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Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

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Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before immigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison in New York City. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices. His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla for a short time as a consultant. His work in the formative…

…years of electric power development was also involved in the corporate struggle between making alternating current or direct current the power transmission standard, referred to as the war of currents. Tesla went on to pursue his ideas of wireless lighting and electricity distribution in his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs and made early (1893) pronouncements on the possibility of wireless communication with his devices. He tried to put these ideas to practical use in his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission; his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project. In his lab he also conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillator/generators, electrical discharge tubes, and early X-ray imaging. He even built a wireless controlled boat which may have been the first such device ever exhibited.
Tesla was renowned for his achievements and showmanship, eventually earning him a reputation in popular culture as an archetypal "mad scientist." His patents earned him a considerable amount of money, much of which was used to finance his own projects with varying degrees of success. He lived most of his life in a series of New York hotels, through his retirement. He died on 7 January 1943.
Tesla's work fell into relative obscurity after his death, but in 1960 the General Conference on Weights and Measures named the SI unit of magnetic field strength the tesla in his honor. Tesla has experienced a resurgence in interest in popular culture since the 1990s.

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      Induction motor An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to…
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      An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An induction motor therefore does not require mechanical commutation, separate-excitation or self-excitation for all or part of the energy transferred from stator to rotor, as in universal, DC and large synchronous motors. An induction motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.…

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      An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An induction motor therefore does not require mechanical commutation, separate-excitation or self-excitation for all or part of the energy transferred from stator to rotor, as in universal, DC and large synchronous motors. An induction motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.
      Three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors are widely used in industrial drives because they are rugged, reliable and economical. Single-phase induction motors are used extensively for smaller loads, such as household appliances like fans. Although traditionally used in fixed-speed service, induction motors are increasingly being used with variable-frequency drives (VFDs) in variable-speed service. VFDs offer especially important energy savings opportunities for existing and prospective induction motors in variable-torque centrifugal fan, pump and compressor load applications. Squirrel cage induction motors are very widely used in both fixed-speed and VFD applications.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Induction motor

    • File:Générateur électrique.jpg|Cross-section of an asynchronous motor built on Tesla's principles. from Nikola Tesla

    • A copy of Tesla's two phase induction motor. from Nikola Tesla

    • It was here, in 1887, that Tesla constructed a brushless alternating current induction motor, based on a rotating magnetic field principle he claimed to have conceived of in 1882. from Nikola Tesla

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    • His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla for a short time as a consultant. from Nikola Tesla

    • Practical alternating current induction motors seem to have been independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla, a working motor model having been demonstrated by the former in 1885 and by the latter in 1887. from Induction motor

    • That same year the inventor Nikola Tesla demonstrated a polyphase brushless AC induction motor also based on a rotating magnetic field. from George Westinghouse

    • "Commutatorless" alternating current induction motors seem to have been independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla. from AC motor

    • He assisted the inventor Nikola Tesla with his work on the alternating-current induction motor. from Charles F. Scott (engineer)

    • 1888 – An AC induction motor is featured in a paper published by Galileo Ferraris and is patented in the U.S. by Nikola Tesla. from Timeline of motor and engine technology

    • 1888 - Licenses Nikola Tesla's AC and Induction motor patents and hires Tesla as a consultant for one year. from Westinghouse Electric (1886)

    • In 1888, a Serbian immigrant, Nikola Tesla, a former employee of Edison's, patented an AC induction motor and licensed it to the Westinghouse Corporation. from Technological and industrial history of the United States

    • Between 1885 and 1890 Galileo Ferraris in Italy, Nikola Tesla in the United States, and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in Germany explored poly-phase currents combined with electromagnetic induction leading to the development of practical AC induction motors. from History of electromagnetic theory

    • The earliest commercially successful electric motors date back to the latter part of the 19th century when Nikola Tesla patented his induction motor in 1888. from Fractional horsepower motor

    • He worked in France as a junior engineer designing and developing Nikola Tesla's induction motor. from Kálmán Kandó

    • In 1888 Westinghouse also licensed Nikola Tesla's induction motor patent giving AC a much needed usable motor. from History of electric power transmission

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      Tesla coil A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. It is used to…
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      A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency alternating-current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric circuits.…

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      A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency alternating-current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric circuits.
      Tesla used these coils to conduct innovative experiments in electrical lighting, phosphorescence, X-ray generation, high frequency alternating current phenomena, electrotherapy, and the transmission of electrical energy without wires. Tesla coil circuits were used commercially in sparkgap radio transmitters for wireless telegraphy until the 1920s, and in medical equipment such as electrotherapy and violet ray devices. Today their main use is for entertainment and educational displays, although small coils are used as leak detectors for high vacuum systems.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Tesla coil

    • In 1891, Tesla patented the Tesla coil. from Nikola Tesla

    • A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891. from Tesla coil

    • Professor Soljačić's experiments and work in wireless energy transfer are related in spirit to the work of Nikola Tesla in the early 20th century, but also have significant differences: unlike Tesla's failed efforts at long-range wireless energy transfer, the Soljačić group focuses only on short-range transfer, and unlike Tesla coils which resonantly transfer power with electric fields (which couple strongly to surrounding matter, most famously inducing artificial lightning) the Soljačić proposal uses coupling primarily via magnetic fields. from Marin Soljačić

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    • In 1891, Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil, an air-cored, dual-tuned resonant transformer for generating very high voltages at high frequency. from Transformer

    • Nikola Tesla created St. Elmo's Fire in 1899 while testing out a Tesla coil at his laboratory in Colorado Springs. from St. Elmo's fire

    • The revolved around a down-to-earth World War II between the Allies (including Germany) and the Soviet Union, with some high-tech esoterica, such as weaponized tesla coils linked to Tesla's abortive death rays and limited time travel linked to the rumored Philadelphia Experiment. from Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3

    • Inventor Nikola Tesla mentioned many times during his career that he thought his inventions such as his Tesla coil, used in the role of a "resonant receiver", could communicate with other planets and even observed repetitive signals of what he believed were extraterrestrial radio communications coming from Venus or Mars in 1899. from Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence

    • Jack shows Meg his Tesla coil that he says he built himself and waxes intellectual on the achievements of Nikola Tesla. from Coffee and Cigarettes

    • It appears that Strickfaden managed to secure the use of at least one Tesla Coil built by the inventor Nikola Tesla himself. from Frankenstein (1931 film)

    • Nikola Tesla invents the Tesla coil. from 1891

    • Nikola Tesla invents the Tesla coil. from South African locomotive history

    • It was inspired by a two-hundred-foot tower built in Colorado for a giant electrical amplifier, or Tesla coil, created by inventor Nikola Tesla. from RKO Pictures

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      George Westinghouse George Westinghouse, Jr. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented…
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      George Westinghouse, Jr. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry. Westinghouse was one of Thomas Edison's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system. Westinghouse's system ultimately prevailed over Edison's insistence on…

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      George Westinghouse, Jr. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry. Westinghouse was one of Thomas Edison's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system. Westinghouse's system ultimately prevailed over Edison's insistence on direct current. In 1911 Westinghouse received the AIEE's Edison Medal "For meritorious achievement in connection with the development of the alternating current system."

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To George Westinghouse

    • Engineers working for the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company reported to George Westinghouse that Tesla had a viable AC motor and power system—something that Westinghouse had been trying to secure. from Nikola Tesla

    • His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla for a short time as a consultant. from Nikola Tesla

    • In July 1888, George Westinghouse licensed Nikola Tesla's American patents for the induction motor and transformer designs. from George Westinghouse

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    • That same year the inventor Nikola Tesla demonstrated a polyphase brushless AC induction motor also based on a rotating magnetic field. from George Westinghouse

    • In July 1888, George Westinghouse licensed Nikola Tesla's US patents for a polyphase AC induction motor and transformer designs and hired Tesla for one year to be a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. from War of Currents

    • Transmission with high voltage direct current was not feasible when Edison, Westinghouse and Tesla were designing their power systems, since there was then no way to economically convert AC power to DC and back again at the necessary voltages. from Alternating current

    • Other recipients of the Edison Medal include George Westinghouse, Alexander Graham Bell, Nikola Tesla, Michael I. Pupin, Robert A. Millikan (Nobel Prize 1923), and Vannevar Bush. from IEEE Edison Medal

    • The system of three-phase alternating current electrical generation, transmission, and distribution was developed in the 19th century by Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse and others. from Mains electricity

    • Among the men that the valley and its resources made famously wealthy were: Andrew Carnegie, Andrew Mellon, Henry Clay Frick, Henry Heinz, George Westinghouse, Nikola Tesla and Charles Schwab. from Steel Valley (Pittsburgh)

    • (A photograph of the Falls served as the book's frontispiece.) The first large electrical generating facilities at Niagara Falls, utilizing the new alternating current system of Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse, were being constructed at the time Gillette wrote. from The Human Drift

    • The AC power system used today developed rapidly, backed by industrialists such as George Westinghouse with Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Galileo Ferraris, Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti, Lucien Gaulard, John Dixon Gibbs, Carl Wilhelm Siemens, William Stanley, Jr., Nikola Tesla, and others contributed to this field. from Electric power industry

    • Through such people as Alexander Graham Bell, Ottó Bláthy, Thomas Edison, Galileo Ferraris, Oliver Heaviside, Ányos Jedlik, Lord Kelvin, Sir Charles Parsons, Ernst Werner von Siemens, Joseph Swan, Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse, electricity turned from a scientific curiosity into an essential tool for modern life, becoming a driving force of the Second Industrial Revolution. from Electricity

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      Wardenclyffe Tower Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917), also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by…
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      Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917), also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by Nikola Tesla in Shoreham, New York and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. It never operated, and the tower was demolished in 1917.…

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      Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917), also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by Nikola Tesla in Shoreham, New York and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. It never operated, and the tower was demolished in 1917.
      The tower was named after James S. Warden, a western lawyer and banker who had purchased land for the endeavor in Shoreham, Long Island, about sixty miles from Manhattan. Here he built a resort community known as Wardenclyffe-On-Sound. He offered Tesla 200 acres (81 ha) of land close to a railway line on which to build his wireless telecommunications tower and laboratory facility. Warden planned to eventually build housing for 2000-2500 people who would work in a factory producing Tesla's patented devices.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Wardenclyffe Tower

