A kindergarten is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. The first such institutions were created in the late eighteenth century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children both of whose parents worked out of the home.

The term was coined by Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach greatly influenced early-years education around the world. In accordance with his approach, he coined the term in the metaphorical sense of "place where children can grow in a natural way" (not in the literal sense of "garden"). The term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of

teaching methods.

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  • 1. [Primary school] A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the ages of about five to eleven, coming before secondary school and after preschool. It is the first stage of compulsory education in most parts of the world, and is normally available without charge, but may be
  • 2. [Preschool] A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside the US and UK) is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school. They may be privately operated or government run, and the costs may be subsidized.
  • 3. [German language] German (Deutsch [ˈdɔʏtʃ]) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A proportion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and English. Languages which are most similar to German include Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the
  • 4. [Friedrich Fröbel] Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel or Froebel (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈaʊɡʊst ˈfʁøːbəl]; April 21, 1782 – June 21, 1852) was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the "kindergarten" and also coined the word now used in German and English. He also developed the educational toys known as Froebel Gifts.
  • 5. [State school] State schools (also known as public schools, though not in England) generally refer to primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. The term may also refer to public institutions of post-secondary education.
  • 6. [First grade] First grade (called Grade 1 in some countries) is the first grade in elementary school. It is the first school year after kindergarten. Children are usually 6 to 8 years old in this grade level.
  • 7. [School] A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally
  • 8. [Poppenhusen Institute] Poppenhusen Institute is a historic building at 114—04 14th Road in College Point, Queens that housed the first free kindergarten in America. In addition, this institute provided the first free evening classes for adults (in America). Currently, the Institute operates as a community cultural center. The institute stands at five-stories and was constructed in a stern Victorian style.
  • 9. [First Kindergarten] The First Kindergarten located in Watertown, Wisconsin was the first kindergarten to be opened in the United States. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
  • 10. [Montessori education] Montessori education is an educational approach developed by Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori and characterized by an emphasis on independence, freedom within limits, and respect for a child’s natural psychological, physical, and social development. Although a range of practices exists under the name "Montessori", the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) cite these elements as essential:
  • 11. [Catholic Church] The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide. One of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history of Western civilisation. Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, its doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed. The Catholic Church is also distinguished by its celebration of the seven sacraments.
  • 12. [Elizabeth Peabody] Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (May 16, 1804 – January 3, 1894) was an American educator who opened the first English-language kindergarten in the United States. Long before most educators, Peabody embraced the premise that children's play has intrinsic developmental and educational value.
  • 13. [Susan Blow] Susan Elizabeth Blow (June 7, 1843 in Carondelet, Missouri – March 27, 1916 in New York City, New York) was a United States educator who opened the first successful public Kindergarten in the United States. She is known as the "Mother of Kindergarten".
  • 14. [States of Germany] Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states (German: Bundesland, or Land). Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as
  • 15. [Reception (school)] Reception, Year 0, Primary 1, or FS2 (foundation second year) is the first year of primary school in the United Kingdom (except Northern Ireland and Scotland). It comes after nursery and before Year One in England and Wales or Primary 2 in Northern Ireland.
  • 16. [Forest kindergarten] A forest kindergarten is a type of preschool education for children between the ages of three and six that is held almost exclusively outdoors. Whatever the weather, children are encouraged to play, explore and learn in a forest or natural environment. The adult supervision is meant to assist rather than lead. It is also known as Waldkindergarten (in German), outdoor nursery, nature kindergarten, or nature preschool.
  • 17. [Reggio Emilia approach] The Reggio Emilia Approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education. It was developed after World War II by a teacher, Loris Malaguzzi, and parents in the villages around Reggio Emilia in Italy. Following the war, people believed that children were in need of a new way of learning. The assumption of
  • 18. [Elizabeth Harrison (educator)] Elizabeth Harrison (September 1, 1849 – October 31, 1927) was an American educator. She was the founder and first president of what is today National Louis University. Harrison was a pioneer in creating professional standards for early childhood teachers and in promoting early childhood education.
  • 19. [Conrad Poppenhusen] Conrad Poppenhusen (1818-1883) was a German American philanthropist, entrepreneur, founder of College Point, Queens, and founder of the first free kindergarten in the United States, on July 1, 1870.
  • 20. [Pre-school playgroup] A pre-school playgroup, or in everyday usage just a playgroup, is an organised group providing care and socialisation for children under five. The term is widely used in the United Kingdom. Playgroups are less formal than the pre-school education of nursery schools. They do not provide full-time care, operating for only a few hours a
  • 21. [Early childhood education] Early childhood education (ECE) is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of young children (formally and informally) up until the age of about eight. Infant/toddler education, a subset of early childhood education, denotes the education of children from birth to age two. In recent years, early childhood education has become a prevalent public policy issue, as municipal, state, and federal lawmakers consider funding for preschool and pre-k.
  • 22. [Suddaby Public School] Suddaby Public School, originally known as Central School, is a public elementary school in Kitchener, Ontario (formerly known as Berlin). It is located at 171 Frederick Street, in the city's downtown. It serves grades Junior Kindergarten (JK) through grade 6.
  • 23. [K–12] K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve") is a term for the sum of primary and secondary education. It is used in the United States, Canada, South Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Egypt, and Australia. P–12 is also occasionally used in Australia. The expression is a shortening of kindergarten (K) for
