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Robert King Merton (July 4, 1910 – February 23, 2003) was an American sociologist. He spent most of his career teaching at Columbia University, where he attained the rank of University Professor. In 1994 Merton won the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the field and for having founded the sociology of science. He is considered to be one of the founding fathers of modern day sociology.

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Merton developed notable concepts such as "unintended consequences", the "reference group", and "role strain" but is perhaps best known for having created the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy". A central element of modern sociological, political and economic theory, the "self-fulfilling prophecy" is a process whereby a belief or an expectation, correct or incorrect, affects the outcome of a situation or the way a person or a group will behave. Merton's work on the "role…

…model" first appeared in a study on the socialization of medical students at Columbia. The term grew from his theory of a reference group, or the group to which individuals compare themselves, but to which they do not necessarily belong. Social roles were a central piece of Merton's theory of social groups. Merton emphasized that, rather than a person assuming one role and one status, they have a status set in the social structure that has attached to it a whole set of expected behaviors.

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      Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist who served on the faculty of Harvard…
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      Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist who served on the faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973.
      Parsons analyzed the work of Émile Durkheim and Vilfredo Pareto and evaluated their contributions through the paradigm of voluntaristic action. Parsons was also largely responsible for introducing and interpreting Max Weber's…

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      Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist who served on the faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973.
      Parsons developed a general theory for the study of society called action theory, based on the methodological principle of voluntarism and the epistemological principle of analytical realism. The theory attempted to establish a balance between two major methodological traditions: the utilitarian-positivist and hermeneutic-idealistic traditions. For Parsons, voluntarism established a third alternative between these two. More than a theory of society, Parsons presented a theory of social evolution and a concrete interpretation of the "drives" and directions of world history.
      Parsons analyzed the work of Émile Durkheim and Vilfredo Pareto and evaluated their contributions through the paradigm of voluntaristic action. Parsons was also largely responsible for introducing and interpreting Max Weber's work to American audiences. Although he was generally considered a major structuralist functionalist scholar, in an article late in life, Parsons explicitly wrote that the term "functional" or "structural functionalist" were inappropriate ways to describe the character of his theory. For Parsons, "structural functionalism" was a particular stage in the methodological development of the social science, and "functionalism" was a universal method; neither term was a name for any specific school. In the same way, the concept "grand theory" is a derogatory term, which Parsons himself never used.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Talcott Parsons

    • Some of Parsons' students in the first years of the new department of Sociology were people like Robin Williams Jr., Robert K. Merton, Kingsley Davis, Wilbert Moore, Edward C. Devereux, Logan Wilson, Nicholas Demereth, John Riley, Jr. and Mathilda White Riley. from Talcott Parsons

    • Merton was heavily influenced by Talcott Parsons and to a much lesser degree of Pitirim Sorokin. from Robert K. Merton

    • Merton's work is often compared to that of Talcott Parsons. from Robert K. Merton

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    • Scholars inspired by Durkheim include Marcel Mauss, Maurice Halbwachs, Célestin Bouglé, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Talcott Parsons, Robert K. Merton, Jean Piaget, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Ferdinand de Saussure, Michel Foucault, Clifford Geertz, Peter Berger, Robert Bellah, social reformer Patrick Hunout and others. from Émile Durkheim

    • Prominent sociological theorists include Talcott Parsons, Robert K. Merton, Randall Collins, James Samuel Coleman, Peter Blau, Marshal McLuhan, Immanuel Wallerstein, George Homans, Harrison White, Theda Skocpol, Gerhard Lenski, Pierre van den Berghe and Jonathan H. Turner. from Sociological theory

    • Henderson influenced many Harvard sociologists, especially Talcott Parsons, George C. Homans, Robert K. Merton, and Elton Mayo who all became pioneers in sociology or psychology. from Lawrence Joseph Henderson

    • The theory is an explanation of social stratification. As a structural functionalist theory, it is also associated with Talcott Parsons and Robert K. Merton. from Davis–Moore theory

    • He is especially well known for his critical interpretations of Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, S.N. Eisenstadt, and above all Georg Simmel, in whose writings he is often credited for helping to inspire a renaissance of interest. from Donald N. Levine

    • As a critical concept, bearing character masks contrasts with the concept of "role-taking" developed by social theorists such as George Herbert Mead, Ralph Linton, Talcott Parsons, Theodore R. Sarbin and Ralf Dahrendorf, as well as Robert K. Merton's idea of a role set, in the first instance because "social roles" do not necessarily assume the masking of behaviour, and Marx's character masks do not necessarily assume agreement with roles, or that the roles are fixed (see role theory). from Character mask

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      Social Theory and Social Structure Social Theory and Social Structure (STSS) was a landmark publication in sociology by Robert K. Merton. It has been…
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      Social Theory and Social Structure (STSS) was a landmark publication in sociology by Robert K. Merton. It has been translated into close to 20 languages and is one of the most frequently cited texts in social sciences. It was first published in 1949, although revised editions of 1957 and 1968 are often cited. In 1998 the International Sociological Association listed this work as the third most important sociological book of the 20th century.…

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      Social Theory and Social Structure (STSS) was a landmark publication in sociology by Robert K. Merton. It has been translated into close to 20 languages and is one of the most frequently cited texts in social sciences. It was first published in 1949, although revised editions of 1957 and 1968 are often cited. In 1998 the International Sociological Association listed this work as the third most important sociological book of the 20th century.
      The book introduced many important concepts in sociology, like: manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions, obliteration by incorporation, reference groups, self-fulfilling prophecy, middle-range theory and others.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Social Theory and Social Structure

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    • Robert K. Merton released his Social Theory and Social Structure (1949). from History of sociology

    • Robert K. Merton released his Social Theory and Social Structure (1949). from Social research

    • Serendipity is used as a sociological method in Anselm L. Strauss' and Barney G. Glaser's Grounded Theory, building on ideas by sociologist Robert K. Merton, who in Social Theory and Social Structure (1949) referred to the "serendipity pattern" as the fairly common experience of observing an unanticipated, anomalous and strategic datum which becomes the occasion for developing a new theory or for extending an existing theory. from Serendipity

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      Sociology of scientific knowledge The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with…
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      The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge. The sociology of knowledge, by contrast, focuses on the production of non-scientific ideas and social constructions.…

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      The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge. The sociology of knowledge, by contrast, focuses on the production of non-scientific ideas and social constructions.
      Sociologists of scientific knowledge study the development of a scientific field and attempt to identify points of contingency or interpretative flexibility where ambiguities are present. Such variations may be linked to a variety of political, historical, cultural or economic factors. Crucially, the field does not set out to promote relativism or to attack the scientific project; the aim of the researcher is to explain why one interpretation rather than another succeeds due to external social and historical circumstances.
      The field emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s and at first was an almost exclusively British practice. Other early centers for the development of the field were in France, Germany, and the United States (notably at Cornell University). Major theorists include Barry Barnes, David Bloor, Sal Restivo, Randall Collins, Gaston Bachelard, Harry Collins, Paul Feyerabend, Steve Fuller, Thomas Kuhn, Martin Kusch, Bruno Latour, Mike Mulkay, Derek J. de Solla Price, Lucy Suchman and Anselm Strauss.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Sociology of scientific knowledge