    • In 1900, with US$150,000 (more than $3 million today; 51% from J. Pierpont Morgan), Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility. from Nikola Tesla

    • He tried to put these ideas to practical use in his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission; his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project. from Nikola Tesla

    • Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917) also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by Nikola Tesla in Shoreham, New York and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. from Wardenclyffe Tower

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    • Early history of the site In 1898, electrical engineer, inventor, and pioneer of electrical power technology, Nikola Tesla began planning and designing the Wardenclyffe Tower, a wireless transmission tower intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. from Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe

    • At Shoreham, Nikola Tesla built the Wardenclyffe Tower, which was dismantled in 1917. from Shoreham, New York

    • He briefly owned Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower property, receiving it as payment for a debt. from George Boldt

    • The album's title is a reference to the real life Wardenclyffe Tower or Tesla Tower, designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1901. from Wardenclyffe Tower (album)

    • Wardenclyffe Tower in Shoreham, New York, designed by Nikola Tesla and Stanford White is begun. from 1901 in architecture

    • In 1900, Morgan invested $150,000 in inventor Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower, a high power transatlantic wireless communication project. from J. P. Morgan

    • In 1902, he designed the Benjamin Walworth Arnold House and Carriage House in Albany, New York, and he helped to develop Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower, his last design. from Stanford White

    • Unsupported theories regarding the event include the impact of a miniature black hole or large body of antimatter, ball lightning, a test by Nikola Tesla of the apparatus at Wardenclyffe Tower, and a UFO crash. from List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

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      Galileo Ferraris Galileo Ferraris (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, noted mostly…
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      Galileo Ferraris (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, noted mostly for the studies and independent discovery of the rotating magnetic field, a basic working principle of the induction motor. Ferraris has published an extensive and complete monograph on the experimental results obtained with open-circuit transformers of the type designed by the power engineers Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Galileo Ferraris

    • Italian physicist Galileo Ferraris published a paper on rotating magnetic field based induction motor on 11 March 1888, a working model of which he may have been demonstrating at the University of Turin as early as 1885. from Nikola Tesla

    • On the 11th of March 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin (two months later Nikola Tesla gained , application filed October 12, 1887. Serial Number 252,132). from Galileo Ferraris

    • One of the founders (the other two were Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris) of three-phase electrical systems, he developed the three-phase electrical generator and a three-phase electrical motor (1888) and studied star and delta connections. from Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky

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    • The discovery of the rotating magnetic field is generally attributed to two inventors, the Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris, and the Austrian/Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla. from Rotating magnetic field

    • Practical alternating current induction motors seem to have been independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla, a working motor model having been demonstrated by the former in 1885 and by the latter in 1887. from Induction motor

    • Induction motors using a rotating magnetic field were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla (1885 - 1887) and developed in a three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in 1889. from Polyphase system

    • The use of polyphase coils in electrical power systems was pioneered by the engineers Nikola Tesla, Galileo Ferraris, and Michail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. from Polyphase coil

    • "Commutatorless" alternating current induction motors seem to have been independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla. from AC motor

    • The three-phase system was independently invented by Galileo Ferraris, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Nikola Tesla in the late 1880s. from Three-phase electric power

    • 1888 – An AC induction motor is featured in a paper published by Galileo Ferraris and is patented in the U.S. by Nikola Tesla. from Timeline of motor and engine technology

    • Between 1885 and 1890 Galileo Ferraris in Italy, Nikola Tesla in the United States, and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in Germany explored poly-phase currents combined with electromagnetic induction leading to the development of practical AC induction motors. from History of electromagnetic theory

    • In 1885 the Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris demonstrated an induction motor and in 1887 and 1888 the Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla filed a range of patents related to power systems including one for a practical two-phase induction motor which Westinghouse licensed for his AC system. from Power engineering

    • Practical rotating AC induction motors were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla, a working motor model having been demonstrated by the former in 1885 and by the latter in 1887. from Electric motor

    • The AC power system used today developed rapidly, backed by industrialists such as George Westinghouse with Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Galileo Ferraris, Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti, Lucien Gaulard, John Dixon Gibbs, Carl Wilhelm Siemens, William Stanley, Jr., Nikola Tesla, and others contributed to this field. from Electric power industry

    • The alternating current power system developed rapidly after 1886 with efficient, practical, transformer and AC motor designs, including induction motors independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla and further developed into a practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown. from Electrical engineering

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      Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo maɾˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an…
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      Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo maɾˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he…

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      Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo maɾˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". An entrepreneur, businessman, and founder in Britain in 1897 of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company (which became the Marconi Company), Marconi succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1924 the King of Italy ennobled Marconi as a Marchese (marquis).

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Guglielmo Marconi

    • In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down a decision on Marconi's radio patents restoring some of the prior patents of Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone, and Nikola Tesla. from Guglielmo Marconi

    • When Guglielmo Marconi made his famous first-ever transatlantic radio transmission in 1901, Tesla quipped that it was done with 17 Tesla patents. from Nikola Tesla

    • Wireless detailed history and growth of the art includes the work of Karl Ferdinand Braun, Reginald Fessenden (known for inventing radiotelephony), John Ambrose Fleming, Lee De Forest, Oliver Lodge, Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla and many others. from Wireless telegraphy

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    • It is posed that Serbian engineer Nikola Tesla (whom the band is named after) is the true inventor of radio, while the Italian Guglielmo Marconi took the credit and is widely regarded as having the title. from The Great Radio Controversy

    • Energy transmission without wires was pioneered by researchers such as Nikola Tesla, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, and Guglielmo Marconi. from ECoupled

    • (This early work on the wireless telegraph was contemporaneous with and independent of Guglielmo Marconi's work in Italy and Nikola Tesla's work in New York). from Robert Stewart Hyer

    • Famous recipients include Madame Curie, Thomas Edison, the Wright brothers, Nikola Tesla, Edwin Land, Jonas Salk, Irving Langmuir, Benoît Mandelbrot, Robert Burns Woodward, Glenn Seaborg, Edgar Sharp McFadden, Frederick G. Banting, Humberto Fernandez Moran, Luis W. Alvarez, Guglielmo Marconi, William T. Bovie, John Bardeen, Kary B. Mullis, Alexander Fleming, Lyle Goodhue, Ralph L. Brinster, and Professor Richard E. Smalley. from John Scott Medal

    • This ongoing series of projects honors the accomplishments of electrical geniuses Guglielmo Marconi (1981), Heinrich Hertz (1986) and Nikola Tesla (2005-2006). from Willoughby Sharp

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      War of Currents In the "War of Currents" era (sometimes, "War of the Currents" or "Battle of Currents") in the late 1880s, George…
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      In the "War of Currents" era (sometimes, "War of the Currents" or "Battle of Currents") in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution against alternating current (AC) advocated by several European companies and Westinghouse Electric based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which had acquired many of the patents by Nikola Tesla.…

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      In the "War of Currents" era (sometimes, "War of the Currents" or "Battle of Currents") in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution against alternating current (AC) advocated by several European companies and Westinghouse Electric based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which had acquired many of the patents by Nikola Tesla.
      The direct-current system generated and distributed electric power at the same voltage as used by the customer's lamps and motors. This had the effect of large, costly, distribution wires and forced generating plants to be near the loads. With the development of a practical transformer, power could be sent long distances over relatively small wires at a convenient high voltage, then stepped down to the voltage used by a customer. Alternating current generating stations could be larger, cheaper to operate, and the distribution wires were relatively less costly. As the competing systems were protected by patents, there was commercial rivalry between the Westinghouse and Edison companies. A publicity campaign by Edison highlighted the safety issues of high voltage transmission.
      The lower cost of AC power distribution prevailed, though DC systems persisted in some urban areas throughout the 20th century.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To War of Currents

    • As a result of the "War of Currents," Edison and Westinghouse went nearly bankrupt. from Nikola Tesla

    • In July 1888, George Westinghouse licensed Nikola Tesla's US patents for a polyphase AC induction motor and transformer designs and hired Tesla for one year to be a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. from War of Currents

    • The Westinghouse company also purchased the patents for alternating current devices from inventors in Europe and licensed patents from Nikola Tesla. from War of Currents

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    • Nor is this cutthroat competition limited to prestidigitation: engineering "wizards" Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison engaged in a rivalry over electrical current, which appears in the film in parallel to Borden and Angier's competition for magical supremacy. from The Prestige (film)

    • Based on Garfield's fascination with the work of Nikola Tesla, the EP focuses on the betrayal of Tesla by fellow innovator and former employer, Thomas Edison, and the subsequent bitter rivalry surrounding Tesla's development of alternating current technology, known as the War of Currents. from Mose Giganticus

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      Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed…
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      Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", he was one of the first inventors to…

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      Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
      Edison was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. More significant than the number of Edison's patents was the widespread impact of his inventions: electric light and power utilities, sound recording, and motion pictures all established major new industries world-wide. Edison's inventions contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications. These included a stock ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power, recorded music and motion pictures.
      His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison developed a system of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in the modern industrialized world. His first power station was on Pearl Street in Manhattan, New York.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Thomas Edison

    • Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before emigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison in New York City. from Nikola Tesla

    • Edison is also portrayed in popular culture as an adversary of Nikola Tesla. from Thomas Edison

    • Nikola Tesla worked for Edison for two years at the Continental Edison Company in France starting in 1882, and another year at the Edison Machine Works in New York City ending in a disagreement over pay. from Thomas Edison

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    • Transmission with high voltage direct current was not feasible when Edison, Westinghouse and Tesla were designing their power systems, since there was then no way to economically convert AC power to DC and back again at the necessary voltages. from Alternating current

    • The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and innovators in the then new field of electrical engineering, among them Nikola Tesla, Thomas Alva Edison, Elihu Thomson, Edwin J. Houston, and Edward Weston. from American Institute of Electrical Engineers

