A kindergarten (German  Kindergarten , literally children's garden) is a preschool educational approach traditionally based around playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. The first such institutions were created in the late eighteenth century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children both of whose parents worked out of the home.

The name kindergarten was coined by Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach greatly influenced early-years education around the world. The term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions for children ranging from two years of age to seven of age based on a variety of teaching methods.

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  • 1. [Primary school] A primary school, or elementary school, is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education between the ages of about five to eleven, coming before secondary school and after preschool. It is the first stage of compulsory education in most parts of the world, and is normally available without charge, but may be a fee-paying independent school.
  • 2. [Preschool] A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside the US) is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, or seven, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school. They may be privately operated or government run, and the costs may be subsidized.
  • 3. [German language] German (Deutsch [ˈdɔʏtʃ] ( )) is a West Germanic language. It derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A number of words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer from French and English. Widely spoken languages which are most similar to German include Luxembourgish, Dutch, the Frisian languages, English and the Scandinavian languages.
  • 4. [Friedrich Fröbel] Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (or Froebel) (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈaʊɡʊst ˈfʁøːbəl]; April 21, 1782 – June 21, 1852) was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the “kindergarten” and also coined the word now used in German and English. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel Gifts.
  • 5. [First grade] First grade (called Grade 1 in some nations) is the first grade in elementary school. It is the first school year after kindergarten. People are usually 6 to 7 years old in this grade level.
  • 6. [Primary education] Primary education or elementary education often in primary school or elementary school is typically the first stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education.
  • 7. [School] A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally
  • 8. [Poppenhusen Institute] Poppenhusen Institute is a historic building at 114—04 14th Road in College Point, Queens that housed the first free kindergarten in America. In addition, this institute provided the first free evening classes for adults (in America). Currently, the Institute operates as a community cultural center. The institute stands at five-stories and was constructed in a stern Victorian style.
  • 9. [Montessori education] Montessori education is an educational approach developed by Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori and characterized by an emphasis on independence, freedom within limits, and respect for a child’s natural psychological, physical, and social development. Although a range of practices exists under the name "Montessori", the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) cite these elements as essential:
  • 10. [First Kindergarten] The First Kindergarten located in Watertown, Wisconsin was the first kindergarten to be opened in the United States. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
  • 11. [Catholic Church] The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.2 billion members worldwide. It is among the oldest religious institutions in the world, and has played a prominent role in the history of Western civilisation. The Catholic hierarchy is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known
  • 12. [Elizabeth Peabody] Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (May 16, 1804 – January 3, 1894) was an American educator who opened the first English-language kindergarten in the United States. Long before most educators, Peabody embraced the premise that children's play has intrinsic developmental and educational value.
  • 13. [Susan Blow] Susan Elizabeth Blow (June 7, 1843 in Carondelet, St. Louis, Missouri – March 27, 1916 in New York City, New York) was a United States educator who opened the first successful public Kindergarten in the United States. She is known as the "Mother of Kindergarten".
  • 14. [States of Germany] Germany is made up of sixteen states, known as Länder (singular Land). Since Germany has a federal constitution, the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer (literally: area states).
  • 15. [Reggio Emilia approach] The Reggio Emilia Approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education. It was developed by Loris Malaguzzi, who was a teacher himself, and the parents of the villages around Reggio Emilia in Italy after World War II. After such a great and destructive event, people believed that children were in need of
  • 16. [Forest kindergarten] A forest kindergarten is a type of preschool education for children between the ages of three and six that is held almost exclusively outdoors. Whatever the weather, children are encouraged to play, explore and learn in a forest or natural environment. The adult supervision is meant to assist rather than lead. It is also known as Waldkindergarten (in German), outdoor nursery, nature kindergarten, or nature preschool.
  • 17. [Elizabeth Harrison (educator)] Elizabeth Harrison (September 1, 1849 - October 31, 1927) was an American educator. She was the founder and first president of what is today National Louis University. Harrison was a pioneer in creating professional standards for early childhood teachers and in promoting early childhood education.