    • The sociology of science was a field that Merton was very interested in and remained very passionate about throughout his career. from Robert K. Merton

    • In 1994 Merton won the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the field and for having founded the sociology of science. from Robert K. Merton

    • The sociology of scientific knowledge in its Anglophone versions emerged in the 1970s in self-conscious opposition to the sociology of science associated with the American Robert K. Merton, generally considered one of the seminal authors in the sociology of science. from Sociology of scientific knowledge

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    • In the sociology of science, "Matthew effect" was a term coined by Robert K. Merton to describe how, among other things, eminent scientists will often get more credit than a comparatively unknown researcher, even if their work is similar; it also means that credit will usually be given to researchers who are already famous. from Matthew effect

    • Kuhn is credited as a foundational force behind the post-Mertonian Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. from Thomas Kuhn

    • In 1994, Robert K. Merton won the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the sociology of science. from History of sociology

    • Philosophers and sociologists of science, notably Karl Popper and Robert K. Merton, long struggled to come up with a criterion which would distinguish science as unique from other knowledge-generating activities, but never were able to come up with one that was stable, transhistorical, or worked reliably. from Boundary-work

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      Paul Lazarsfeld Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (February 13, 1901 – August 30, 1976) was one of the major figures in 20th-century American…
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      Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (February 13, 1901 – August 30, 1976) was one of the major figures in 20th-century American sociology. The founder of Columbia University's Bureau of Applied Social Research, he exerted a tremendous influence over the techniques and the organization of social research. "It is not so much that he was an American sociologist," one colleague said of him after his death, "as it was that he determined what American sociology would be."

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Paul Lazarsfeld

    • However, intellectuals like Paul Lazarsfeld influenced Merton to occupy himself with middle-range theories yet Merton general theoretical perspectives was much closer to Parsons than Sorokin. from Robert K. Merton

    • Robert K. Merton, James S. Coleman, and Peter. from Paul Lazarsfeld

    • Along with Robert K. Merton, he popularized the idea of a narcotizing dysfunction of media, along with its functional roles in society. from Paul Lazarsfeld

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    • At Columbia he was a student of Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert K. Merton and received a Ph.D in 1961. from Barney Glaser

    • The term narcotizing dysfunction was coined in the article Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action, by Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and Robert K. Merton. from Narcotizing dysfunction

    • Opinion leadership comes from the theory of two-step flow of communication propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz Significant developers of the theory have been Robert K. Merton, C. Wright Mills and Bernard Berelson. from Opinion leadership

    • Intellectually he was influenced most by Erich Fromm, as well as Carl Friedrich, Hannah Arendt, Leo Löwenthal, Robert K. Merton, Paul Lazarsfeld, Paul Goodman, Martha Wolfenstein, and Nathan Leites. from David Riesman

    • During his time at Columbia Rossi was influenced and mentored by two professors and notable social researchers, Robert K. Merton and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. from Peter H. Rossi

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      Middle range theory (sociology) Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating…
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      Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research. It is currently the de facto dominant approach to sociological theory construction, especially in the United States. Middle-range theory starts with an empirical phenomenon (as opposed to a broad abstract entity like the social system)…

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      Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research. It is currently the de facto dominant approach to sociological theory construction, especially in the United States. Middle-range theory starts with an empirical phenomenon (as opposed to a broad abstract entity like the social system) and abstracts from it to create general statements that can be verified by data. This approach stands in contrast to the earlier "grand" theorizing of social theory, such as functionalism and many conflict theories. Raymond Boudon has argued that 'middle-range' theory is the same concept that most other sciences simply call 'theory'. The analytical sociology movement has as its aim the unification of such theories into a coherent paradigm at a greater level of abstraction.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Middle range theory (sociology)

    • However, intellectuals like Paul Lazarsfeld influenced Merton to occupy himself with middle-range theories yet Merton general theoretical perspectives was much closer to Parsons than Sorokin. from Robert K. Merton

    • Middle-range theories, applicable to limited ranges of data, transcend sheer description of social phenomena and fill in the blanks between raw empiricism and grand or all-inclusive theory. from Robert K. Merton

    • Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research. from Middle range theory (sociology)

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    • Modern political science pioneer Seymour Martin Lipset argues that Marshall proposes a model of social science based on the middle range analysis of social structures and institutions, as opposed to grand theories of the purposes of development and modernisation, which were criticised by modern sociologists such as Robert K. Merton for being too speculative to provide valid results. from Thomas Humphrey Marshall

    • For the next several decades, this synergy between general systems thinking and the further development of social system theories is carried forward by Parson's student, Robert K. Merton, and a long line of others, in discussions of theories of the middle-range and social structure and agency. from Social complexity

    • This approach lends itself to what Robert K. Merton called middle-range theory: abstract statements that generalize from segregated hypotheses and empirical regularities rather than starting with an abstract idea of a social whole. from Positivism

    • This approach lends itself to what Robert K. Merton called middle-range theory: abstract statements that generalize from segregated hypotheses and empirical regularities rather than starting with an abstract idea of a social whole. from Sociology

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      Anomie Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". It is the breakdown of…
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      Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". It is the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community e.g. if under unruly scenarios resulting in fragmentation of social identity and rejection of self-regulatory values. It was popularized by French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his influential book Suicide (1897). Durkheim never uses the term normlessness; rather, he describes anomie as "derangement", and "an insatiable will".…

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      Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". It is the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community e.g. if under unruly scenarios resulting in fragmentation of social identity and rejection of self-regulatory values. It was popularized by French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his influential book Suicide (1897). Durkheim never uses the term normlessness; rather, he describes anomie as "derangement", and "an insatiable will".
      For Durkheim, anomie arises more generally from a mismatch between personal or group standards and wider social standards, or from the lack of a social ethic, which produces moral deregulation and an absence of legitimate aspirations. This is a nurtured condition:
      Most sociologists associate the term with Durkheim, who used the concept to speak of the ways in which an individual's actions are matched, or integrated, with a system of social norms and practices… anomie is a mismatch, not simply the absence of norms. Thus, a society with too much rigidity and little individual discretion could also produce a kind of anomie... Thus, fatalistic suicide arises when a person is too rule-governed...

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Anomie

    • Robert King Merton also adopted the idea of anomie to develop strain theory, defining it as the discrepancy between common social goals and the legitimate means to attain those goals. from Anomie

    • The term anomie, derived from Émile Durkheim, for Merton means a discontinuity between cultural goals and the legitimate means available for reaching them. from Robert K. Merton

    • Although Travis Hirschi was not the first to propose a social control theory, the Causes of Delinquency (1969) was a landmark book, contrasting with the Strain Theory (see anomie and the work of Robert King Merton) and Conflict Theory. from Right Realism

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    • More generally, the growth of anomie (see Durkheim and, more recently, the Strain Theory proposed by Merton), predicted a strong correlation between unemployment and property crime. from Blue-collar crime

    • He rejects the positivist view that unemployment or poverty causes crime, but prefers Merton's theory of anomie and Subcultural Theory which focus on the lack of opportunity to achieve social status and economic expectations: a lack most commonly felt by the most disadvantaged sections of the community. from Left realism

    • American sociologist Robert K. Merton was among the first (if not the first) to use the concept of relative deprivation in order to understand social deviance, using French sociologist Emile Durkheim's concept of anomie as a starting point. from Relative deprivation

