline that aims to explore the essence of the cinema and…
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      Film theory, or cinema studies, is an academic discipline that aims to explore the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large. Film theory is not to be confused with general film criticism, or film history, though there can be some crossover between the three disciplines.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Film theory

    • More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. from Aesthetics

    • He particularly specializes in world cinema, film theory and aesthetics, and French cinema. from Dudley Andrew

    • (14 February 1900 - 18 May 1952) was a Japanese aesthetician, film theorist, librarian, and social activist. from Masakazu Nakai

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    • His work is often described as postdisciplinary, drawing on such diverse traditions as political philosophy, critical theory, cultural studies, film theory, international relations theory, literary theory, African American studies, comparative politics, geography, sociology, urban planning, economics, psychoanalysis, crime fiction, genre studies, new musicology, aesthetics and Indigenous Politics. from Michael J. Shapiro

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    1. 43
      Guy Sircello Guy Sircello (1936–1992) was an American philosopher best known for his analytic approach to philosophical…
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      Guy Sircello (1936–1992) was an American philosopher best known for his analytic approach to philosophical aesthetics.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Guy Sircello

    • Guy Sircello has pioneered efforts in analytic philosophy to develop a rigorous theory of aesthetics, focusing on the concepts of beauty, love and sublimity. from Aesthetics

    • Guy Sircello (1936–1992) was an American philosopher best known for his analytic approach to philosophical aesthetics. from Guy Sircello

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      Either/Or In philosophy, Either/Or (original Danish title: Enten ‒ Eller) is an influential book written by the Danish…
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      In philosophy, Either/Or (original Danish title: Enten ‒ Eller) is an influential book written by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard published in two volumes in 1843, exploring the aesthetic and ethical "phases" or "stages" of existence. Either/Or was Kierkegaard's first published book; it was released under the pseudonym Victor Eremita, Latin for "the victorious hermit".…

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      In philosophy, Either/Or (original Danish title: Enten ‒ Eller) is an influential book written by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard published in two volumes in 1843, exploring the aesthetic and ethical "phases" or "stages" of existence. Either/Or was Kierkegaard's first published book; it was released under the pseudonym Victor Eremita, Latin for "the victorious hermit".
      Either/Or portrays two life views, one consciously hedonistic, the other based on ethical duty and responsibility. Each life view is written and represented by a fictional pseudonymous author, with the prose of the work reflecting and depending on the life view being discussed. For example, the aesthetic life view is written in short essay form, with poetic imagery and allusions, discussing aesthetic topics such as music, seduction, drama, and beauty. The ethical life view is written as two long letters, with a more argumentative and restrained prose, discussing moral responsibility, critical reflection, and marriage. The views of the book are not neatly summarized, but are expressed as lived experiences embodied by the pseudonymous authors. The book's central concern is the primal question asked by Aristotle, "How should we live?" His motto comes from Plutarch, "The deceived is wiser than one not deceived.”
      The aesthetic is the personal, subjective realm of existence, where an individual lives and extracts pleasure from life only for his or her own sake. In this realm, one has the possibility of the highest as well as the lowest. The ethical, on the other hand, is the civic realm of existence, where one's value and identity are judged and at times superseded by the objective world. In simple terms, one can choose either to remain oblivious to all that goes on in the world, or to become involved. More specifically, the ethic realm starts with a conscious effort to choose one's life, with a choice to choose. Either way, however, an individual can go too far in these realms and lose sight of his or her true self. Only faith can rescue the individual from these two opposing realms. Either/Or concludes with a brief sermon hinting at the nature of the religious sphere of existence, which Kierkegaard spent most of his publishing career expounding upon. Ultimately, Kierkegaard's challenge is for the reader to "discover a second face hidden behind the one you see" in him/herself first, and then in others:
      The Middle Ages are altogether impregnated with the idea of representation, partly conscious, partly unconscious; the total is represented by the single individual, yet in such a way that it is only a single aspect which is determined as totality, and which now appears in a single individual, who is because of this, both more and less than an individual. By the side of this individual there stands another individual, who, likewise, totally represents another aspect of life’s content, such as the knight and the scholastic, the ecclesiastic and the layman. Either/Or Part I p. 86-87 Swenson

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Either/Or

    • The first volume, the "Either", describes the "aesthetic" phase of existence. from Either/Or

    • In philosophy, Either/Or (original Danish title: Enten ‒ Eller) is an influential book written by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard published in two volumes in 1843, exploring the aesthetic and ethical "phases" or "stages" of existence. from Either/Or

    • He speaks of choosing oneself in Either/Or, "When a person considers himself esthetically his soul is like soil out of which grow all sorts of herbs, all with equal claim to flourish; his self consists of this multiplicity, and he has no self that is higher than this (...) Someone who views the personality ethically has at once an absolute difference: namely, the difference between good and evil. from Three Upbuilding Discourses, 1844

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      Mario Perniola Mario Perniola (born May 20, 1941, in Asti, Italy) is an Italian philosopher, professor of aesthetics and author…
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      Mario Perniola (born May 20, 1941, in Asti, Italy) is an Italian philosopher, professor of aesthetics and author. Many of his works have been published in English.