    • Famous scientists who experimented with such tubes included Thomas Edison, Eugen Goldstein, Nikola Tesla, and Johann Wilhelm Hittorf among many others. from Vacuum tube

    • The Scott three-phase transformer was invented by a Westinghouse engineer, Charles F. Scott, in the late 1890s to bypass Thomas Edison's more expensive rotary converter and thereby permit two-phase generator plants to drive Nikola Tesla's three-phase motors. from Scott-T transformer

    • Thomas Edison, the famous American inventor and rival of Nikola Tesla, appears in the fourth volume. from Atomic Robo

    • Nikola Tesla invented a remarkable number of electrical devices, including an induction motor, making the use of alternating current more feasible; Thomas Edison, in addition to inventing hundreds of electrical devices, co-founded General Electric corporation. from Gilded Age

    • He was featured in an episode of the Funny or Die web series Drunk History titled "Tesla & Edison". His television credits include MADtv, and Curb Your Enthusiasm. from Duncan Trussell

    • Famous recipients include Madame Curie, Thomas Edison, the Wright brothers, Nikola Tesla, Edwin Land, Jonas Salk, Irving Langmuir, Benoît Mandelbrot, Robert Burns Woodward, Glenn Seaborg, Edgar Sharp McFadden, Frederick G. Banting, Humberto Fernandez Moran, Luis W. Alvarez, Guglielmo Marconi, William T. Bovie, John Bardeen, Kary B. Mullis, Alexander Fleming, Lyle Goodhue, Ralph L. Brinster, and Professor Richard E. Smalley. from John Scott Medal

    • Nor is this cutthroat competition limited to prestidigitation: engineering "wizards" Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison engaged in a rivalry over electrical current, which appears in the film in parallel to Borden and Angier's competition for magical supremacy. from The Prestige (film)

    • The tour guide of the Edison National Historic Site (from West Orange, USA) gave information about the rivalry between Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison in Mission 6. from List of The 39 Clues characters

    • The masters of electricity, whether fictional or real—including scientists such as Thomas Edison, Charles Steinmetz or Nikola Tesla—were popularly conceived of as having wizard-like powers. from Electricity

    • Through such people as Alexander Graham Bell, Ottó Bláthy, Thomas Edison, Galileo Ferraris, Oliver Heaviside, Ányos Jedlik, Lord Kelvin, Sir Charles Parsons, Ernst Werner von Siemens, Joseph Swan, Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse, electricity turned from a scientific curiosity into an essential tool for modern life, becoming a driving force of the Second Industrial Revolution. from Electricity

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      Alternating current In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct…
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      In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.…

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      In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.
      AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. In these applications, an important goal is often the recovery of information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Alternating current

    • Nikola Tesla ( ; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. from Nikola Tesla

    • The AC power system used today developed rapidly after 1886, and included contributions by Nikola Tesla (licensed to George Westinghouse) and Carl Wilhelm Siemens. from Alternating current

    • Transmission with high voltage direct current was not feasible when Edison, Westinghouse and Tesla were designing their power systems, since there was then no way to economically convert AC power to DC and back again at the necessary voltages. from Alternating current

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    • At an AIEE meeting on May 16, 1888, Nikola Tesla delivered a lecture entitled , describing the equipment which allowed efficient generation and use of polyphase alternating currents. from Electric power transmission

    • This effect was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla, and later utilized in his, and others', early AC (alternating-current) electric motors. from Magnetic field

    • He assisted the inventor Nikola Tesla with his work on the alternating-current induction motor. from Charles F. Scott (engineer)

    • 1887–1889: The Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla files for patents on distribution of alternating current (AC) and polyphase induction motors and generators. from 1880s

    • The alternating current power system developed rapidly after 1886 with efficient, practical, transformer and AC motor designs, including induction motors independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla and further developed into a practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown. from Electrical engineering

    • The Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla explored the idea of using a rotating magnetic induction field principle, using it in his invention of a poly-phase induction motor using alternating current which he received a patent for on May 1, 1888. from Timeline of United States inventions (before 1890)

    • At the end of the 19th century, Tesla demonstrated that by using an electrical network tuned to resonance and using, what at the time would be called "high frequency AC" (radio frequencies), it was possible to transmit electric power using only a single wire, with no need for a metal or Earth return conductor. from Single-wire transmission line

    • At Chicago's Columbian Exposition he witnessed Nikola Tesla's alternating current system running everything mechanical, not to mention the illumination of the entire exposition itself. from Luigi von Kunits

    • Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system. from List of Serbs

    • In 1889 he met Nikola Tesla, who convinced him of a future for alternating current. from Emil Kolben

    • Based on Garfield's fascination with the work of Nikola Tesla, the EP focuses on the betrayal of Tesla by fellow innovator and former employer, Thomas Edison, and the subsequent bitter rivalry surrounding Tesla's development of alternating current technology, known as the War of Currents. from Mose Giganticus

    • (A photograph of the Falls served as the book's frontispiece.) The first large electrical generating facilities at Niagara Falls, utilizing the new alternating current system of Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse, were being constructed at the time Gillette wrote. from The Human Drift

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      Mihajlo Pupin Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph.D., LL.D. (Serbian Cyrillic: Михајло Идворски Пупин; 9 October 1858 – 12 March 1935)…
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      Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph.D., LL.D. (Serbian Cyrillic: Михајло Идворски Пупин; 9 October 1858 – 12 March 1935), also known as Michael I. Pupin, was a Serbian and American physicist and physical chemist. Pupin is best known for his numerous patents, including a means of greatly extending the range of long-distance telephone communication by placing loading…

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      Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph.D., LL.D. (Serbian Cyrillic: Михајло Идворски Пупин; 9 October 1858 – 12 March 1935), also known as Michael I. Pupin, was a Serbian and American physicist and physical chemist. Pupin is best known for his numerous patents, including a means of greatly extending the range of long-distance telephone communication by placing loading coils (of wire) at predetermined intervals along the transmitting wire (known as "pupinization"). Pupin was a founding member of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) on March 3, 1915, which later became NASA.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Mihajlo Pupin

    • The letter contained a message of gratitude to Mihajlo Pupin who had initiated a donation scheme by which American companies could support Tesla. from Nikola Tesla

    • Nikola Tesla and Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin are the world-known scientists. from Serbian American

    • Outside the church are busts of Bishop Nikolai Velimirovich, who was instrumental in founding the parish, Nikola Tesla, the inventor and entrepreneur, and Michael Pupin, a physicist of Serbian heritage. from Trinity Chapel Complex

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    • Other recipients of the Edison Medal include George Westinghouse, Alexander Graham Bell, Nikola Tesla, Michael I. Pupin, Robert A. Millikan (Nobel Prize 1923), and Vannevar Bush. from IEEE Edison Medal

    • The Academy's membership has included Josif Pančić, Jovan Cvijić, Stojan Novaković, Branislav Petronijević, Mihajlo Pupin, Nikola Tesla, Milutin Milanković, Mihailo Petrović-Alas, Bogdan Gavrilović, Ivo Andrić, Danilo Kiš and many other scientists, scholars and artists of Serbian and foreign origin. from Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts

    • Serbia; Nikola Tesla, Mihajlo Pupin, Milutin Milanković, Miomir Vukobratović. Switzerland; Carl Jung. from Culture of Europe

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      Polyphase system A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or…
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      A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system…

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      A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power. Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system used for industrial applications and for power transmission. A major advantage of three phase power transmission [using three conductors], (as compared to single phase power transmission [using two conductors]), is that, since the remaining conductors act as the return path for any single conductor, the power transmitted by a balanced three phase system is three times that of a single phase transmission but only one extra conductor is used. Thus, a 50% increase in the transmission costs achieves a 200% increase in the power transmitted.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Polyphase system

    • polyphase system. from Nikola Tesla

    • Induction motors using a rotating magnetic field were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla (1885 - 1887) and developed in a three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in 1889. from Polyphase system

    • Nikola Tesla's original polyphase power system was based on simple to build two-phase four-wire components. from Scott-T transformer

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    • That same year the inventor Nikola Tesla demonstrated a polyphase brushless AC induction motor also based on a rotating magnetic field. from George Westinghouse

    • At an AIEE meeting on May 16, 1888, Nikola Tesla delivered a lecture entitled , describing the equipment which allowed efficient generation and use of polyphase alternating currents. from Electric power transmission

    • 1888: George Westinghouse acquired patents from Nikola Tesla for a polyphase AC system and an induction motor. from Westinghouse Electric Company

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      Elihu Thomson Elihu Thomson (March 29, 1853 – March 13, 1937) was an English engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the…
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      Elihu Thomson (March 29, 1853 – March 13, 1937) was an English engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Elihu Thomson

    • In 1888, a month before Tesla demonstrated his AC induction motor, Westinghouse engineer Oliver B. Shallenberger invented an induction meter that was based on the same rotating magnetic field principle, and during Tesla's demonstration English engineer Elihu Thomson stated he was working on an induction motor. from Nikola Tesla

    • The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and innovators in the then new field of electrical engineering, among them Nikola Tesla, Thomas Alva Edison, Elihu Thomson, Edwin J. Houston, and Edward Weston. from American Institute of Electrical Engineers

    • Many experimenters including Elihu Thomson at Edison's lab, William J. Morton, and Nikola Tesla also reported burns. from X-ray

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    • Many experimenters including Elihu Thomson at Thomas Edison's lab, William J. Morton, and Nikola Tesla also reported burns. from Radioactive decay

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      Rotating magnetic field A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field that has a moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about…
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      A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field that has a moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor.…

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      A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field that has a moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor.
      Rotating magnetic fields are often utilized for electromechanical applications such as induction motors and electric generators, however they are also used in purely electrical applications such as induction regulators.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Rotating magnetic field

    • It was here, in 1887, that Tesla constructed a brushless alternating current induction motor, based on a rotating magnetic field principle he claimed to have conceived of in 1882. from Nikola Tesla

    • The discovery of the rotating magnetic field is generally attributed to two inventors, the Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris, and the Austrian/Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla. from Rotating magnetic field

    • Nikola Tesla claimed in his autobiography that 1882 was when he envisioned the concept of the rotating magnetic field which he later used in his induction motor design. from 1882 in science

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    • Nikola Tesla claims this was when he conceived the rotating magnetic field principle he later used to invent his induction motor. from 1882

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      Tesla turbine The Tesla turbine is a bladeless centripetal flow turbine patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. It is referred to as a…
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      The Tesla turbine is a bladeless centripetal flow turbine patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. It is referred to as a bladeless turbine. The Tesla turbine is also known as the boundary layer turbine, cohesion-type turbine, and Prandtl layer turbine (after Ludwig Prandtl) because it uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging…

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      The Tesla turbine is a bladeless centripetal flow turbine patented by Nikola Tesla in 1913. It is referred to as a bladeless turbine. The Tesla turbine is also known as the boundary layer turbine, cohesion-type turbine, and Prandtl layer turbine (after Ludwig Prandtl) because it uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine. Bioengineering researchers have referred to it as a multiple disk centrifugal pump. One of Tesla’s desires for implementation of this turbine was for geothermal power, which was described in "Our Future Motive Power".