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      Strain theory (sociology) In sociology and criminology, strain theory states that social structures within society may pressure citizens to…
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      In sociology and criminology, strain theory states that social structures within society may pressure citizens to commit crime. Following on the work of Émile Durkheim, Strain Theories have been advanced by Robert King Merton (1957), Albert K. Cohen (1955), Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960), Neil Smelser (1963), Robert Agnew (1992), and Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld (1994). Strain may be either:

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Strain theory (sociology)

    • This theory is commonly used in the study of criminology (specifically the strain theory). from Robert K. Merton

    • Following on the work of Émile Durkheim, Strain Theories have been advanced by Robert King Merton (1957), Albert K. Cohen (1955), Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960), Neil Smelser (1963), Robert Agnew (1992), and Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld (1994). from Strain theory (sociology)

    • By comparison, in the sociology of deviance, Robert K. Merton borrows Durkheim's concept of anomie to form the Strain Theory. from Marxist criminology

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    • Robert King Merton also adopted the idea of anomie to develop strain theory, defining it as the discrepancy between common social goals and the legitimate means to attain those goals. from Anomie

    • More generally, the growth of anomie (see Durkheim and, more recently, the Strain Theory proposed by Merton), predicted a strong correlation between unemployment and property crime. from Blue-collar crime

    • Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton. from Juvenile delinquency

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      Structural functionalism Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a…
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      Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and believes that society…

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      Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms. This approach looks at both social structure and social functions. Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements; namely norms, customs, traditions, and institutions. A common analogy, popularized by Herbert Spencer, presents these parts of society as "organs" that work toward the proper functioning of the "body" as a whole. In the most basic terms, it simply emphasizes "the effort to impute, as rigorously as possible, to each feature, custom, or practice, its effect on the functioning of a supposedly stable, cohesive system". For Talcott Parsons, "structural-functionalism" came to describe a particular stage in the methodological development of social science, rather than a specific school of thought. The structural functionalism approach is a macrosociological analysis, with a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Structural functionalism

    • Functionalists believe societies must have certain characteristics in order to survive. from Robert K. Merton

    • Merton is also interested in the persistence of societies and defines functions that make for the adaptation of a given social system. from Robert K. Merton

    • Merton argues that the central orientation of functionalism is in interpreting data by their consequences for larger structures in which they are implicated. from Robert K. Merton

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      Conflict theories Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology that emphasize the social, political, or material inequality of a…
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      Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology that emphasize the social, political, or material inequality of a social group, that critique the broad socio-political system, or that otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. It is therefore a…

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      Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology that emphasize the social, political, or material inequality of a social group, that critique the broad socio-political system, or that otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. It is therefore a macro level analysis of society. Karl Marx is the father of the social conflict theory, which is a component of the 4 paradigms of sociology. Certain conflict theories set out to highlight the ideological aspects inherent in traditional thought. Whilst many of these perspectives hold parallels, conflict theory does not refer to a unified school of thought, and should not be confused with, for instance, peace and conflict studies, or any other specific theory of social conflict.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Conflict theories

    • On this point he approaches conflict theory, although he does believe that institutions and values can be functional for society as a whole. from Robert K. Merton

    • Although Travis Hirschi was not the first to propose a social control theory, the Causes of Delinquency (1969) was a landmark book, contrasting with the Strain Theory (see anomie and the work of Robert King Merton) and Conflict Theory. from Right Realism

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      Multiple discovery The concept of multiple discovery is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made…
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      The concept of multiple discovery is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made independently and more or less simultaneously by multiple scientists and inventors. The concept of multiple discovery opposes a traditional view—the "heroic theory" of invention and discovery.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Multiple discovery

    • Robert K. Merton, On Social Structure and Science, edited and with an introduction by Piotr Sztompka, University of Chicago Press, 1996. from Multiple discovery

    • Robert K. Merton defined such "multiples" as instances in which similar discoveries are made by scientists working independently of each other. from Multiple discovery

    • An example of the mechanism is the ubiquitous phenomenon of multiple independent discovery in science and technology, which has been described by Robert K. Merton and Harriet Zuckerman. from Historic recurrence

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      Matthew effect In sociology, the Matthew effect (or accumulated advantage) is the phenomenon where "the rich get richer and the…
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      In sociology, the Matthew effect (or accumulated advantage) is the phenomenon where "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer". In both its original and typical usage it is meant metaphorically to refer to issues of fame or status but it may also be used literally to refer to cumulative advantage of economic capital.…

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      In sociology, the Matthew effect (or accumulated advantage) is the phenomenon where "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer". In both its original and typical usage it is meant metaphorically to refer to issues of fame or status but it may also be used literally to refer to cumulative advantage of economic capital. The term was first coined by sociologist Robert K. Merton in 1968 and takes its name from a verse in the biblical Gospel of Matthew, pertaining to Jesus' parable of the talents:
      For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken even that which he hath.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Matthew effect

    • Merton called this phenomenon the Matthew effect; see also Stigler's law of eponymy. from Robert K. Merton

    • In the sociology of science, "Matthew effect" was a term coined by Robert K. Merton to describe how, among other things, eminent scientists will often get more credit than a comparatively unknown researcher, even if their work is similar; it also means that credit will usually be given to researchers who are already famous. from Matthew effect

    • This phenomenon in which "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer" is dubbed "accumulative advantage" by Gladwell, while sociologist Robert K. Merton calls it "the Matthew Effect", named after a biblical verse in the Gospel of Matthew: "For unto everyone that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance. from Outliers (book)

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    • The "Matilda effect" is a corollary to the "Matthew effect", which was postulated by the sociologist Robert K. Merton. from Matilda Joslyn Gage

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      Harriet Zuckerman Harriet Zuckerman (born 19 July 1937) is an American sociologist who specializes in the sociology of science.She is…
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      Harriet Zuckerman (born 19 July 1937) is an American sociologist who specializes in the sociology of science.
      She is Senior Vice President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and professor emerita of Columbia University.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Harriet Zuckerman

    • Merton married his fellow sociologist Harriet Zuckerman in 1993. from Robert K. Merton

    • Zuckerman was married to the late sociologist of science, Robert K. Merton. from Harriet Zuckerman

    • An example of the mechanism is the ubiquitous phenomenon of multiple independent discovery in science and technology, which has been described by Robert K. Merton and Harriet Zuckerman. from Historic recurrence

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      Pitirim Sorokin Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Russian Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин; January 21, 1889, Turja north of…
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      Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Russian Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин; January 21, 1889, Turja north of Syktyvkar, Yarensk uyezd, Vologda Governorate (now Knyazhpogostsky District, Komi), Russian Empire – February 11, 1968, Winchester, Massachusetts) was a Russian American sociologist born in modern-day Komi (Finno-Ugric region of Russia). An academic and political activist in Russia, he emigrated from Russia to…