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Mario Perniola

    • Mario Perniola, The Art and Its Shadow, foreword by Hugh J.Silverman, translated by Massimo Verdicchio, London-NewYork, Continuum, 2004. from Aesthetics

    • Mario Perniola (born May 20, 1941, in Asti, Italy) is an Italian philosopher, professor of aesthetics and author. from Mario Perniola

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      Truth Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard…
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      Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal.
      The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts,…

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      Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal.
      The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy and religion. Many human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; these include most (but not all) of the sciences, law, and everyday life.
      Various theories and views of truth continue to be debated among scholars, philosophers, and theologians. Language and words are a means by which humans convey information to one another and the method used to determine what is a "truth" is termed a criterion of truth. There are differing claims on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false; how to define and identify truth; the roles that faith-based and empirically based knowledge play; and whether truth is subjective or objective, relative or absolute.
      "Mathematics", which comes from the Greek μάθημα (máthēma, that which is learned), is essentially about how we can make true statements in abstract systems, build bodies of knowledge (true belief) in them and thus truth is a central concern, examined concept, in it.

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    How Aesthetics
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    • Beauty and Truth have been argued to be nearly synonymous, as reflected in the statement "Beauty is truth, truth beauty" in the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, or by the Hindu motto "Satyam Shivam Sundaram" (Satya (Truth) is Shiva (God), and Shiva is Sundaram (Beautiful)). from Aesthetics

    • This is different from the aesthetic considerations of applied aesthetics used in the study of mathematical beauty. Aesthetic considerations such as symmetry and simplicity are used in areas of philosophy, such as ethics and theoretical physics and cosmology to define truth, outside of empirical considerations. from Aesthetics

    • The cult reflected the aesthetic truth, an idea that was pleasing to them. from Johnson cult

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    • Gurdjieff taught that the movements were not merely calisthenics, exercises in concentration, and displays of bodily coordination and aesthetic sensibility: on the contrary, in the movements was embedded real, concrete knowledge, passed from generation to generation of initiates - each posture and gesture representing some cosmic truth that the informed observer could read like a book. from Gurdjieff movements

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      Work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation…
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      A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. Apart from "work of art", which may be used of any work regarded as art in its widest sense, including works from literature and music, these terms apply principally to tangible, portable forms of visual art:…

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      A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. Apart from "work of art", which may be used of any work regarded as art in its widest sense, including works from literature and music, these terms apply principally to tangible, portable forms of visual art:
      Used more broadly, the term is less commonly applied to:
      This article is concerned with the terms and concept as used in and applied to the visual arts, although other fields such as aural-music and written word-literature have similar issues and philosophies. The term objet d′art is reserved to describe works of art that are not paintings, prints, drawings or large or medium-sized sculptures, or architecture (e.g. household goods, figurines, etc., some purely aesthetic, some also practical). The term oeuvre is used to describe the complete body of work completed by an artist throughout a career.

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    • In practice aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object), while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work. from Aesthetics

    • A work of art in the visual arts is a physical two- or three- dimensional object that is professionally determined or other wise considered to fulfill a primarily independent aesthetic function. from Work of art

    • A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. from Work of art

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    • Art valuation, an art-specific subset of financial valuation, is the process of estimating the potential market value of works of art and as such is more of a financial rather than an aesthetic concern, however, subjective views of cultural value play a part as well. from Art valuation

    • An interpretation in philosophy of art, is an explanation of the meaning of some work of art. from Aesthetic interpretation

    • In literary theory and aesthetics, authorial intent refers to an author's intent as it is encoded in his or her work. from Authorial intent

    • Zimbabwean art includes decorative esthetics applied to many aspects of life, including art objects as such, utilitarian objects, objects used in religion, warfare, in propaganda, and in many other spheres. from Zimbabwean art

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      Lectures on Aesthetics Lectures on Aesthetics (German: Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik) is a compilation of notes from university lectures…
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      Lectures on Aesthetics (German: Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on aesthetics given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in Heidelberg in 1818 and in Berlin in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29. It was compiled in 1835 by his student Heinrich Gustav Hotho, using Hegel's own hand-written notes and notes his students took during the lectures, but Hotho's work may render some of Hegel's thought more systematic than Hegel's initial presentation.…

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      Lectures on Aesthetics (German: Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on aesthetics given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in Heidelberg in 1818 and in Berlin in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29. It was compiled in 1835 by his student Heinrich Gustav Hotho, using Hegel's own hand-written notes and notes his students took during the lectures, but Hotho's work may render some of Hegel's thought more systematic than Hegel's initial presentation.
      Hegel's Aesthetics is regarded by many as one of the greatest aesthetic theories to have been produced since Aristotle. Hegel's thesis of the "end of art" influenced several thinkers like Theodor W. Adorno, Martin Heidegger, György Lukács, Jacques Derrida and Arthur Danto. Hegel was himself influenced by Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Heidegger calls Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics "the most comprehensive reflection on the essence of art that the West possesses".