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Tesla turbine

    • bladeless turbine—the Tesla turbine, Tesla's 100th American patent. from Nikola Tesla

    • bladeless turbine—the Tesla turbine, Tesla's 100th American patent. from Nikola Tesla

    • On his 50th birthday in 1906, Tesla demonstrated his 16,000 rpm bladeless turbine. from Nikola Tesla

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      Nikola Tesla Museum The Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Музеј Николе Тесле / Muzej Nikole Tesle) is dedicated to honoring and displaying…
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      The Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Музеј Николе Тесле / Muzej Nikole Tesle) is dedicated to honoring and displaying the life and work of Nikola Tesla. It is located in the central area of Belgrade, Serbia. It holds more than 160,000 original documents, over 2,000 books and journals, over 1,200 historical technical exhibits, over 1,500 photographs…

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      The Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Музеј Николе Тесле / Muzej Nikole Tesle) is dedicated to honoring and displaying the life and work of Nikola Tesla. It is located in the central area of Belgrade, Serbia. It holds more than 160,000 original documents, over 2,000 books and journals, over 1,200 historical technical exhibits, over 1,500 photographs and photo plates of original, technical objects, instruments and apparatus, and over 1,000 plans and drawings. The Nikola Tesla Archive was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2003 due to its critical role regarding history of electrification of the world and future technological advancements in this area.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Nikola Tesla Museum

    • The ashes are displayed in a gold-plated sphere on a marble pedestal in the Nikola Tesla Museum. from Nikola Tesla

    • Tesla's remains were taken to the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Home at Madison Ave. and 81st St. Long-time friend and supporter of Tesla, Hugo Gernsback, commissioned a sculptor to create a death mask, now displayed in the Nikola Tesla Museum. from Nikola Tesla

    • This treatise is currently in the Nikola Tesla Museum archive in Belgrade. from Nikola Tesla

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    • The Nikola Tesla Museum (Serbian: Музеј Николе Тесле / Muzej Nikole Tesle) is dedicated to honoring and displaying the life and work of Nikola Tesla. from Nikola Tesla Museum

    • The Nikola Tesla Museum, founded in 1952, preserves the personal items of Nikola Tesla, the inventor after whom the Tesla unit was named. from Belgrade

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    1. 16
      Wireless power Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an…
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      Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without man-made conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The problem of wireless power transmission differs from that of wireless telecommunications, such as radio. In the latter,…

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      Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without man-made conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The problem of wireless power transmission differs from that of wireless telecommunications, such as radio. In the latter, the proportion of energy received becomes critical only if it is too low for the signal to be distinguished from the background noise. With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical.
      The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using direct induction followed by resonant magnetic induction. Other methods under consideration are electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or lasers and electrical conduction through natural media.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Wireless power

    • Tesla demonstrated wireless energy transmission (Tesla effect) as early as 1891. from Nikola Tesla

    • Nikola Tesla demonstrated the illumination of wireless lamps by energy that was coupled to them through an alternating electric field. from Wireless power

    • Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917) also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by Nikola Tesla in Shoreham, New York and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. from Wardenclyffe Tower

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    • It is a high power harmonic oscillator that Nikola Tesla intended for the wireless transmission of electrical energy. from Magnifying transmitter

    • Early history of the site In 1898, electrical engineer, inventor, and pioneer of electrical power technology, Nikola Tesla began planning and designing the Wardenclyffe Tower, a wireless transmission tower intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. from Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe

    • Nikola Tesla claimed as early as 1899 to have used a high frequency current to light gas-filled lamps from over away without using wires. from Reproducibility

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    1. 17
      Magnifying transmitter The magnifying transmitter is an advanced version of Tesla coil transmitter. It is a high power harmonic oscillator…
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      The magnifying transmitter is an advanced version of Tesla coil transmitter. It is a high power harmonic oscillator that Nikola Tesla intended for the wireless transmission of electrical energy. In his autobiography, Tesla stated that "...I feel certain that of all my inventions, the Magnifying Transmitter will prove most important and valuable to future generations." The magnifying transmitter is an air-core, multiple-resonant transformer that can generate very high voltages.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Magnifying transmitter

    • magnifying transmitter in Colorado Springs. from Nikola Tesla

    • His records indicate that the device is based on a narrow stream of small tungsten pellets that are accelerated via high voltage (by means akin to his magnifying transformer). from Nikola Tesla

    • It is a high power harmonic oscillator that Nikola Tesla intended for the wireless transmission of electrical energy. from Magnifying transmitter

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    • The EP cover art is a tinted photograph of inventor Nikola Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his "Magnifying Transmitter". from Exhibit C

    • A few people have blamed volcanic oddities, others speculate that someone was intentionally creating an electrical phenomenon for nefarious ends, possibly including a con on the villagers, with a Tesla-type Magnifying Transmitter or similar device. from Caronia

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      Tesla's oscillator Tesla's electro-mechanical oscillator is a steam-powered electric generator patented by Nikola Tesla in 1893. Later…
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      Tesla's electro-mechanical oscillator is a steam-powered electric generator patented by Nikola Tesla in 1893. Later in life Tesla claimed one version of the oscillator caused an earthquake in New York City in 1898, gaining it the popular culture title "Tesla's earthquake machine".

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Tesla's oscillator

    • Tesla invented a steam-powered mechanical oscillator—Tesla's oscillator. from Nikola Tesla

    • Tesla's electro-mechanical oscillator is a steam-powered electric generator patented by Nikola Tesla in 1893. from Tesla's oscillator

    • Nikola Tesla claimed a small steam-powered mechanical oscillator he was experimenting with in 1898 produce earthquake-like effects, but this has never been replicated. from Tectonic weapon

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    • This experiment, based upon a claim by inventor Nikola Tesla that his mechanical oscillator produced an earthquake in 1898, employed a small tunable reciprocating mass driver to shake the bridge at its resonance frequency. from Carquinez Bridge

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    1. 19
      Death ray The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the…
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      The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Edwin R. Scott, Harry Grindell Matthews, and Graichen, as well as others. In 1957, the National Inventors Council was still issuing lists of needed military inventions that included a death ray.…

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      The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Edwin R. Scott, Harry Grindell Matthews, and Graichen, as well as others. In 1957, the National Inventors Council was still issuing lists of needed military inventions that included a death ray.
      While based in fiction, research into energy-based weapons inspired by past speculation has contributed to real-life weapons in use by modern militaries sometimes called a sort of 'death ray', such as the United States Navy and its 'Laser Weapon System' (LaWS) deployed in mid-2014. These such armaments are technically known as 'directed-energy weapons'.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Death ray

    • The press called it a "peace ray" or death ray. from Nikola Tesla

    • The idea that a death ray was possibly invented by Nikola Tesla and may have caused the Tunguska event was explored in an episode of in a story entitled "Radio Waves of Death". from Death ray

    • Nikola Tesla claimed to have invented a "death beam" which he called teleforce in the 1930s and continued the claims up until his death. from Death ray

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    • The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Nikola Tesla, Edwin R. Scott, Harry Grindell Matthews, and Graichen, as well as others. from Death ray

    • Nikola Tesla's attempts at developing directed-energy weapons, or "death rays", also fueled the imagination of many writers, with death rays featuring in novels like Pierrepont Noyes' The Pallid Giant (1927). from Weapons in science fiction

    • Extreme Limits (also known as Crash Point Zero) is a 2000 action film about the recovery of Nikola Tesla's death ray. from Extreme Limits

    • On 11 July 1934 the New York Times published an article by Nikola Tesla claiming he had invented a death ray that could destroy aircraft at a range of . from Chain Home

    • Nikola Tesla in his later years conceptualized a so-called "death ray" (a directed energy weapon) and was sensationalized in the media, notably the New York Times and the New York Sun , as a prototypical mad scientist for it. from Mad scientist

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      Oliver Lodge Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, FRS (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the…
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      Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, FRS (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of key patents in wireless telegraphy. In his 1894 Royal Institution lectures ("The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors"), Lodge coined the term "coherer" for the device developed by French physicist…

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      Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, FRS (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of key patents in wireless telegraphy. In his 1894 Royal Institution lectures ("The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors"), Lodge coined the term "coherer" for the device developed by French physicist Édouard Branly based on the work of Italian physicist Temistocle Calzecchi Onesti. In 1898 he was awarded the "syntonic" (or tuning) patent by the United States Patent Office. He was also credited by Lorentz (1895) with the first published description of the length contraction hypothesis, in 1893, though in fact Lodge's friend George Francis FitzGerald had first suggested the idea in print in 1889.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Oliver Lodge

    • In 1943, a Supreme Court of the United States decision restored the prior patents of Tesla, Oliver Lodge, and John Stone. from Nikola Tesla

    • In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down a decision on Marconi's radio patents restoring some of the prior patents of Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone, and Nikola Tesla. from Guglielmo Marconi

    • Wireless detailed history and growth of the art includes the work of Karl Ferdinand Braun, Reginald Fessenden (known for inventing radiotelephony), John Ambrose Fleming, Lee De Forest, Oliver Lodge, Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla and many others. from Wireless telegraphy