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      Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Russian Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин; January 21, 1889, Turja north of Syktyvkar, Yarensk uyezd, Vologda Governorate (now Knyazhpogostsky District, Komi), Russian Empire – February 11, 1968, Winchester, Massachusetts) was a Russian American sociologist born in modern-day Komi (Finno-Ugric region of Russia). An academic and political activist in Russia, he emigrated from Russia to the United States in 1923. In 1930 at age 40, Sorokin was personally requested by the president of Harvard University to accept a position there. At Harvard, he founded the Department of Sociology. He was a vocal critic of his colleague Talcott Parsons. Sorokin was an ardent opponent of communism, which he regarded as a "pest of man." He is best known for his contributions to the social cycle theory.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Pitirim Sorokin

    • Merton was heavily influenced by Talcott Parsons and to a much lesser degree of Pitirim Sorokin. from Robert K. Merton

    • Under the leadership of Simpson, Merton attended the ASA annual meeting, where he met Pitrim A. Sorokin, the founding chair of the Harvard University Sociology Department. from Robert K. Merton

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      Stigler's law of eponymy Stigler's law of eponymy is a process proposed by University of Chicago statistics professor Stephen Stigler in his…
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      Stigler's law of eponymy is a process proposed by University of Chicago statistics professor Stephen Stigler in his 1980 publication "Stigler’s law of eponymy". In its simplest and strongest form it says: "No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer." Stigler named the sociologist Robert K. Merton as the discoverer of "Stigler's law", so as to avoid this law about laws disobeying its very own decree.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Stigler's law of eponymy

    • Merton called this phenomenon the Matthew effect; see also Stigler's law of eponymy. from Robert K. Merton

    • Stigler named the sociologist Robert K. Merton as the discoverer of "Stigler's law", so as to avoid this law about laws disobeying its very own decree. from Stigler's law of eponymy

    • Stigler's law – No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer, named by statistician Stephen Stigler who attributes it to sociologist Robert K. Merton, making the law self-referential. from List of eponymous laws

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      Georg Simmel Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.Simmel was one of…
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      Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
      Simmel was one of the first generation of German sociologists: his neo-Kantian approach laid the foundations for sociological antipositivism, asking 'What is society?' in a direct allusion to Kant's question 'What is nature?', presenting pioneering analyses of social individuality and…

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      Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
      Simmel was one of the first generation of German sociologists: his neo-Kantian approach laid the foundations for sociological antipositivism, asking 'What is society?' in a direct allusion to Kant's question 'What is nature?', presenting pioneering analyses of social individuality and fragmentation. For Simmel, culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history". Simmel discussed social and cultural phenomena in terms of "forms" and "contents" with a transient relationship; form becoming content, and vice versa, dependent on the context. In this sense he was a forerunner to structuralist styles of reasoning in the social sciences. With his work on the metropolis, Simmel was a precursor of urban sociology, symbolic interactionism and social network analysis.
      An acquaintance of Max Weber, Simmel wrote on the topic of personal character in a manner reminiscent of the sociological 'ideal type'. He broadly rejected academic standards, however, philosophically covering topics such as emotion and romantic love. Both Simmel and Weber's nonpositivist theory would inform the eclectic critical theory of the Frankfurt School.
      Simmel's most famous works today are The Problems of the Philosophy of History (1892), The Philosophy of Money (1907), The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), Soziologie (1908, inc. The Stranger, The Social Boundary, The Sociology of the Senses, The Sociology of Space, and On The Spatial Projections of Social Forms), and Fundamental Questions of Sociology (1917). He also wrote extensively on the philosophy of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, as well on art, most notably his book Rembrandt: An Essay in the Philosophy of Art (1916).

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Georg Simmel

    • Émile Durkheim and Georg Simmel also greatly contributed to Merton's understanding of sociology and to his own ideas. from Robert K. Merton

    • He is especially well known for his critical interpretations of Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, S.N. Eisenstadt, and above all Georg Simmel, in whose writings he is often credited for helping to inspire a renaissance of interest. from Donald N. Levine

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      Émile Durkheim David Émile Durkheim (French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm]; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French…
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      David Émile Durkheim (French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm]; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist, social psychologist and philosopher. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology.…

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      David Émile Durkheim (French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm]; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist, social psychologist and philosopher. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology.
      Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society (1893). In 1895, he published The Rules of Sociological Method and set up the first European department of sociology, becoming France's first professor of sociology. In 1898, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a study of suicide rates in Catholic and Protestant populations, pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology and political philosophy. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912) presented a theory of religion, comparing the social and cultural lives of aboriginal and modern societies.
      Durkheim was also deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte, promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism, as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science. For him, sociology was the science of institutions, if this term is understood in its broader meaning as "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity" and its aim being to discover structural social facts. Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism, a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology. In his view, social science should be purely holistic; that is, sociology should study phenomena attributed to society at large, rather than being limited to the specific actions of individuals.
      He remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in 1917, presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including the sociology of knowledge, morality, social stratification, religion, law, education, and deviance. Durkheimian terms such as "collective consciousness" have since entered the popular lexicon.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Émile Durkheim

    • Scholars inspired by Durkheim include Marcel Mauss, Maurice Halbwachs, Célestin Bouglé, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Talcott Parsons, Robert K. Merton, Jean Piaget, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Ferdinand de Saussure, Michel Foucault, Clifford Geertz, Peter Berger, Robert Bellah, social reformer Patrick Hunout and others. from Émile Durkheim

    • Émile Durkheim and Georg Simmel also greatly contributed to Merton's understanding of sociology and to his own ideas. from Robert K. Merton

    • The term anomie, derived from Émile Durkheim, for Merton means a discontinuity between cultural goals and the legitimate means available for reaching them. from Robert K. Merton

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    • Following on the work of Émile Durkheim, Strain Theories have been advanced by Robert King Merton (1957), Albert K. Cohen (1955), Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960), Neil Smelser (1963), Robert Agnew (1992), and Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld (1994). from Strain theory (sociology)

    • By comparison, in the sociology of deviance, Robert K. Merton borrows Durkheim's concept of anomie to form the Strain Theory. from Marxist criminology

    • More generally, the growth of anomie (see Durkheim and, more recently, the Strain Theory proposed by Merton), predicted a strong correlation between unemployment and property crime. from Blue-collar crime

    • American sociologist Robert K. Merton was among the first (if not the first) to use the concept of relative deprivation in order to understand social deviance, using French sociologist Emile Durkheim's concept of anomie as a starting point. from Relative deprivation

    • He is especially well known for his critical interpretations of Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, S.N. Eisenstadt, and above all Georg Simmel, in whose writings he is often credited for helping to inspire a renaissance of interest. from Donald N. Levine

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      Bureau of Applied Social Research The Bureau of Applied Social Research was a social research institute at Columbia University which specialised in…
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      The Bureau of Applied Social Research was a social research institute at Columbia University which specialised in mass communications research. It grew out of the Radio Research Project at Princeton University, beginning in 1937. The Bureau's first director was Austrian sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld. The project took on permanent form as the Office of Radio Research, moving to Columbia in 1939. It was renamed the 'Bureau of Applied Social Research' in 1944.…

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      The Bureau of Applied Social Research was a social research institute at Columbia University which specialised in mass communications research. It grew out of the Radio Research Project at Princeton University, beginning in 1937. The Bureau's first director was Austrian sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld. The project took on permanent form as the Office of Radio Research, moving to Columbia in 1939. It was renamed the 'Bureau of Applied Social Research' in 1944.
      The bureau was closed in 1977, when its archives were merged into Columbia's Center for the Social Sciences which in turn became part of the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy in 1999, which in turn became part of the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy in 2001.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Bureau of Applied Social Research

