Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before immigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison in New York City. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices. His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla for a short time as a consultant. His work in the formative

years of electric power development was also involved in the corporate struggle between making alternating current or direct current the power transmission standard, referred to as the war of currents. Tesla went on to pursue his ideas of wireless lighting and electricity distribution in his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs and made early (1893) pronouncements on the possibility of wireless communication with his devices. He tried to put these ideas to practical use in his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission; his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project. In his lab he also conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillator/generators, electrical discharge tubes, and early X-ray imaging. He even built a wireless controlled boat which may have been the first such device ever exhibited.
Tesla was renowned for his achievements and showmanship, eventually earning him a reputation in popular culture as an archetypal "mad scientist." His patents earned him a considerable amount of money, much of which was used to finance his own projects with varying degrees of success. He lived most of his life in a series of New York hotels, through his retirement. He died on 7 January 1943. His work fell into relative obscurity after his death, but in 1960 the General Conference on Weights and Measures named the SI unit of magnetic flux density the tesla in his honor. Tesla has experienced a resurgence in interest in popular culture since the 1990s.

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  • 1. [Induction motor] An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An induction motor therefore does not require mechanical commutation, separate-excitation or self-excitation for all or part of the energy transferred from stator to rotor, as in universal, DC and large synchronous motors. An induction motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.
  • 2. [Tesla coil] A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency alternating-current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric circuits.
  • 3. [George Westinghouse] George Westinghouse, Jr. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry. Westinghouse was one of Thomas Edison's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system. Westinghouse's electricity system ultimately prevailed over Edison's insistence
  • 4. [Wardenclyffe Tower] Wardenclyffe Tower, also known as the Tesla Tower, which began construction in 1901, was an early wireless transmission station designed by Nikola Tesla in Shoreham, New York and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission Besides the tower the site also included a 94 by 94 foot red brick building housing transmission equipment/laboratory/factory floor space.
  • 5. [Galileo Ferraris] Galileo Ferraris (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, noted mostly for the studies and independent discovery of the rotating magnetic field, a basic working principle of the induction motor. Ferraris has published an extensive and complete monograph on the experimental results obtained with open-circuit transformers of the type designed by the power engineers Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs.
  • 6. [Guglielmo Marconi] Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo maɾˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. He is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he
  • 7. [Thomas Edison] Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", he was one of the first inventors to
  • 8. [War of Currents] In the "War of Currents" era (sometimes, "War of the Currents" or "Battle of Currents") in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution against alternating current (AC) advocated by several European companies and Westinghouse Electric based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which had acquired many of the patents by Nikola Tesla.
  • 9. [Alternating current] In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.
  • 10. [Polyphase system] A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system
  • 11. [Rotating magnetic field] A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field that has a moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor.
  • 12. [Nikola Tesla Museum] The Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Музеј Николе Тесле / Muzej Nikole Tesle) is dedicated to honoring and displaying the life and work of Nikola Tesla. It is located in the central area of Belgrade, Serbia. It holds more than 160,000 original documents, over 2,000 books and journals, over 1,200 historical technical exhibits, over 1,500 photographs
  • 13. [Tesla turbine] The Tesla turbine is a bladeless centripetal flow turbine patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. It is referred to as a bladeless turbine. The Tesla turbine is also known as the boundary layer turbine, cohesion-type turbine, and Prandtl layer turbine (after Ludwig Prandtl) because it uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging
  • 14. [Magnifying transmitter] The magnifying transmitter is an advanced version of Tesla coil transmitter. It is a high power harmonic oscillator that Nikola Tesla intended for the wireless transmission of electrical energy. In his autobiography, Tesla stated that "...I feel certain that of all my inventions, the Magnifying Transmitter will prove most important and valuable to future generations." The magnifying transmitter is an air-core, multiple-resonant transformer that can generate very high voltages.
  • 15. [Tesla's oscillator] Tesla's electro-mechanical oscillator is a steam-powered electric generator patented by Nikola Tesla in 1893. Later in life Tesla claimed one version of the oscillator caused an earthquake in New York City in 1898, gaining it the popular culture title "Tesla's earthquake machine".