  • 18. [Reception (school)] Reception, Primary 1, or FS2 (foundation second year) is the first year of primary school in the United Kingdom (except Scotland) and South Australia. It is preceded by nursery and is followed by Year One in England and Wales or Primary 2 in Northern Ireland.
  • 19. [Conrad Poppenhusen] Conrad Poppenhusen (1818-1883) was a German American philanthropist, entrepreneur, founder of College Point, Queens, and founder of the first free kindergarten in the United States, on July 1, 1870.
  • 20. [Early childhood education] Early childhood education is a branch of educational theory which relates to the teaching of young children up until the age of about eight, with a particular focus on education, notable in the period before the start of compulsory education.
  • 21. [Bad Blankenburg] Bad Blankenburg (German pronunciation: [bat ˈblaŋkənbʊʁk] ( )) is a spa town in the district of Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated 6 km southwest of Rudolstadt, and 37 km southeast of Erfurt. It is most famous for being the location of the first kindergarten of Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, in 1837.
  • 22. [Suddaby Public School] Suddaby Public School, originally known as Central School, is a public elementary school in Kitchener, Ontario (formerly known as Berlin). It is located at 171 Frederick Street, in the city's downtown. It serves grades Junior Kindergarten (JK) through grade 6.
  • 23. [K–12 (education)] K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve") is a term for the sum of primary and secondary education. It is used in the United States, Canada, Turkey, the Philippines, and Australia. P–12 is also occasionally used in Australia. The expression is a shortening of kindergarten (K) for 4- to 6-year-olds through twelfth grade (12) for 17- to 19-year-olds, the first and last grades of free education in these countries, respectively.
  • 24. [State school] State schools (also known outside the UK as public schools) generally refer to primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. The term may also refer to public institutions of post-secondary education.
  • 25. [Waldorf education] Waldorf (Steiner) education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based on the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy.
  • 26. [Playground] A playground, playpark, or play area is a place with a specific design to allow children to play there. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors. While a playground is usually designed for children, some playgrounds are designed for other age groups. Berlin's Preußenpark for example is designed for senior adults age 70 or higher. It is possible for a playground to exclude children if they are below the required age for entrance.
  • 27. [Watertown, Wisconsin] Watertown is a city in Dodge and Jefferson counties in the US state of Wisconsin. Most of the city's population is in Jefferson County. Division Street, several blocks north of downtown, marks the county line. The population of Watertown was 23,861 at the 2010 census. Of this, 15,402 were in Jefferson County, and 8,459 were in Dodge County.
  • 28. [Pre-school playgroup] A pre-school playgroup, or in everyday usage just a playgroup, is an organised group providing care and socialisation for children under five. The term is widely used in the United Kingdom. Playgroups are less formal than the pre-school education of nursery schools. They do not provide full-time care, operating for only a few hours a
  • 29. [Teréz Brunszvik] Countess Teréz Brunszvik de Korompa (Therese Countess von Brunsvik or Brunswick) (July 27, 1775, Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary – September 23, 1861, Pest, Kingdom of Hungary) was a member of the Hungarian nobility, pedagoge and a follower of the Swiss Pestalozzi. Her father was the Hungarian count Anton Brunszvick and her mother was the baroness Anna Seeberg.; her siblings were Franz, Josephine and Charlotte.
  • 30. [Samuel Wilderspin] Samuel Wilderspin (23 March 1791, London – 1866) was an English educationist known for his pioneering work on infant schools. His belief was that a child should be encouraged to learn through experience, and to development in feelings as well as intellect. His work provided the model for infant schools in Europe and North America.
  • 31. [Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi] Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
  • 32. [Foundation Stage] Foundation Stage is the British government label for education of pupils aged 3 to 5 in England. In Northern Ireland, it is also used to refer to the first two years of compulsory education for pupils aged 4 to 6.