    • He was associate director of the university's Bureau of Applied Social Research from 1942 to 1971. from Robert K. Merton

    • This was one of the first studies undertaken by Columbia University Bureau of Applied Social Research under the leadership of sociologist Robert K. Merton. Dr. Merton would become one of the most influential sociologists of the 20th century; he was known as the “Father of the Focus group” and was the first sociologist to win a National Medal of Science (1994). from Winfield Township, New Jersey

    • The first focus groups were created at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA, by associate director, sociologist Robert K. Merton. from Focus group

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      Role set A role set is anyone you have a recurring relationship with in your role. According to Goffman the "role set" is…
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      A role set is anyone you have a recurring relationship with in your role. According to Goffman the "role set" is the various kinds of relevant audiences for a particular role. Merton describes "role set" as the "complement of social relationships in which persons are involved because they occupy a particular social status." For instance, the role of a doctor has a role set comprising colleagues, nurses, patients, hospital administrators, etc.…

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      A role set is anyone you have a recurring relationship with in your role. According to Goffman the "role set" is the various kinds of relevant audiences for a particular role. Merton describes "role set" as the "complement of social relationships in which persons are involved because they occupy a particular social status." For instance, the role of a doctor has a role set comprising colleagues, nurses, patients, hospital administrators, etc.
      The term "role set" was coined by Robert K. Merton in 1957. He made a clear distinction between a "role set" and a "status set".

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Role set

    • The term "role set" was coined by Robert K. Merton in 1957. from Role set

    • As a critical concept, bearing character masks contrasts with the concept of "role-taking" developed by social theorists such as George Herbert Mead, Ralph Linton, Talcott Parsons, Theodore R. Sarbin and Ralf Dahrendorf, as well as Robert K. Merton's idea of a role set, in the first instance because "social roles" do not necessarily assume the masking of behaviour, and Marx's character masks do not necessarily assume agreement with roles, or that the roles are fixed (see role theory). from Character mask

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      Historic recurrence Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history. The concept of historic recurrence has…
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      Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history. The concept of historic recurrence has variously been applied to the overall history of the world (e.g., to the rises and falls of empires), to repetitive patterns in the history of a given polity, and to any two specific events which bear a striking similarity.…

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      Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history. The concept of historic recurrence has variously been applied to the overall history of the world (e.g., to the rises and falls of empires), to repetitive patterns in the history of a given polity, and to any two specific events which bear a striking similarity.
      Hypothetically, in the extreme, the concept of historic recurrence assumes the form of the Doctrine of Eternal Recurrence, which has been written about in various forms since antiquity and was described in the 19th century by Heinrich Heine and Friedrich Nietzsche.
      Nevertheless, while it is often remarked that "History repeats itself," in cycles of less than cosmological duration this cannot be strictly true.
      In this interpretation of recurrence, as opposed perhaps to the Nietzschean interpretation, there is no metaphysics. Recurrences take place due to ascertainable circumstances and chains of causality. An example of the mechanism is the ubiquitous phenomenon of multiple independent discovery in science and technology, which has been described by Robert K. Merton and Harriet Zuckerman.
      G.W. Trompf, in his book The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought, traces historically recurring patterns of political thought and behavior in the west since antiquity. If history has lessons to impart, they are to be found par excellence in such recurring patterns.
      Historic recurrences can sometimes induce a sense of "convergence," "resonance" or déjà vu. Three such examples appear under "Striking similarity."

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Historic recurrence

    • Robert K. Merton, The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, University of Chicago Press, 1973. from Historic recurrence

    • An example of the mechanism is the ubiquitous phenomenon of multiple independent discovery in science and technology, which has been described by Robert K. Merton and Harriet Zuckerman. from Historic recurrence

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      Self-fulfilling prophecy A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very…
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      A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. Although examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ancient Greece and ancient India, it is 20th-century sociologist Robert…

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      A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. Although examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ancient Greece and ancient India, it is 20th-century sociologist Robert K. Merton who is credited with coining the expression "self-fulfilling prophecy" and formalizing its structure and consequences. In his 1948 article Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, Merton defines it in the following terms:
      The self-fulfilling prophecy is, in the beginning, a false definition of the situation evoking a new behaviour which makes the original false conception come true. This specious validity of the self-fulfilling prophecy perpetuates a reign of error. For the prophet will cite the actual course of events as proof that he was right from the very beginning.
      In other words, a positive or negative prophecy, strongly held belief, or delusion—declared as truth when it is actually false—may sufficiently influence people so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the once-false prophecy.
      Self-fulfilling prophecy are effects in behavioral confirmation effect, in which behavior, influenced by expectations, causes those expectations to come true. It is complementary to the self-defeating prophecy.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Self-fulfilling prophecy

    • Merton developed notable concepts such as "unintended consequences", the "reference group", and "role strain" but is perhaps best known for having created the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy". from Robert K. Merton

    • Although examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ancient Greece and ancient India, it is 20th-century sociologist Robert K. Merton who is credited with coining the expression "self-fulfilling prophecy" and formalizing its structure and consequences. from Self-fulfilling prophecy

    • Sociologist Robert K. Merton (1948, 1949) built on the Thomas principle to define the notion of a self-fulfilling prophecy: that once a prediction or prophecy is made, actors may accommodate their behaviours and actions so that a statement that would have been false becomes true or, conversely, a statement that would have been true becomes false - as a consequence of the prediction or prophecy being made. from Reflexivity (social theory)

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      Obliteration by incorporation In sociology of science, obliteration by incorporation (OBI) occurs when at some stage in the development of a…
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      In sociology of science, obliteration by incorporation (OBI) occurs when at some stage in the development of a science, certain ideas become so accepted and common-use that their contributors are no longer cited. Eventually, its source and creator are forgotten ("obliterated") as the concept enters common knowledge (is "incorporated").

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Obliteration by incorporation

    • Merton introduced many relevant concepts to the sociology of science, including 'obliteration by incorporation' (when a concept becomes so popularized that its inventor is forgotten) and 'multiples' (on independent similar discoveries). from Robert K. Merton

    • Robert K. Merton, (1968) Social Theory and Social Structure, enlarged edition. from Obliteration by incorporation

    • The concept was introduced by Robert K. Merton in 1949, although some incorrectly attribute it to Eugene Garfield, whose work contributed to the popularization of Merton's theory. from Obliteration by incorporation

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      Mertonian norms CUDOS is an acronym used to denote principles that should guide good scientific research. According to the CUDOS…
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      CUDOS is an acronym used to denote principles that should guide good scientific research. According to the CUDOS principles, the scientific ethos should be governed by Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, Originality and Skepticism.…

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      CUDOS is an acronym used to denote principles that should guide good scientific research. According to the CUDOS principles, the scientific ethos should be governed by Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, Originality and Skepticism.
      CUDOS is based on the Mertonian norms introduced in 1942 by Robert K. Merton. Merton described "four sets of institutional imperatives [comprising] the ethos of modern science": "universalism, communism, disinterestedness, and organized skepticism." These four terms could already be arranged to form CUDOS, but "originality" was not part of Merton's list.
      In contemporary academic debate the modified definition outlined below is the most widely used (e.g. Ziman 2000).