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    • 1943: the Supreme Court of the United States, in a case on radio patents involving the U.S. government vs the Marconi Company, restores some of the prior patents of Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone, and Nicola Tesla. from Timeline of radio

    • Several attempts were made to detect radio emission from the Sun by experimenters such as Nikola Tesla and Oliver Lodge, but those attempts were unable to detect any emission due to technical limitations of their instruments. from Radio astronomy

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    1. 21
      Wireless telegraphy Wireless telegraphy is electric telegraphy that does not have wires connecting the endpoints. It is now used as a…
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      Wireless telegraphy is electric telegraphy that does not have wires connecting the endpoints. It is now used as a historical term for early radio telegraphy systems which communicated with radio waves, although when the term originated in the late 1800s it was also used for a variety of other experimental techniques for communicating telegraphically without wires, such as photoelectric and induction telegraphy.…

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      Wireless telegraphy is electric telegraphy that does not have wires connecting the endpoints. It is now used as a historical term for early radio telegraphy systems which communicated with radio waves, although when the term originated in the late 1800s it was also used for a variety of other experimental techniques for communicating telegraphically without wires, such as photoelectric and induction telegraphy.
      Wireless telegraphy came to mean Morse code transmitted with electromagnetic waves, initially called "Hertzian waves" and by 1910 universally referred to as "radio", leading to these systems being called "radiotelegraphy". The transmission of speech (radiotelephony) began to displace wireless telegraphy by the 1920s for many applications and was the basis of public broadcasting. Wireless telegraphy continued to be used for point-to-point business, governmental, and military communication, and evolved into radioteletype networks.
      Wireless telegraphy is still used widely today by amateur radio hobbyists where it is commonly referred to as radio telegraphy, continuous wave, or just CW.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Wireless telegraphy

    • Upon his arrival, he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments, transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris. from Nikola Tesla

    • During his visit to the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1889 the Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla learned of Hertz's experiments with electromagnetic waves using coils and spark gaps and proceeded to duplicate those experiments. from Wireless telegraphy

    • Wireless detailed history and growth of the art includes the work of Karl Ferdinand Braun, Reginald Fessenden (known for inventing radiotelephony), John Ambrose Fleming, Lee De Forest, Oliver Lodge, Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla and many others. from Wireless telegraphy

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      Teleforce Teleforce is a charged particle beam projector that Nikola Tesla claimed to have conceived of after studying the…
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      Teleforce is a charged particle beam projector that Nikola Tesla claimed to have conceived of after studying the Van de Graaff generator. Tesla described the weapon as being able to be used against ground-based infantry or for anti-aircraft purposes.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Teleforce

    • Later in life, Tesla made claims concerning a "teleforce" weapon after studying the Van de Graaff generator. from Nikola Tesla

    • Teleforce is a charged particle beam projector that Nikola Tesla claimed to have conceived of after studying the Van de Graaff generator. from Teleforce

    • Nikola Tesla claimed to have invented a "death beam" which he called teleforce in the 1930s and continued the claims up until his death. from Death ray

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      Three-phase In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating…
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      In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period. A three-phase system may be arranged in delta (∆) or star (Y) (also denoted as wye in some areas). A wye system allows the use of two different voltages…

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      In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period. A three-phase system may be arranged in delta (∆) or star (Y) (also denoted as wye in some areas). A wye system allows the use of two different voltages from all three phases, such as a 230/400V system which provides 230V between the neutral (centre hub) and any one of the phases, and 400V across any two phases. A delta system arrangement only provides one voltage magnitude, however it has a greater redundancy as it may continue to operate normally with one of the three supply windings offline, albeit at 57.7% of total capacity. Harmonic currents in the neutral may become very large if non-linear loads are connected.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Three-phase

    • File:3phase-rmf-noadd-60f-airopt.gif|Representation of a three-phase system with rotating magnetic fields. from Nikola Tesla

    • The system of three-phase alternating current electrical generation, transmission, and distribution was developed in the 19th century by Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse and others. from Mains electricity

    • At the end of the 19th century, Nikola Tesla established the principles of three-phase high-voltage electrical power distribution while he was working for Westinghouse in the United States. from National Grid (Great Britain)

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    • The alternating current power system developed rapidly after 1886 with efficient, practical, transformer and AC motor designs, including induction motors independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla and further developed into a practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown. from Electrical engineering

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    1. 24
      American Institute of Electrical Engineers The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was a United States based organization of electrical…
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      The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed from 1884 through 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To American Institute of Electrical Engineers

    • From 1892 to 1894, Tesla served as the vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the forerunner (along with the Institute of Radio Engineers) of the modern-day IEEE. from Nikola Tesla

    • The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and innovators in the then new field of electrical engineering, among them Nikola Tesla, Thomas Alva Edison, Elihu Thomson, Edwin J. Houston, and Edward Weston. from American Institute of Electrical Engineers

    • At an AIEE meeting on May 16, 1888, Nikola Tesla delivered a lecture entitled , describing the equipment which allowed efficient generation and use of polyphase alternating currents. from Electric power transmission

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      Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe is a nonprofit organization established to develop a regional science and…
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      The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe is a nonprofit organization established to develop a regional science and technology center at the site of Nikola Tesla's former Wardenclyffe laboratory on Long Island, New York. The center raised money through crowdfunding to purchase the property.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe

    • In 2012, Jane Alcorn, president of the nonprofit group The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe, and Matthew Inman, creator of web cartoon The Oatmeal, raised a total of $2,220,511—$1,370,511 from a campaign and $850,000 from a New York State grant—to buy the property where Wardenclyffe Tower once stood and eventually turn it into a museum. from Nikola Tesla

    • Early history of the site In 1898, electrical engineer, inventor, and pioneer of electrical power technology, Nikola Tesla began planning and designing the Wardenclyffe Tower, a wireless transmission tower intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. from Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe

    • The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe is a nonprofit organization established to develop a regional science and technology center at the site of Nikola Tesla's former Wardenclyffe laboratory on Long Island, New York. from Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe

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    • Car blog Jalopnik reported on August 16, 2012 that Musk was supporting an effort by Matthew Inman of The Oatmeal to preserve the site of Nikola Tesla's lab on Long Island, New York and turn it into a museum, the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe. from Elon Musk

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      My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla (ISBN 0910077002) is a book compiled and edited by Ben Johnston…
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      My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla (ISBN 0910077002) is a book compiled and edited by Ben Johnston detailing the work of Nikola Tesla. The content was largely drawn from a series of articles that Nikola Tesla had written for Electrical Experimenter magazine in 1919, at which time Tesla was 63 years old.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla

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      Geissler tube A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge. The…
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      A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge. The tube was invented by the German physicist and glassblower Heinrich Geissler in 1857. It consists of a sealed, partially evacuated glass cylinder of various shapes with a metal electrode at each end, containing rarefied gasses such…

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      A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge. The tube was invented by the German physicist and glassblower Heinrich Geissler in 1857. It consists of a sealed, partially evacuated glass cylinder of various shapes with a metal electrode at each end, containing rarefied gasses such as neon, argon, or air; mercury vapor or other conductive fluids; or ionizable minerals or metals, such as sodium. When a high voltage is applied between the electrodes, an electrical current flows through the tube. The current dissociates electrons from the gas molecules, creating ions, and when the electrons recombine with the ions, the gas emits light by fluorescence. The color of light emitted is characteristic of the material within the tube, and many different colors and lighting effects can be achieved. The first gas-discharge lamps, Geissler tubes were novelty items, made in many artistic shapes and colors to demonstrate the new science of electricity. In the early 20th century, the technology was commercialized and evolved into neon lighting.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Geissler tube

    • What can I say?" Tesla may have inadvertently captured an X-ray image (predating Wilhelm Röntgen's December 1895 announcement of the discovery of x-rays by a few weeks) when he tried to photograph Mark Twain illuminated by a Geissler tube, an earlier type of gas discharge tube. from Nikola Tesla

    • 1893 Nikola Tesla puts forward his ideas on high frequency and wireless electric lighting which included public demonstrations where he lit a Geissler tube wirelessly. from Timeline of lighting technology

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      Wilhelm Röntgen Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈʁœntɡən]; 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who…
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      Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈʁœntɡən]; 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today that was known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour…

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      Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈʁœntɡən]; 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today that was known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Wilhelm Röntgen

    • In March 1896, after hearing of Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-ray and X-ray imaging (radiography), Tesla proceeded to do his own experiments in X-ray imaging, developing a high energy single terminal vacuum tube of his own design that had no target electrode and that worked from the output of the Tesla Coil (the modern term for the phenomenon produced by this device is bremsstrahlung or braking radiation). from Nikola Tesla

    • What can I say?" Tesla may have inadvertently captured an X-ray image (predating Wilhelm Röntgen's December 1895 announcement of the discovery of x-rays by a few weeks) when he tried to photograph Mark Twain illuminated by a Geissler tube, an earlier type of gas discharge tube. from Nikola Tesla

    • During 1895 Röntgen was investigating the external effects from the various types of vacuum tube equipment — apparatuses from Heinrich Hertz, Johann Hittorf, William Crookes, Nikola Tesla and Philipp von Lenard — when an electrical discharge is passed through them. from Wilhelm Röntgen

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    • Meanwhile, the great physics discoveries of Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Nicola Tesla and Augusto Righi were made, including the transmission of telegraph signals without wires. from Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti

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      Westinghouse Electric (1886) The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as…
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      The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. George Westinghouse had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. The company purchased CBS in 1995 and became CBS Corporation in 1997.…

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      The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric Corporation by George Westinghouse. George Westinghouse had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. The company purchased CBS in 1995 and became CBS Corporation in 1997.
      In 1998, CBS established a brand licensing subsidiary Westinghouse Licensing Corporation (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). A year later, CBS sold all of its nuclear power businesses to British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). Soon after, BNFL gained license rights on the Westinghouse trademarks and they used those to reorganize their acquired assets as Westinghouse Electric Company. That company was sold to Toshiba in 2007.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Westinghouse Electric (1886)

    • Engineers working for the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company reported to George Westinghouse that Tesla had a viable AC motor and power system—something that Westinghouse had been trying to secure. from Nikola Tesla