  • 16. [Death ray] The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Harry Grindell Matthews, Edwin R. Scott, and Graichen, as well as others. In 1957, the National Inventors Council was still issuing lists of needed military inventions that included a death ray.
  • 17. [Oliver Lodge] Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, FRS (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of key patents in wireless telegraphy. In his 1894 Royal Institution lectures ("The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors"), Lodge coined the term "coherer" for the device developed by French physicist
  • 18. [Teleforce] Teleforce is a charged particle beam projector that Nikola Tesla claimed to have conceived of after studying the Van de Graaff generator. Tesla described the weapon as being able to be used against ground-based infantry or for anti-aircraft purposes.
  • 19. [Wireless telegraphy] Wireless telegraphy is electric telegraphy that does not have wires connecting the endpoints. It is now used as a historical term for early radio telegraphy systems which communicated with radio waves, although when the term originated in the late 1800s it was also used for a variety of other experimental techniques for communicating telegraphically without wires, such as photoelectric and induction telegraphy.
  • 20. [American Institute of Electrical Engineers] The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed from 1884 through 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  • 21. [Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe] The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe is a nonprofit organization established to develop a regional science and technology center at the site of Nikola Tesla's former Wardenclyffe laboratory on Long Island, New York. The center raised money through crowdfunding to purchase the property.
  • 22. [My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla] My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla (ISBN 0910077002) is a book compiled and edited by Ben Johnston detailing the work of Nikola Tesla. The content was largely drawn from a series of articles that Nikola Tesla had written for Electrical Experimenter magazine in 1919, at which time Tesla was 63 years old.
  • 23. [Commutator (electric)] A commutator is the moving part of a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors or electrical generators that periodically reverse the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit. Commutators have two or more softer metallic brushes in contact with them to complete the other half of the switch. In a
  • 24. [Geissler tube] A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge. The tube was invented by the German physicist and glassblower Heinrich Geissler in 1857. It consists of a sealed, partially evacuated glass cylinder of various shapes with a metal electrode at each end, containing rarefied gasses such
  • 25. [Westinghouse Electric (1886)] The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. George Westinghouse had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. The company purchased CBS in 1995 and became CBS Corporation in 1997.
  • 26. [Wilhelm Röntgen] Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈʁœntɡən]; 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today that was known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour
  • 27. [Smiljan] Smiljan (pronounced [smî̞ʎan]) is a village in the mountainous region of Lika in Croatia. It is located 6 km (3.7 mi) northwest of Gospić, and fifteen kilometers from the Zagreb-Split highway; its population is 418 (2011). Smiljan is famous for being the birthplace of Nikola Tesla.
  • 28. [High voltage] The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm or death upon living things. Equipment and conductors that carry high voltage warrant particular safety requirements and procedures. In certain industries, high voltage means voltage above a particular threshold (see below). High voltage is used in electrical power distribution, in
  • 29. [Wyndham New Yorker Hotel] The Wyndham New Yorker Hotel is a hotel located at 481 Eighth Avenue in New York City, USA. The 43-story Art Deco hotel opened in 1930.
  • 30. [Arc lamp] An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The carbon arc light, which consists of an arc between carbon electrodes in air, invented by Humphry Davy in the early 1800s, was the first practical electric light. It was widely used starting in
  • 31. [2244 Tesla] 2244 Tesla is a minor planet or asteroid. It was discovered on October 22, 1952 by Milorad B. Protić at Belgrade, Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, now Serbia.
  • 32. [Crookes tube] A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
  • 33. [John Stone Stone] John Stone Stone (September 24, 1869 – May 20, 1943) was an American mathematician, physicist and inventor. He worked as an early telephone engineer, was influential in developing wireless communication technology, and held dozens of patents in the field of "space telegraphy".