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Mertonian norms

    • Merton carried out extensive research into the sociology of science, developing the Merton Thesis explaining some of the religious causes of the Scientific Revolution, and the Mertonian norms of science, often referred to by the acronym "Cudos". from Robert K. Merton

    • Reiner Grundmann assessed the affair in the light of two science ethics approaches, one by the Mertonian norms as of Robert K. Merton, and Roger Pielke Jr.'s concept of honest brokering in science policy interactions. from Climatic Research Unit email controversy

    • For example, Robert K. Merton asserts that all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny (see Mertonian norms). from Scientific skepticism

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      Social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent…
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      In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals. On the macro scale, social structure is the system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or, other patterned relations between large social groups. On the meso…

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      In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals. On the macro scale, social structure is the system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or, other patterned relations between large social groups. On the meso scale, it is the structure of social network ties between individuals or organizations. On the micro scale, it can be the way norms shape the behavior of actors within the social system.
      These scales are not always kept separate. For example, recent scholarship by John Levi Martin has theorized that certain macro-scale structures are the emergent properties of micro-scale cultural institutions (this meaning of "structure" resembles that used by anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss). Marxist sociology also has a history of mixing different meanings of social structure, though it has done so by simply treating the cultural aspects of social structure as epiphenomena of its economic ones.
      Since the 1920s, the term has been in general use in social science, especially as a variable whose sub-components needed to be distinguished in relationship to other sociological variables.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Social structure

    • Like Durkheim and Parsons he analyzes society with reference to whether cultural and social structures are well or badly integrated. from Robert K. Merton

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      Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts first clarified for sociology by Robert K. Merton…
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      Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts first clarified for sociology by Robert K. Merton. Merton appeared interested in sharpening the conceptual tools to be employed in a functional analysis.…

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      Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts first clarified for sociology by Robert K. Merton. Merton appeared interested in sharpening the conceptual tools to be employed in a functional analysis.
      Manifest functions and dysfunctions are conscious and deliberate, the latent ones the unconscious and unintended. While functions are intended (manifest) or unintended (latent), and have a positive effect on society, dysfunctions are unintended or unrecognized (latent) and have a negative effect on society.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions

    • Manifest functions are the consequences that people observe or expect, or what is intended; latent functions are those that are neither recognized nor intended. from Robert K. Merton

    • Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts first clarified for sociology by Robert K. Merton. Merton appeared interested in sharpening the conceptual tools to be employed in a functional analysis. from Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions

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      Reference group A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared.Sociologists call any group that…
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      A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared.
      Sociologists call any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior a reference group.…

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      A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared.
      Sociologists call any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior a reference group.
      Reference groups are used in order to evaluate and determine the nature of a given individual or other group's characteristics and sociological attributes. It is the group to which the individual relates or aspires to relate himself or herself psychologically. It becomes the individual's frame of reference and source for ordering his or her experiences, perceptions, cognition, and ideas of self. It is important for determining a person's self-identity, attitudes, and social ties. It becomes the basis of reference in making comparisons or contrasts and in evaluating one's appearance and performance.
      Reference groups provide the benchmarks and contrast needed for comparison and evaluation of group and personal characteristics. Robert K. Merton hypothesized that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires.
      Reference groups are groups that people refer to when evaluating their [own] qualities, circumstances, attitudes, values and behaviors.
      Reference groups act as a frame of reference to which people always refer to evaluate their achievements, their role performance, aspirations and ambitions. A reference group can be either from a membership group or non-membership group. An example of a reference group being used would be the determination of affluence. An individual in the U.S. with an annual income of $80,000, may consider himself affluent if he compares himself to those in the middle of the income strata, who earn roughly $32,000 a year. If, however, the same person considers the relevant reference group to be those in the top 0.1% of households in the US, those making $1.6 million or more, then the individual's income of $80,000 would make him or her seem rather poor.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Reference group

    • The term grew from his theory of a reference group, or the group to which individuals compare themselves, but to which they do not necessarily belong. from Robert K. Merton

    • Robert K. Merton hypothesized that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. from Reference group

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      Merton Thesis The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton…
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      The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton. Similar to Max Weber's famous claim on the link between Protestant ethic and the capitalist economy, Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of Protestant pietism and early experimental science. The Merton Thesis has resulted in continuous debates.…

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      The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton. Similar to Max Weber's famous claim on the link between Protestant ethic and the capitalist economy, Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of Protestant pietism and early experimental science. The Merton Thesis has resulted in continuous debates.
      Although scholars are still debating it, Merton's 1936 doctoral dissertation (and two years later his first monograph by the same title) Science, Technology and Society in 17th-Century England raised important issues on the connections between religion and the rise of modern science, became a significant work in the realm of the sociology of science and continues to be cited in new scholarship. Merton further developed this thesis in other publications.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Merton Thesis

    • Merton carried out extensive research into the sociology of science, developing the Merton Thesis explaining some of the religious causes of the Scientific Revolution, and the Mertonian norms of science, often referred to by the acronym "Cudos". from Robert K. Merton

    • The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K. Merton. Similar to Max Weber's famous claim on the link between Protestant ethic and the capitalist economy, Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of Protestant pietism and early experimental science. from Merton Thesis

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      Robert C. Merton Robert Cox Merton (born July 31, 1944) is an American economist, Nobel laureate in Economics, and professor at the…
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      Robert Cox Merton (born July 31, 1944) is an American economist, Nobel laureate in Economics, and professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, known for his pioneering contributions to continuous-time finance, especially the first continuous-time option pricing model, the Black-Scholes-Merton formula.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Robert C. Merton

    • Merton was born in New York City to sociologist Robert K. Merton and Suzanne Carhart. from Robert C. Merton

    • In 1934, Merton married Suzanne Carhart, with whom he had one son, Robert C. Merton, winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize in economics, and two daughters, Stephanie Merton Tombrello and Vanessa Merton, a professor of law at Pace University School of Law. from Robert K. Merton

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      Narcotizing dysfunction Narcotizing dysfunction is a theory that as mass media inundates people on a particular issue they become apathetic…
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      Narcotizing dysfunction is a theory that as mass media inundates people on a particular issue they become apathetic to it, substituting knowledge for action. It is suggested that the vast supply of communications Americans receive may elicit only a superficial concern with the problems of society, while importance of real action is neglected, and this…

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      Narcotizing dysfunction is a theory that as mass media inundates people on a particular issue they become apathetic to it, substituting knowledge for action. It is suggested that the vast supply of communications Americans receive may elicit only a superficial concern with the problems of society, while importance of real action is neglected, and this superficiality often cloaks mass apathy. Thus, it is termed "dysfunctional" as it assumed it is not in the best interests of the people that compose modern complex society to form a social mass that is politically apathetic and inert. The term narcotizing dysfunction was coined in the article Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action, by Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and Robert K. Merton.
      Because the individual is assailed with information of issues and problems and they are knowledgeable about or discuss these issues, they believe they are helping in the solution. Society has confused knowing about an issue with doing something about it. Society’s conscience is clear as they think they have done something to remediate the issue. However, being informed and concerned is not a replacement for action.
      Even though there are increasing numbers of political messages, information, and advertisements, political participation continues to decline. People pay close attention to the media, but there is an overexposure of messages that can get confusing and contradictory so people don’t get involved in the political process.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Narcotizing dysfunction