    • 1888 - Licenses Nikola Tesla's AC and Induction motor patents and hires Tesla as a consultant for one year. from Westinghouse Electric (1886)

    • In addition to George Westinghouse, engineers working for the company included William Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Vladimir Zworykin, Oliver B. Shallenberger, Benjamin Garver Lamme and his sister Bertha Lamme. from Westinghouse Electric (1886)

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    • In July 1888, George Westinghouse licensed Nikola Tesla's US patents for a polyphase AC induction motor and transformer designs and hired Tesla for one year to be a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. from War of Currents

    • Westinghouse Electric was subcontracted to build 25 Hz AC generators, based on the work of Nikola Tesla and Benjamin G. Lamme, while the I. P. Morris Company of Philadelphia built the turbines based on the design of the Swiss company Faesch and Piccard. from Adams Power Plant Transformer House

    • The Scott three-phase transformer was invented by a Westinghouse engineer, Charles F. Scott, in the late 1890s to bypass Thomas Edison's more expensive rotary converter and thereby permit two-phase generator plants to drive Nikola Tesla's three-phase motors. from Scott-T transformer

    • In 1888, a Serbian immigrant, Nikola Tesla, a former employee of Edison's, patented an AC induction motor and licensed it to the Westinghouse Corporation. from Technological and industrial history of the United States

    • In July 1888, Westinghouse also licensed Nikola Tesla's US patents for a polyphase AC induction motor and transformer designs and hired Tesla for one year to be a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. from Electric power system

    • In 1897 Westinghouse established a manufacturing facility in Hamilton and began producing heavy alternating current (AC) generators and AC motors (based on Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla's induction motor) for the Canadian market. from Technological and industrial history of Canada

    • At the end of the 19th century, Nikola Tesla established the principles of three-phase high-voltage electrical power distribution while he was working for Westinghouse in the United States. from National Grid (Great Britain)

    • Electrification of factories began very gradually in the 1890s after the introduction of a practical DC motor by Frank J. Sprague and accelerated after the AC motor was developed by Galileo Ferraris, Nikola Tesla and Westinghouse, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and others. from Mass production

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    1. 30
      Smiljan Smiljan (pronounced [smî̞ʎan]) is a village in the mountainous region of Lika in Croatia. It is located 6 km (3.7…
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      Smiljan (pronounced [smî̞ʎan]) is a village in the mountainous region of Lika in Croatia. It is located 6 km (3.7 mi) northwest of Gospić, and fifteen kilometers from the Zagreb-Split highway; its population is 418 (2011). Smiljan is famous for being a birthplace of a Croatian inventor Nikola Tesla.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Smiljan

    • Nikola Tesla was born on 10 July (O.S. 28 June) 1856 to Serbian parents in the village of Smiljan, Austrian Empire (modern-day Croatia). from Nikola Tesla

    • Smiljan is known best for being the birthplace of Nikola Tesla on 10 July 1856. from Smiljan

    • The municipality was the birthplace of such great men as the physicist and engineer Nikola Tesla (in Smiljan), pioneer in telegraphy Ferdinand Kovačević and also national thinkers like Ante Starčević. from Gospić

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      High voltage The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm or death upon living…
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      The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm or death upon living things. Equipment and conductors that carry high voltage warrant particular safety requirements and procedures. In certain industries, high voltage means voltage above a particular threshold (see below). High voltage is used in electrical power distribution, in…

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      The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm or death upon living things. Equipment and conductors that carry high voltage warrant particular safety requirements and procedures. In certain industries, high voltage means voltage above a particular threshold (see below). High voltage is used in electrical power distribution, in cathode ray tubes, to generate X-rays and particle beams, to demonstrate arcing, for ignition, in photomultiplier tubes, and in high power amplifier vacuum tubes and other industrial and scientific applications.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To High voltage

    • At that time, many inventors were trying to develop workable AC motors because AC's advantages in long distance high voltage transmission were counterbalanced by the inability to operate motors on AC. from Nikola Tesla

    • In 1891, Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil, an air-cored, dual-tuned resonant transformer for generating very high voltages at high frequency. from Transformer

    • The plasma lamp was invented by Nikola Tesla after his experimentation with high-frequency currents in an evacuated glass tube for the purpose of studying high voltage phenomena, but the modern versions were known to be first designed by Bill Parker. from Plasma globe

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    • The internal-electrodeless lamp was invented by Tesla after his experimentation with high-frequency currents in evacuated glass tubes for the purposes of lighting and the study of high voltage phenomena. from Plasma lamp

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    1. 32
      Wyndham New Yorker Hotel The Wyndham New Yorker Hotel is a hotel located at 481 Eighth Avenue in New York City, USA. The 43-story Art Deco…
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      The Wyndham New Yorker Hotel is a hotel located at 481 Eighth Avenue in New York City, USA. The 43-story Art Deco hotel opened in 1930.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Wyndham New Yorker Hotel

    • On 7 January 1943, Tesla, 86, died alone in room 3327 of the New Yorker Hotel. His body was later found by maid Alice Monaghan after she had entered Tesla's room, ignoring the "do not disturb" sign that Tesla had placed on his door two days earlier. from Nikola Tesla

    • Inventor Nikola Tesla spent the last ten years of his life in near-seclusion in Suite 3327, where he died, largely devoting his time to feeding pigeons while occasionally meeting dignitaries. from Wyndham New Yorker Hotel

    • Inventor Nikola Tesla lived the last ten years of his life at the New Yorker Hotel until he died in his room in 1943. from Hotel

    1. 33
      Arc lamp An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The carbon…
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      An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The carbon arc light, which consists of an arc between carbon electrodes in air, invented by Humphry Davy in the early 1800s, was the first practical electric light. It was widely used starting in…

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      An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The carbon arc light, which consists of an arc between carbon electrodes in air, invented by Humphry Davy in the early 1800s, was the first practical electric light. It was widely used starting in the 1870s for street and large building lighting until it was superseded by the incandescent light in the early 20th century. It continued in use in more specialized applications where a high intensity point light source was needed, such as searchlights, until after World War II.
      The term is now used to refer to gas discharge lamps, which produce light by an arc between metal electrodes through an inert gas in a glass bulb. The common fluorescent lamp is a low-pressure mercury arc lamp. The xenon arc lamp, which produces a high intensity white light, is now used in many of the applications which formerly used the carbon arc, such as movie projectors and searchlights.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Arc lamp

    • The company installed electrical arc light based illumination systems designed by Tesla and also had designs for dynamo electric machine commutators, the first patents issued to Tesla in the US. from Nikola Tesla

    • By 1890, the Thomson-Houston company was the dominant electrical manufacturing company in the U.S. Nikola Tesla received U.S. Patent 447920, "Method of Operating Arc-Lamps" (March 10, 1891), that describes a 10,000 cycles per second alternator to suppress the disagreeable sound of power-frequency harmonics produced by arc lamps operating on frequencies within the range of human hearing. from Arc lamp

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      2244 Tesla 2244 Tesla is a minor planet or asteroid. It was discovered on October 22, 1952 by Milorad B. Protić at Belgrade…
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      2244 Tesla is a minor planet or asteroid. It was discovered on October 22, 1952 by Milorad B. Protić at Belgrade, Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, now Serbia.…

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      2244 Tesla is a minor planet or asteroid. It was discovered on October 22, 1952 by Milorad B. Protić at Belgrade, Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, now Serbia.
      It was named for Serbian-American electrical engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
      It has an orbital period of 4 years, 261 days.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To 2244 Tesla

    • 2244 Tesla, a minor planet. from Nikola Tesla

    • It was named for Serbian-American electrical engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. from 2244 Tesla

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      Crookes tube A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English…
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      A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.…

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      A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
      Developed from the earlier Geissler tube, the Crookes tube consists of a partially evacuated glass container of various shapes, with two metal electrodes, the cathode and the anode, one at either end. When a high voltage is applied between the electrodes, cathode rays (electrons) are projected in straight lines from the cathode. It was used by Crookes, Johann Hittorf, Julius Plücker, Eugen Goldstein, Heinrich Hertz, Philipp Lenard and others to discover the properties of cathode rays, culminating in J.J. Thomson's 1897 identification of cathode rays as negatively charged particles, which were later named electrons. Crookes tubes are now used only for demonstrating cathode rays.
      Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays using the Crookes tube in 1895. The term is also used for the first generation, cold cathode X-ray tubes, which evolved from the experimental Crookes tubes and were used until about 1920.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Crookes tube

    • His early experiments were with Crookes tubes, a cold cathode electrical discharge tube. from Nikola Tesla

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      Serbian American Serbian Americans also known as American Serbs are American citizens of Serbian ethnicity. As of 2010, there are…
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      Serbian Americans also known as American Serbs are American citizens of Serbian ethnicity. As of 2010, there are 187,739 American citizens of Serb ethnicity. However, this number may be much higher as there are some 328,547 people who identify as Yugoslavs living in the United States. Those can include Serbian Americans living in the United…

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      Serbian Americans also known as American Serbs are American citizens of Serbian ethnicity. As of 2010, there are 187,739 American citizens of Serb ethnicity. However, this number may be much higher as there are some 328,547 people who identify as Yugoslavs living in the United States. Those can include Serbian Americans living in the United States for one or several generations, dual Serbian American citizens, or any other Serbian Americans who consider themselves to be affiliated to both cultures or countries.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Serbian American

    • Nikola Tesla ( ; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. from Nikola Tesla

    • Nikola Tesla and Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin are the world-known scientists. from Serbian American

    • Tesla Exhibit - Room of antiques and historical memorabilia connected to Serbian American inventor, Nikola Tesla. from Serbian American Museum St. Sava

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    • There are claims, so far unsubstantiated, that the famous Serbian-American scientist Nikola Tesla is also a descendant of the clan Orlović. from Orlović clan

    • January 7 - Nikola Tesla (born 1856), Croatian-born Serbian American inventor. from 1943 in science

    • File:Tesla3.jpg|Nikola Tesla - Serbian American scientist. from South Slavs

    • Serbian American scientist, inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history. from Serbs

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    1. 37
      John Stone Stone John Stone Stone (September 24, 1869 – May 20, 1943) was an American mathematician, physicist and inventor. He…
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      John Stone Stone (September 24, 1869 – May 20, 1943) was an American mathematician, physicist and inventor. He worked as an early telephone engineer, was influential in developing wireless communication technology, and held dozens of patents in the field of "space telegraphy".