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    How Aesthetics
    Connects To Lectures on Aesthetics

    • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1975), Aesthetics. Lectures on Fine Art, trans. from Aesthetics

    • Lectures on Aesthetics ( ) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on aesthetics given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in Heidelberg in 1818 and in Berlin in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29. from Lectures on Aesthetics

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      Conceptual art Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the…
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      Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Many works of conceptual art, sometimes called installations, may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions. This method was fundamental to American artist Sol LeWitt's definition of Conceptual art, one of the first to appear in print:…

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      Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Many works of conceptual art, sometimes called installations, may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions. This method was fundamental to American artist Sol LeWitt's definition of Conceptual art, one of the first to appear in print:
      In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art.
      Tony Godfrey, author of Conceptual Art (Art & Ideas) (1998), asserts that conceptual art questions the nature of art, a notion that Joseph Kosuth elevated to a definition of art itself in his seminal, early manifesto of conceptual art, "Art after Philosophy" (1969). The notion that art should examine its own nature was already a potent aspect of the influential art critic Clement Greenberg's vision of Modern art during the 1950s. With the emergence of an exclusively language-based art in the 1960s, however, conceptual artists such as Joseph Kosuth, Lawrence Weiner and the English Art & Language group began a far more radical interrogation of art than was previously possible (see below). One of the first and most important things they questioned was the common assumption that the role of the artist was to create special kinds of material objects.
      Through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, in popular usage, particularly in the UK, "conceptual art" came to denote all contemporary art that does not practice the traditional skills of painting and sculpture. It could be said that one of the reasons why the term "conceptual art" has come to be associated with various contemporary practices far removed from its original aims and forms lies in the problem of defining the term itself. As the artist Mel Bochner suggested as early as 1970, in explaining why he does not like the epithet "conceptual", it is not always entirely clear what "concept" refers to, and it runs the risk of being confused with "intention." Thus, in describing or defining a work of art as conceptual it is important not to confuse what is referred to as "conceptual" with an artist's "intention."

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    • British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art aesthetics, Peter Osborne, makes the point that post-conceptual art aesthetic does not concern a particular type of contemporary art so much as the historical-ontological condition for the production of contemporary art in general ..". Osborne noted that in a public lecture delivered in 2010. from Aesthetics

    • Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. from Conceptual art

    • Post-conceptual (Postconceptual, Post-conceptualism or Postconceptualism) is an art theory that builds upon the legacy of conceptual art in contemporary art, where the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work takes some precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. from Post-conceptual

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    • This is contrasted to conceptual art, some but not all kinds of performance art, computer software, or objects of mathematical beauty, such as a mathematical proof, which do not exist in the mental world or in physical world, but have other ontological status, such as in Plato's world of ideals. Here, the art, may be realized in the physical world, such as a mathematical proof written on a chalkboard, but refer to objects that exists in the mind as concepts, not physical objects. from Physical art

    • Timothy Binkley (born Timothy Glenn Binkley on September 14, 1943 in Baltimore, MD), is an American philosopher, artist, and teacher, known for his radical writings about conceptual art and aesthetics, as well as several essays that help define computer art. from Timothy Binkley

    • Her first conceptual works were motivated by art philosophy, by a critique of art institutions and by feminism. from Eija-Liisa Ahtila

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      Christine Buci-Glucksmann Christine Buci-Glucksmann is a French philosopher and Professor Emeritus from University of Paris VIII specializing…
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      Christine Buci-Glucksmann is a French philosopher and Professor Emeritus from University of Paris VIII specializing in the aesthetics of the Baroque, Japan and computer art. Her best-known work in English is Baroque Reason: The Aesthetics of Modernity.

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    How Aesthetics
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    • Christine Buci-Glucksmann (2003), Esthétique de l'éphémère, Galilée. from Aesthetics

    • She followed this with research into aesthetics, based primarily around a study of the work of Walter Benjamin. from Christine Buci-Glucksmann

    • Christine Buci-Glucksmann is a French philosopher and Professor Emeritus from University of Paris VIII specializing in the aesthetics of the Baroque, Japan and computer art. from Christine Buci-Glucksmann

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    • Key to his initial thinking and activities as an aesthetician, cultural theorist, curator, teacher, and art critic was his encounter with the work of Pierre Restany, Jean-Louis Boissier, Roy Ascott, Edmond Couchot, Christine Buci-Glucksmann and Fred Forest. from Dominique Moulon

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