    • The term narcotizing dysfunction was coined in the article Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action, by Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and Robert K. Merton. from Narcotizing dysfunction

    • Along with Robert K. Merton, he popularized the idea of a narcotizing dysfunction of media, along with its functional roles in society. from Paul Lazarsfeld

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      Role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviours, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as…
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      A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviours, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualised by people in a social situation. It is an expected or free or continuously changing behaviour and may have a given individual social status or social position. It is vital to both functionalist and interactionist understandings of society. Social role posits the following about social behaviour:…

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      A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviours, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualised by people in a social situation. It is an expected or free or continuously changing behaviour and may have a given individual social status or social position. It is vital to both functionalist and interactionist understandings of society. Social role posits the following about social behaviour:
      The notion of the role is examined in the social sciences, more specifically economics, sociology and organisation theory.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Role

    • Social roles were a central piece of Merton's theory of social groups. from Robert K. Merton

    • As a critical concept, bearing character masks contrasts with the concept of "role-taking" developed by social theorists such as George Herbert Mead, Ralph Linton, Talcott Parsons, Theodore R. Sarbin and Ralf Dahrendorf, as well as Robert K. Merton's idea of a role set, in the first instance because "social roles" do not necessarily assume the masking of behaviour, and Marx's character masks do not necessarily assume agreement with roles, or that the roles are fixed (see role theory). from Character mask

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      Social phenomenon Social phenomena include all behavior influences or is influenced by organisms sufficiently alive to respond to one…
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      Social phenomena include all behavior influences or is influenced by organisms sufficiently alive to respond to one another.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Social phenomenon

    • Middle-range theories, applicable to limited ranges of data, transcend sheer description of social phenomena and fill in the blanks between raw empiricism and grand or all-inclusive theory. from Robert K. Merton

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      Lawrence Joseph Henderson Lawrence Joseph Henderson (June 3, 1878, Lynn, Massachusetts – February 10, 1942, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a…
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      Lawrence Joseph Henderson (June 3, 1878, Lynn, Massachusetts – February 10, 1942, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a physiologist, chemist, biologist, philosopher, and sociologist. He became one of the leading biochemists of the early 20th century. His work contributed to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, used to calculate pH as a measure of acidity.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Lawrence Joseph Henderson

    • He was also influenced by Lawrence Joseph Henderson, L.J., who taught him something about the disciplined investigation of what is first entertained as an interesting idea. from Robert K. Merton

    • Henderson influenced many Harvard sociologists, especially Talcott Parsons, George C. Homans, Robert K. Merton, and Elton Mayo who all became pioneers in sociology or psychology. from Lawrence Joseph Henderson

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      Edwin Francis Gay Edwin Francis Gay (October 27, 1867 – February 8, 1946) was an American economist, Professor of Economic History…
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      Edwin Francis Gay (October 27, 1867 – February 8, 1946) was an American economist, Professor of Economic History and first Dean of the Harvard Business School.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Edwin Francis Gay

    • E.F. Gay also played a role in Merton's thought, as did the famous historian of science George Sarton, who allowed Merton to work with him at Harvard and is believed to have inspired Merton to have interest in science. from Robert K. Merton

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      Social system Social system is a central term in sociological systems theory. The term draws a line to ecosystem, biological…
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      Social system is a central term in sociological systems theory. The term draws a line to ecosystem, biological organisms, psychical systems and technical systems. They all form the environment of social systems. Minimum requirements for a social system is interaction of at least two personal systems or two persons acting in their roles. The first…

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      Social system is a central term in sociological systems theory. The term draws a line to ecosystem, biological organisms, psychical systems and technical systems. They all form the environment of social systems. Minimum requirements for a social system is interaction of at least two personal systems or two persons acting in their roles. The first who formulated a systematic theory of social systems was Talcott Parsons where it was a part of his AGIL paradigm yet the social system is only a segment (or a "subsystem") of what Parsons calls action theory; however, Vilfredo Pareto had used the term "social system" earlier but only as a sketch and not as an overall analytical scheme in the sense of Parsons.
      Jay Wright Forrester describes three counterintuitive behaviours as important: causes from symptoms are often far removed in time and space, identifying leverage points, conflicting short and long-term consequences.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Social system

    • Merton is also interested in the persistence of societies and defines functions that make for the adaptation of a given social system. from Robert K. Merton

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      Russell Sage Foundation The Russell Sage Foundation is an American foundation located in Manhattan, New York City which funds and publishes…
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      The Russell Sage Foundation is an American foundation located in Manhattan, New York City which funds and publishes research in the social sciences. Founded in 1907, the foundation focuses on labor markets, immigration, social inequality, behavioral economics, the U.S. Census and the Great Recession, among other subjects.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Russell Sage Foundation

    • He was an adjunct faculty member at Rockefeller University and was also the first Foundation Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. from Robert K. Merton

    • In 1990, Robert K. Merton became the first Foundation Scholar at Russell Sage, recognizing his long and invaluable service as an adviser to the administration and a mentor to other visiting scholars. from Russell Sage Foundation

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      Boris Hessen Boris Mikhailovich Hessen (Russian: Бори́с Миха́йлович Ге́ссен), also Gessen (August 16, 1893, Elisavetgrad –…
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      Boris Mikhailovich Hessen (Russian: Бори́с Миха́йлович Ге́ссен), also Gessen (August 16, 1893, Elisavetgrad – December 20, 1936, Moscow), was a Soviet physicist, philosopher and historian of science. He is most famous for his paper on Newton's Principia which became foundational in historiography of science.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Boris Hessen

    • It was an strongly influenced by Boris Hessen's famous Marxist account of 1931 The Socio-economic Roots of Newton's Principia which he defended in a paper “Science and the Economy of Seventeenth Century England,” Science and Society 3 (1939), 3–27. from Robert K. Merton

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      George Sarton George Sarton (/ˈsɑrtən/; 1884–1956) was a Belgian-American chemist and historian who is considered the founder of…
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      George Sarton (/ˈsɑrtən/; 1884–1956) was a Belgian-American chemist and historian who is considered the founder of the discipline of history of science. He has a significant importance in the history of science and his most influential work was the Introduction to the History of Science, which consists of three volumes and 4,296 pages. Sarton's ultimate…

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      George Sarton (/ˈsɑrtən/; 1884–1956) was a Belgian-American chemist and historian who is considered the founder of the discipline of history of science. He has a significant importance in the history of science and his most influential work was the Introduction to the History of Science, which consists of three volumes and 4,296 pages. Sarton's ultimate goal was to achieve an integrated philosophy of science that provided a connection between the sciences and the humanities, which he referred to as "the new humanism".