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To John Stone Stone

    • In 1943, a Supreme Court of the United States decision restored the prior patents of Tesla, Oliver Lodge, and John Stone. from Nikola Tesla

    • 1943: the Supreme Court of the United States, in a case on radio patents involving the U.S. government vs the Marconi Company, restores some of the prior patents of Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone, and Nicola Tesla. from Timeline of radio

    • In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down a decision on Marconi's radio patents restoring some of the prior patents of Oliver Lodge, John Stone Stone, and Nikola Tesla. from Guglielmo Marconi

    1. 38
      J. P. Morgan John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist…
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      John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the…

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      John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged it in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidated Steel and Wire Company, owned by William Edenborn, to form the United States Steel Corporation.
      At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance and United States Congress members. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907. He was the leading financier of the Progressive Era, and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business.
      Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont Morgan, Jr.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To J. P. Morgan

    • In 1900, with US$150,000 (more than $3 million today; 51% from J. Pierpont Morgan), Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility. from Nikola Tesla

    • In 1900, Morgan invested $150,000 in inventor Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower, a high power transatlantic wireless communication project. from J. P. Morgan

    • Among the many well-known people who patronized Delmonico's are Jenny Lind, who, it was said, ate there after every show, Theodore Roosevelt, Mark Twain, Arthur Sullivan, "Diamond Jim" Brady, Lillian Russell, usually in the company of Diamond Jim, Charles Dickens, Oscar Wilde, J.P. Morgan, James Gordon Bennett, Jr., Nikola Tesla, Edward VII, then-Prince of Wales, and Napoleon III of France. from Delmonico's

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    • The divergence happened in 1893, when Nikola Tesla married Anne Morgan, daughter of millionaire and philanthropist J. P. Morgan, an event that helped him to stabilize his life and make many of his inventions reality thanks to the support of his father-in-law. from GURPS Infinite Worlds

    • —presents six versions of Earth possessing alternate histories to that of our own world, as well as a number of less-detailed settings scattered throughout the book in sidebars: for instance, "Gernsback" is a parallel, inspired by 1930s science fiction adventure stories (it is named for the editor Hugo Gernsback) has as its point of divergence is the marriage of Nikola Tesla to Anne Morgan, daughter of banker and financier J. P. Morgan. from List of GURPS books

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    1. 39
      Thomas Commerford Martin Thomas Commerford Martin (July 22, 1856–May 17, 1924) was an American electrical engineer and editor, born in…
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      Thomas Commerford Martin (July 22, 1856–May 17, 1924) was an American electrical engineer and editor, born in London, England. His father worked with Lord Kelvin and other pioneers of submarine telegraph cables, and Martin spent much time on the cable-laying ship SS Great Eastern. Educated as a theological student, Martin came to the United States…

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      Thomas Commerford Martin (July 22, 1856–May 17, 1924) was an American electrical engineer and editor, born in London, England. His father worked with Lord Kelvin and other pioneers of submarine telegraph cables, and Martin spent much time on the cable-laying ship SS Great Eastern. Educated as a theological student, Martin came to the United States in 1877. He was associated with Thomas A. Edison in his work in 1877–1879 and thereafter was engaged in editorial work. From 1883 to 1909 he served as editor of the Electrical World, after 1909 was executive secretary of the National Electric Light Association, and in 1900–1911 was a special agent of the United States Census Office. At various times he lectured at the Royal Institution of Engineers, London, the Paris Société Internationale des Electriciens, the University of Nebraska, and Columbia. He was a founding member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and served as president in 1887-1888.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Thomas Commerford Martin

    • Martin, Thomas C., The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla, 1894. from Nikola Tesla

    • In 1888, the editor of Electrical World magazine, Thomas Commerford Martin (a friend and publicist), arranged for Tesla to demonstrate his alternating current system, including his induction motor, at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE). from Nikola Tesla

    1. 40
      Oliver B. Shallenberger Oliver Blackburn Shallenberger (May 7, 1860 – January 23, 1898) was an American engineer and inventor.He was born…
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      Oliver Blackburn Shallenberger (May 7, 1860 – January 23, 1898) was an American engineer and inventor.
      He was born in Rochester in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. His parents were Aaron T. Shallenberger and Mary (born Bonbright). His uncle was William Shadrack Shallenberger.…

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      Oliver Blackburn Shallenberger (May 7, 1860 – January 23, 1898) was an American engineer and inventor.
      He was born in Rochester in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. His parents were Aaron T. Shallenberger and Mary (born Bonbright). His uncle was William Shadrack Shallenberger.
      In 1877 he entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. After his graduation he spent two years on the U. S. flag-ship Lancaster in the Mediterranean, resigning in 1884. The Union Switch and Signal Company, of Pittsburgh, under the management of George Westinghouse, was at that time organizing an electric light department, and Mr. Shallenberger became associated with that work.
      In April 1888 he invented an induction meter for measuring alternating current (ampere-hours), a critical element in the Westinghouse AC system.
      On November 27, 1889 he married Mary Woolslair. They had a son and daughter. In 1891, poor health required him to resign from the Westinghouse company but he continued as a consultant. In 1897 he had organized the Colorado Electric Power Company.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Oliver B. Shallenberger

    • In 1888, a month before Tesla demonstrated his AC induction motor, Westinghouse engineer Oliver B. Shallenberger invented an induction meter that was based on the same rotating magnetic field principle, and during Tesla's demonstration English engineer Elihu Thomson stated he was working on an induction motor. from Nikola Tesla

    • In addition to George Westinghouse, engineers working for the company included William Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Vladimir Zworykin, Oliver B. Shallenberger, Benjamin Garver Lamme and his sister Bertha Lamme. from Westinghouse Electric (1886)

    1. 41
      The Oatmeal The Oatmeal is a comics and articles website created in 2009 by Matthew Inman (born c. 1981-1982), who often goes…
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      The Oatmeal is a comics and articles website created in 2009 by Matthew Inman (born c. 1981-1982), who often goes by the nickname "the Oatmeal". The website features comics drawn by Inman, quizzes, and occasional articles. Inman lives in the Fremont area of Seattle, Washington, United States and his second published collection is How to Tell if Your Cat is Plotting to Kill You.…

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      The Oatmeal is a comics and articles website created in 2009 by Matthew Inman (born c. 1981-1982), who often goes by the nickname "the Oatmeal". The website features comics drawn by Inman, quizzes, and occasional articles. Inman lives in the Fremont area of Seattle, Washington, United States and his second published collection is How to Tell if Your Cat is Plotting to Kill You.
      As of 2010, The Oatmeal got more than four million unique visitors a month. In 2012, its annual revenue was around $500,000, 75% from merchandising and the rest from advertising.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To The Oatmeal

    • In 2012, Jane Alcorn, president of the nonprofit group The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe, and Matthew Inman, creator of web cartoon The Oatmeal, raised a total of $2,220,511—$1,370,511 from a campaign and $850,000 from a New York State grant—to buy the property where Wardenclyffe Tower once stood and eventually turn it into a museum. from Nikola Tesla

    • The goal was to raise at least $850,000 to buy the property and restore the facility with the hope of eventually building a museum on the grounds in honor of the man who built Wardenclyffe, the Serbian-American electrical engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla. from The Oatmeal

    • Car blog Jalopnik reported on August 16, 2012 that Musk was supporting an effort by Matthew Inman of The Oatmeal to preserve the site of Nikola Tesla's lab on Long Island, New York and turn it into a museum, the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe. from Elon Musk

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      Direct current Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as…
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      Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in…

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      Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for direct current was galvanic current.
      The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.
      Direct current may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a current-switching arrangement called a rectifier, which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction. Direct current may be made into alternating current with an inverter or a motor-generator set.
      The first commercial electric power transmission (developed by Thomas Edison in the late nineteenth century) used direct current. Because of the significant advantages of alternating current over direct current in transforming and transmission, electric power distribution is nearly all alternating current today. In the mid-1950s, high-voltage direct current transmission was developed, and is now an option instead of long-distance high voltage alternating current systems. For long distance underseas cables (e.g. between countries, such as NorNed), this is the only technically feasible option. For applications requiring direct current, such as third rail power systems, alternating current is distributed to a substation, which utilizes a rectifier to convert the power to direct current. See War of Currents.
      Direct current is used to charge batteries, and in nearly all electronic systems, as the power supply. Very large quantities of direct-current power are used in production of aluminum and other electrochemical processes. Direct current is used for some railway propulsion, especially in urban areas. High-voltage direct current is used to transmit large amounts of power from remote generation sites or to interconnect alternating current power grids.