  • 33. [Infant school] An Infant school is a term used primarily in England and Wales for school for children between the ages of four and seven years. It is usually a small school serving a particular locality.
  • 34. [J. F. Oberlin] J. F. Oberlin (August 31, 1740 – June 1, 1826) was a French pastor from Alsace and a philanthropist. He has been known as John Frederic(k) Oberlin in English, Jean-Frédéric Oberlin in French, and Johann Friedrich Oberlin in German.
  • 35. [Rosaura Zapata] Rosaura Zapata (1876? – July 23, 1963) was a Mexican educator who helped to found the national system of education. She received Mexico's highest national honor when it was inaugurated in 1954, the Belisario Domínguez Medal of Honor.
  • 36. [Education in the Philippines] Education in the Philippines is managed and regulated by the Department of Education, commonly referred to as the DepEd in the country. The Department of Education controls the Philippine education system, including the curriculum used in schools and the allocation of funds. It also regulates the construction of schools and other educational facilities and the recruitment of teachers and staff.
  • 37. [National Louis University] National Louis University (NLU) is a private non-profit American university. NLU has campuses in and near Chicago, Illinois, as well as in Wisconsin, Florida and Nowy Sącz, Poland. Many courses and programs are also offered at-a-distance . Since its founding in 1886, NLU has played a historic role in education, when it helped found the
  • 38. [Pedagogy] Pedagogy (/ˈpɛdəɡɒdʒi/ or /ˈpɛdəɡoʊdʒi/) is the science and art of education. Its aims range from the full development of the human being to skills acquisition. For example, Paulo Freire referred to his method of teaching people as "critical pedagogy". In correlation with those instructive strategies, the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and
  • 39. [Protestantism] Protestantism is the form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what the Protestants considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the major divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Anglicanism is often considered to be independent from Protestantism,
  • 40. [Bavaria] The Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern, pronounced [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪ.ɐn] ( ), Alemannic German: Freistaat Bayre, Austro-Bavarian: Freistood Boajan/Baijaan, Main-Franconian: Freischdood Bayan) is a state of Germany, located in the southeast. With an area of 70,548 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20 percent of
  • 41. [Education in Singapore] Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministry of Education (MOE), which controls the development and administration of state schools receiving government funding, but also has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private schools. For both private and state schools, there are variations in the extent of autonomy in their curriculum, scope of government aid and funding, tuition burden on the students, and admission policy.
  • 42. [Homework] Homework, or homework assignment, refers to tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, problems to be solved, a school project to be built (such as a diorama or display), or other skills to be practiced.
  • 43. [Toronto Normal School] The Toronto Normal School was a teachers college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Opened in 1847, the Normal School was located at Church and Gould streets in central Toronto, and was a predecessor to the current Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. The Royal Ontario Museum, the Ontario College of Art & Design and the Ontario
  • 44. [Ministry of National Education (France)] The Minister of National Education, Youth, and Sport (French: Ministre de l’Éducation nationale, de la Jeunesse et de la Vie associative), or simply "Minister of National Education," as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic) is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
  • 45. [New Lanark] New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 kilometres) from Lanark, in Lanarkshire, and some 40 km southeast of Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1786 by David Dale, who built cotton mills and housing for the mill workers. Dale built the mills there in a brief partnership with the
  • 46. [Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt] Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany with its capital at Rudolstadt.
  • 47. [Economy of Ukraine] The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market, with a gross domestic product that fell sharply for the first 10 years of its independence from the Soviet Union, then experienced rapid growth from 2000 until 2008. Formerly a major component of the economy of the Soviet Union, the country's economy experienced a deep recession
  • 48. [Home] A home is a dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, family, household or several families in a tribe. It is often a house, apartment, or other building, or alternatively a mobile home, houseboat, yurt or any other portable shelter. Larger groups may live in a nursing home, children's home, convent
  • 49. [Mathematics] Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics.
  • 50. [Demographics of Ukraine] The demographics of Ukraine include statistics on population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
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