  • 24. [Bad Blankenburg] Bad Blankenburg (German pronunciation: [bat ˈblaŋkənbʊʁk]) is a spa town in the district of Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated 6 km southwest of Rudolstadt, and 37 km southeast of Erfurt. It is most famous for being the location of the first kindergarten of Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, in 1837.
  • 25. [Adelaide Manning] Elizabeth Adelaide Manning (1828 – 10 August 1905) was a British writer and editor. She championed kindergartens. She was one of the first students to attend Girton College. Manning was active for the National Indian Association which championed education and the needs of women in India.
  • 26. [Playground] A playground, playpark, or play area is a place with a specific design to allow children to play there. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors (where it may be called a tot lot in some regions). While a playground is usually designed for children, some playgrounds are designed for other age groups. Berlin's
  • 27. [Waldorf education] Waldorf (Steiner) education is based on the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy. The pedagogy emphasizes the role of imagination in learning, striving to integrate holistically the intellectual, practical, and artistic development of pupils.
  • 28. [Watertown, Wisconsin] Watertown is a city in Dodge and Jefferson counties in the US state of Wisconsin. Most of the city's population is in Jefferson County. Division Street, several blocks north of downtown, marks the county line. The population of Watertown was 23,861 at the 2010 census. Of this, 15,402 were in Jefferson County, and 8,459 were in Dodge County.
  • 29. [Teréz Brunszvik] Countess Teréz Brunszvik de Korompa (Therese Countess von Brunsvik or Brunswick) (July 27, 1775, Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary – September 23, 1861, Pest, Kingdom of Hungary) was a member of the Hungarian nobility, pedagoge and a follower of the Swiss Pestalozzi. Her father was the Hungarian count Anton Brunszvick and her mother was the baroness Anna Seeberg.; her siblings were Franz, Josephine and Charlotte.
  • 30. [Samuel Wilderspin] Samuel Wilderspin (23 March 1791, London – 1866) was an English educator known for his pioneering work on infant schools. His belief was that a child should be encouraged to learn through experience, and to development in feelings as well as intellect. His work provided the model for infant schools in Europe and North America.
  • 31. [Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi] Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (pronounced [pestaˈlɔttsi]; January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
  • 32. [National Louis University] National Louis University (NLU) is a private non-profit American university. NLU has locations in and near Chicago, Illinois, as well as in Wisconsin, Florida and Nowy Sącz, Poland. Many courses and programs are also offered at-a-distance. Since its founding in 1886, NLU has played a historic role in education, when it helped found the National
  • 33. [Infant school] An Infant school is a term used primarily in England and Wales for school for children between the ages of four and seven years. It is usually a small school serving a particular locality.
  • 34. [Rosaura Zapata] Rosaura Zapata (1876? – July 23, 1963) was a Mexican educator who helped to found the national system of education. She received Mexico's highest national honor when it was inaugurated in 1954, the Belisario Domínguez Medal of Honor.
  • 35. [Foundation Stage] Foundation Stage is the British government label for education of pupils aged 2 to 5 in England. In Northern Ireland, it is also used to refer to the first two years of compulsory education for pupils aged 4 to 6.
  • 36. [J. F. Oberlin] J. F. Oberlin (31 August 1740 – 1 June 1826) was a French pastor and a philanthropist who worked in Alsace . He has been known as John Frederic(k) Oberlin in English, Jean-Frédéric Oberlin in French, and Johann Friedrich Oberlin in German.
  • 37. [Lutheranism] Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.
  • 38. [Pedagogy] Pedagogy (etymology and pronunciation) is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of education; it thus concerns the study and practice of how best to teach. Its aims range from the general (full development of the human being via liberal education) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills).
  • 39. [Bavaria] The Free State of Bavaria (/bəˈvɛəriə/; German: Freistaat Bayern, pronounced [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪ.ɐn], Alemannic German: Freistaat Bayre, Bavarian: Freistood Boajan/Baijaan, Main-Franconian: Freischdood Bayan; Czech: Bavorsko) is a federal state of Germany. In the southeast of the country with an area of 70,548 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), it is the largest state, making up almost a
  • 40. [Toronto Normal School] The Toronto Normal School was a teachers college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Opened in 1847, the Normal School was located at Church and Gould streets in central Toronto, and was a predecessor to the current Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. The Royal Ontario Museum, the Ontario College of Art & Design and the Ontario
  • 41. [Home] A home is a dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, family, household or several families in a tribe. It is often a house, apartment, or other building, or alternatively a mobile home, houseboat, yurt or any other portable shelter. Homes typically provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food, eating
  • 42. [New Lanark]
    New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 kilometres) from Lanark, in Lanarkshire, and some 40 km southeast of Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1786 by David Dale, who built cotton mills and housing for the mill workers. Dale built the mills there in a brief partnership with the
  • 43. [Ministry of National Education (France)] The Minister of National Education, Youth, and Sport (French: Ministre de l’Éducation nationale, de la Jeunesse et de la Vie associative), or simply "Minister of National Education," as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic) is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
  • 44. [Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt] Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany with its capital at Rudolstadt.
  • 45. [Economy of Ukraine] The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market, with a gross domestic product that fell sharply for the first 10 years of its independence from the Soviet Union, then experienced rapid growth from 2000 until 2008. In 2014-2015 Ukraine's GDP fell 40%. A deep recession during the 1990s included hyperinflation and a fall in
  • 46. [Homework] Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, problems to be solved, a school project to be built (such as a diorama or display), or other skills to be practiced.
  • 47. [Demographics of Ukraine] The demographics of Ukraine include statistics on population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
  • 48. [Education in Chile] Education in Chile is divided in preschool, primary school, secondary school, and technical or higher education (university).
  • 49. [Wesleyan Church] The Wesleyan Church is a holiness Christian denomination in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, South Africa, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Asia and Australia. The church is part of the holiness movement and has roots in the teachings of John Wesley. The church is Wesleyan and Arminian in doctrine.
  • 50. [Principality] A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
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