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    How Nikola Tesla
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    • Tesla was even offered the task of completely redesigning the Edison Company's direct current generators. from Nikola Tesla

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      National Electric Light Association The National Electric Light Association was a national United States trade association including the operators of…
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      The National Electric Light Association was a national United States trade association including the operators of central power generation stations and interested individuals. Founded in 1885 by G. S. Bowen Terry and Charles A. Brown, it represented the interests of various private companies involved in the fledgling electric power industry. It was the forerunner of…

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      The National Electric Light Association was a national United States trade association including the operators of central power generation stations and interested individuals. Founded in 1885 by G. S. Bowen Terry and Charles A. Brown, it represented the interests of various private companies involved in the fledgling electric power industry. It was the forerunner of the Edison Electric Institute (founded in 1933). In 1895 the Association sponsored a conference which led to the issue of the first edition of the U.S. National Electrical Code.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To National Electric Light Association

    • Tesla's theories on the possibility of the transmission by radio waves go back as far as lectures and demonstrations in 1893 in St. Louis, Missouri, the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the National Electric Light Association. from Nikola Tesla

    • 1893: Nikola Tesla delivers a lecture "On Light and other High Frequency Phenomena" before the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association St Louis. from Timeline of radio

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      Poldhu Poldhu is a small area in south Cornwall, England, UK, situated on the Lizard Peninsula; it comprises Poldhu Point…
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      Poldhu is a small area in south Cornwall, England, UK, situated on the Lizard Peninsula; it comprises Poldhu Point and Poldhu Cove. It lies on the coast west of Goonhilly Downs, with Mullion 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the south and Porthleven 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) to the north. Poldhu means "black pool" in Cornish.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Poldhu

    • Other sources hypothesize that he may have intercepted Marconi's European experiments—in December 1901, Marconi successfully transmitted the letter S (dot/dot/dot, the same three impulses that Tesla claimed to have received from outer space while at Colorado in 1899) from Poldhu, England to Signal Hill, Newfoundland (now part of Canada)—or signals from another experimenter in wireless transmission. from Nikola Tesla

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      Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900 Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900 (ISBN 8617073527) (Published by Nolit: Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978) is a book…
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      Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900 (ISBN 8617073527) (Published by Nolit: Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978) is a book compiled and edited by Aleksandar Marinčić and Vojin Popović detailing the work of Nikola Tesla in Colorado Springs at the turn of the 20th century.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900

    • The 1978 book "Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900" contains descriptions of Tesla's experiments. from Nikola Tesla

    • Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900 (ISBN 8617073527) (Published by Nolit: Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978) is a book compiled and edited by Aleksandar Marinčić and Vojin Popović detailing the work of Nikola Tesla in Colorado Springs at the turn of the 20th century. from Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900

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      Electrical Experimenter The Electrical Experimenter was a technical science magazine that was published monthly. It was established in May…
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      The Electrical Experimenter was a technical science magazine that was published monthly. It was established in May 1913, as the successor to Modern Electrics, a combination of a magazine and mail-order catalog that had been published by Hugo Gernsback starting in 1908. The Electrical Experimenter continued from May 1913 to July 1920 under that name, focusing on scientific articles about radio, and continued with a broader focus as Science and Invention until August 1931.…

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      The Electrical Experimenter was a technical science magazine that was published monthly. It was established in May 1913, as the successor to Modern Electrics, a combination of a magazine and mail-order catalog that had been published by Hugo Gernsback starting in 1908. The Electrical Experimenter continued from May 1913 to July 1920 under that name, focusing on scientific articles about radio, and continued with a broader focus as Science and Invention until August 1931.
      The magazine was edited by Hugo Gernsback until March 1929, when the publishing empire of Sidney and Hugo Gernsback was forced into bankruptcy; after that date it was edited by Arthur H. Lynch.
      Under the editorship of Gernsback, it also published some early science fiction; he published several of his own stories in the magazine starting in 1915, and encouraged others through a 1916 editorial arguing that a "real electrical experimenter, worthy of the name" must have imagination and a vision for the future. Between August 1917 and July 1919, Nikola Tesla wrote five articles in the magazine, and also published parts of his autobiography in segments in several issues in 1919.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Electrical Experimenter

    • During World War I in the August 1917 edition of the magazine Electrical Experimenter Tesla put forward his views on how electricity could be used to locate submarines via using the reflection of an "electric ray" of "tremendous frequency," with the signal being viewed on a fluorescent screen (a system that has been noted to have a superficial resemblance to modern RADAR). from Nikola Tesla

    • Between August 1917 and July 1919, Nikola Tesla wrote five articles in the magazine, and also published parts of in segments in several issues in 1919. from Electrical Experimenter

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      Tesla (unit) The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of magnetic field strength or magnetic flux density, commonly denoted…
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      The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of magnetic field strength or magnetic flux density, commonly denoted as B. One tesla is equal to one weber per square metre, and it was named in 1960 in honour of Nikola Tesla. The strongest fields encountered from permanent magnets are from Halbach spheres which can be over 4.5 T. The unit was announced during the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures in 1960.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Tesla (unit)

    • In 1960, in honor of Tesla, the General Conference on Weights and Measures for the International System of Units dedicated the term "tesla" to the SI unit measure for magnetic field strength. from Nikola Tesla

    • One tesla is equal to one weber per square metre, and it was defined in 1960 in honour of Nikola Tesla. from Tesla (unit)

    • The Nikola Tesla Museum, founded in 1952, preserves the personal items of Nikola Tesla, the inventor after whom the Tesla unit was named. from Belgrade

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      Electric generator In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy…
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      In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.…

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      In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.
      The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Electric generator

    • Tesla was even offered the task of completely redesigning the Edison Company's direct current generators. from Nikola Tesla

    • In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz). from Electric generator

    • One of the founders (the other two were Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris) of three-phase electrical systems, he developed the three-phase electrical generator and a three-phase electrical motor (1888) and studied star and delta connections. from Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky

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    • Part of the space occupied by the Westinghouse Company was devoted to demonstrations of electrical devices developed by Nikola Tesla including a two-phase induction motor, and generators to power the system. from World's Columbian Exposition

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      Atmospheric electricity Atmospheric electricity is the pattern of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or less commonly, that of…
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      Atmospheric electricity is the pattern of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or less commonly, that of another planet). The normal movement of electric charges among the Earth's surface, the various layers of the atmosphere, and especially the ionosphere, taken together, are known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Much of the reasoning required to explain these currents lies within the field of electrostatics, but also requires understanding of other disciplines within Earth science.…

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      Atmospheric electricity is the pattern of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or less commonly, that of another planet). The normal movement of electric charges among the Earth's surface, the various layers of the atmosphere, and especially the ionosphere, taken together, are known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Much of the reasoning required to explain these currents lies within the field of electrostatics, but also requires understanding of other disciplines within Earth science.
      Eliminating, for the moment, consideration of the extremely dense charge populations that exist in the upper reaches of the atmosphere, a region called the ionosphere, filled with hot, dense, plasma gas whose ions give the ionosphere its name, we note that there is always some amount of unbound positive and negative, but net positive, electric charge in the atmosphere closest to the surface of the negatively charged Earth on a 'fine day'. When days are not so 'fine', the net unbound charge that exists in the clouds of thunderstorms can be exceedingly negative.
      The 'fine day' net positive charge sets up an electric field between the negative Earth and the net positive charge in the air, and this electric field stores electrical energy. The positive charge acts by induction on the earth and electromagnetic devices.
      Experiments have shown that the intensity of this electric field is greater in the middle of the day than at morning or night and is also greater in winter than in summer. In 'fine weather', the potential, aka 'voltage', increases with altitude at about 30 volts per foot (100 V/m), when climbing against the gradient of the electric field. This electric field gradient continues up into the atmosphere to a point where the voltage reaches its maximum, in the neighborhood of 300,000 volts. This occurs at approximately 30–50 km above the Earth's surface. From that point in the atmosphere up to its outer limit, nearly 1,000 km, the electric field gradient produced in the lower atmosphere either ceases or has reversed.
      Global daily cycles, with a minimum and a peak at roughly 16:00 hours later, were researched by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the 20th century. This Carnegie curve variation has been described as "the fundamental electrical heartbeat of the planet".
      The phenomena characterizing atmospheric electricity are of at least three kinds. There are thunderstorms, which create lightning bolts that 'instantaneously' discharge huge amounts of atmospheric charge to ground in a rapid release of energy stored in the electric field that built up to a particularly extreme degree in the storm clouds. There is a related phenomenon of continual electrification (re-charging) of the air in the lower atmosphere. A third phenomenon is that of the polar auroras.
      Most authorities agree that whatever may be the origin of the net unbound positive charge in the atmosphere, the generation of enormous currents (flow of electrons, negative charges), that flow between clouds and ground during a lightning discharge, begins with condensation of water vapor within the clouds; each minute water droplet moving through the air collects upon its surface a certain amount of negative charge by collecting 'free' electrons. As these tiny drops coalesce into larger drops, and still larger drops, there is a corresponding decrease in the total exposed surface upon which the collected electronic charges can be carried, raising the negative voltage as droplets combine. This is because an object's potential rises as the electrical capacitance of the object holding the charge is decreased. The combined negative electric potential of all the coalescing water drops rises until it overcomes the breakdown voltage of the, usually non-conductive, air, and jumps to earth as a lightning bolt. The similarity of lightning to the discharge of accumulated electrons developed on an electrical machine was demonstrated by Franklin in his memorable kite experiments.

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    How Nikola Tesla
    Connects To Atmospheric electricity

    • Tesla investigated atmospheric electricity, observing lightning signals via his receivers. from Nikola Tesla

    • Nikola Tesla and Hermann Plauson investigated the production of energy and power via atmospheric electricity. from Atmospheric electricity

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      The AWA Review The AWA Review is a series of annual softcover books of original research articles on the history of radio. It is…
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      The AWA Review is a series of annual softcover books of original research articles on the history of radio. It is published by the Antique Wireless Association (AWA), a membership organization founded in 1952 and based in Bloomfield, New York, USA. Volume 1 was published in 1986 and Volume 27 was published in 2014. No volume was published in 1997. In recent years, the AWA has received anonymous grants to distribute the Review free-of-charge to all members.…

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      The AWA Review is a series of annual softcover books of original research articles on the history of radio. It is published by the Antique Wireless Association (AWA), a membership organization founded in 1952 and based in Bloomfield, New York, USA. Volume 1 was published in 1986 and Volume 27 was published in 2014. No volume was published in 1997. In recent years, the AWA has received anonymous grants to distribute the Review free-of-charge to all members.
      Articles typically address the technical history of radio and related technologies, including associated equipment, manufacturers, publications and inventors and other key individuals. They generally do not emphasize broadcast program content. A significant amount of published material is of interest to collectors of early radio receivers, tubes and similar materials. Neutral "peer reviewers" read and comment on articles prior to final editing for publication. A complete cumulative bibliography of articles may be found at the AWA's website (see External Links, below).
      Volume 12 (1999) was entirely devoted to Atwater Kent radios. It was written by noted Atwater Kent collector/historian Ralph O. Williams.
      Volume 27 (2014) comprises nine articles and an editor's forward in 288 pages. It includes numerous photographs and illustrations, with some in color. The editor is Robert P. Murray, Ph.D. of Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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    How Nikola Tesla
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