  • 34. [J. P. Morgan] John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the
  • 35. [Thomas Commerford Martin] Thomas Commerford Martin (July 22, 1856 – May 17, 1924) was an American electrical engineer and editor, born in London, England. His father worked with Lord Kelvin and other pioneers of submarine telegraph cables, and Martin spent much time on the cable-laying ship SS Great Eastern. Educated as a theological student, Martin came to the
  • 36. [Direct current] Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in
  • 37. [The Oatmeal] The Oatmeal is a comics and articles website created in 2009 by Matthew Inman (born c. 1981-1982), who often goes by the nickname "the Oatmeal". The website features comics drawn by Inman, quizzes, and occasional articles. Inman lives in the Fremont area of Seattle, Washington, United States and his second published collection is How to Tell if Your Cat is Plotting to Kill You.
  • 38. [National Electric Light Association] The National Electric Light Association was a national United States trade association including the operators of central power generation stations and interested individuals. Founded in 1885 by G. S. Bowen Terry and Charles A. Brown, it represented the interests of various private companies involved in the fledgling electric power industry. It was the forerunner of
  • 39. [Gramme machine] A Gramme machine, Gramme ring, Gramme magneto, or Gramme dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current, named for its Belgian inventor, Zénobe Gramme, and was built as either a dynamo or a magneto. It was the first generator to produce power on a commercial scale for industry. Inspired by a machine invented by
  • 40. [Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900] Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900 (ISBN 8617073527) (Published by Nolit: Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978) is a book compiled and edited by Aleksandar Marinčić and Vojin Popović detailing the work of Nikola Tesla in Colorado Springs at the turn of the 20th century.
  • 41. [Serbian American] Serbian Americans, also known as American Serbs (Serbian: Срби у Америци), are American citizens of Serb ancestry. As of 2012, there are 199,080 American citizens of Serb ancestry. However, this number may be much higher as there are some 328,547 people who identify as Yugoslavs living in the United States. Those can include Serbian Americans
  • 42. [Electrical Experimenter] The Electrical Experimenter was a technical science magazine that was published monthly. It was established in May 1913, as the successor to Modern Electrics, a combination of a magazine and mail-order catalog that had been published by Hugo Gernsback starting in 1908. The Electrical Experimenter continued from May 1913 to July 1920 under that name, focusing on scientific articles about radio, and continued with a broader focus as Science and Invention until August 1931.
  • 43. [Tesla (unit)] The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of magnetic flux density, commonly denoted as B. One tesla is equal to one weber per square metre, and it was named in 1960 in honour of Nikola Tesla. The strongest fields encountered from permanent magnets are from Halbach spheres which can be over 4.5 T.
  • 44. [Electric generator] In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may vary widely from a hand crank to an internal combustion engine. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.
  • 45. [The AWA Review] The AWA Review is a series of annual softcover books of original research articles on the history of radio. It is published by the Antique Wireless Association (AWA), a membership organization founded in 1952 and based in Bloomfield, New York, USA. Volume 1 was published in 1986 and Volume 27 was published in 2014. No volume was published in 1997. In recent years, the AWA has received anonymous grants to distribute the Review free-of-charge to all members.
  • 46. [Van de Graaff generator] A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high amounts of electrical potential on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff
  • 47. [Atmospheric electricity] Atmospheric electricity is the pattern of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or less commonly, that of another planet). The normal movement of electric charges among the Earth's surface, the various layers of the atmosphere, and especially the ionosphere, taken together, are known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Much of the reasoning required to explain these currents lies within the field of electrostatics, but also requires understanding of other disciplines within Earth science.
  • 48. [Robert Underwood Johnson] Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 – October 14, 1937) was a U.S. writer and diplomat. His wife was Katharine Johnson.
  • 49. [Vacuum tube] In electronics, vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), tube, or valve (in British English) is a device that controls electric current through a vacuum in a sealed container. Vacuum tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a thermionic
  • 50. [Robert Lomas] Robert Lomas is a British writer and business studies academic. He writes primarily about the history of Freemasonry as well as the Neolithic period, ancient engineering and archaeoastronomy.
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