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To George Sarton

    • E.F. Gay also played a role in Merton's thought, as did the famous historian of science George Sarton, who allowed Merton to work with him at Harvard and is believed to have inspired Merton to have interest in science. from Robert K. Merton

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      Conformity Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, unsaid…
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      Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, unsaid rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social…

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      Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, unsaid rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure. Conformity can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone. For example, people tend to follow social norms when eating or watching television, even when alone.
      People often conform from a desire for security within a group—typically a group of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. This is often referred to as groupthink: a pattern of thought characterized by self-deception, forced manufacture of consent, and conformity to group values and ethics, which ignores realistic appraisal of other courses of action. Unwillingness to conform carries the risk of social rejection. Conformity is often associated with adolescence and youth culture, but strongly affects humans of all ages.
      Although peer pressure may manifest negatively, conformity can have good or bad effects depending on the situation. Driving on the correct side of the road could be seen as beneficial conformity. With the right environmental influence, conforming, in early childhood years, allows one to learn and thus, adopt the appropriate behaviours necessary to interact and develop correctly within one's society. Conformity influences formation and maintenance of social norms, and helps societies function smoothly and predictably via the self-elimination of behaviors seen as contrary to unwritten rules. In this sense it can be perceived as a positive force that prevents acts that are perceptually disruptive or dangerous.
      As conformity is a group phenomenon, factors such as group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, prior commitment, and public opinion help determine the level of conformity an individual displays.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Conformity

    • Conformity is the attaining of societal goals by socially accepted means, while innovation is the attaining of those goals in unaccepted ways. from Robert K. Merton

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      Criminology Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of the nature…
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      Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioral sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.…

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      Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioral sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.
      The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. Later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminologie.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Criminology

    • This theory is commonly used in the study of criminology (specifically the strain theory). from Robert K. Merton

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      Institution An institution is any persistent structure or mechanism of social order governing the behaviour of a set of…
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      An institution is any persistent structure or mechanism of social order governing the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community. Institutions are identified with a social purpose, transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern living behavior.…

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      An institution is any persistent structure or mechanism of social order governing the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community. Institutions are identified with a social purpose, transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern living behavior.
      The term "institution" is commonly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as well as to particular formal organizations of government and public services. As structures and mechanisms of social order, institutions are one of the principal objects of study in the social sciences, such as political science, anthropology, economics, and sociology (the latter being described by Durkheim as the "science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning"). Institutions are also a central concern for law, the formal mechanism for political rule-making and enforcement.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Institution

    • Finally, Merton thinks that shared values are central in explaining how societies and institutions work, however he disagrees with Parsons on some issues. from Robert K. Merton

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      History of science The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including…
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      The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as the history of scholarship.) From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and…

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      The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as the history of scholarship.) From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented in a progressive narrative in which true theories replaced false beliefs. More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science.
      Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real world phenomena. Historiography of science, in contrast, often draws on the historical methods of both intellectual history and social history. However, the English word scientist is relatively recent—first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Previously, people investigating nature called themselves natural philosophers.
      While empirical investigations of the natural world have been described since classical antiquity (for example, by Thales, Aristotle, and others), and scientific methods have been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham, and Roger Bacon), the dawn of modern science is often traced back to the early modern period and in particular to the scientific revolution that took place in 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Scientific methods are considered to be so fundamental to modern science that some consider earlier inquiries into nature to be pre-scientific. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those inquiries.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To History of science

    • Bruges: St. Catherine Press, 1938, reissued: Howard Fertig, 2001, ISBN 0-86527-434-7 – The 1938 publication made Merton well known among historians of science . from Robert K. Merton

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      Focus group A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions…
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      A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. The first focus group…

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      A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. The first focus group was held in Ernest Dichter's house in a room he built above his garage. The first focus groups were created at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA, by associate director, sociologist Robert K. Merton. The term itself was coined by psychologist and marketing expert Ernest Dichter.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Focus group

    • The first focus groups were created at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA, by associate director, sociologist Robert K. Merton. from Focus group

    • Merton is also credited as the creator of the focus group research method. from Robert K. Merton

    • This was one of the first studies undertaken by Columbia University Bureau of Applied Social Research under the leadership of sociologist Robert K. Merton. Dr. Merton would become one of the most influential sociologists of the 20th century; he was known as the “Father of the Focus group” and was the first sociologist to win a National Medal of Science (1994). from Winfield Township, New Jersey

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      Unintended consequences In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences)…
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      In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones intended by a purposeful action. The term was popularised in the 20th century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton.…

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      In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones intended by a purposeful action. The term was popularised in the 20th century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton.
      Unintended consequences can be roughly grouped into three types:

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Unintended consequences

    • However, it was the sociologist Robert K. Merton who popularized this concept in the twentieth century. from Unintended consequences

    • The term was popularised in the 20th century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton. from Unintended consequences

    • Merton developed notable concepts such as "unintended consequences", the "reference group", and "role strain" but is perhaps best known for having created the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy". from Robert K. Merton

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      Abnormality (behavior) Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior), in the vivid sense of something deviating from the normal or differing…
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      Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior), in the vivid sense of something deviating from the normal or differing from the typical (such as an aberration), is a subjectively defined behavioral characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. Behavior is considered abnormal when it is atypical, out of the ordinary, causes some kind of impairment, or consists of undesirable behavior. who is normal or abnormal is a contentious issue in abnormal psychology.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Abnormality (behavior)

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      Scientific revolution The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in…
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      The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. The scientific revolution began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance era and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual…

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      The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. The scientific revolution began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance era and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment. While its dates are disputed, the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is often cited as marking the beginning of the scientific revolution, and its completion is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Newton's 1687 Principia. By the end of the 18th century, the scientific revolution had given way to the "Age of Reflection".
      The concept of a scientific revolution taking place over an extended period emerged in the eighteenth century in the work of Bailly, who saw a two-stage process of sweeping away the old and establishing the new.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Scientific revolution

    • Merton carried out extensive research into the sociology of science, developing the Merton Thesis explaining some of the religious causes of the Scientific Revolution, and the Mertonian norms of science, often referred to by the acronym "Cudos". from Robert K. Merton

    1. 45
      Empiricism Empiricism is a theory which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several…
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      Empiricism is a theory which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions; empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.…

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      Empiricism is a theory which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions; empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.
      Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation.
      Empiricism, often used by natural scientists, asserts that "knowledge is based on experience" and that "knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification." One of the epistemological tenets is that sensory experience creates knowledge. The scientific method, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides empirical research.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Empiricism

    • Middle-range theories, applicable to limited ranges of data, transcend sheer description of social phenomena and fill in the blanks between raw empiricism and grand or all-inclusive theory. from Robert K. Merton

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      Role model A role model is a person whose behavior, example, or success is or can be emulated by others, especially by younger…
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      A role model is a person whose behavior, example, or success is or can be emulated by others, especially by younger people. The term "role model" is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton, who coined the phrase during his career. Merton hypothesized that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social…

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      A role model is a person whose behavior, example, or success is or can be emulated by others, especially by younger people. The term "role model" is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton, who coined the phrase during his career. Merton hypothesized that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. An example being the way fans (oftentimes youth) will idolize and imitate professional athletes or entertainment artists. Although the term "role model" has been criticized as "outdated", the term and its associated responsibility remains prominent in the public consciousness as a commonly used phrase, and a "powerful presence" in the entertainment industry and media.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Role model

    • The term "role model" is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton, who coined the phrase during his career. from Role model

    • Merton developed notable concepts such as "unintended consequences", the "reference group", and "role strain" but is perhaps best known for having created the terms "role model" and "self-fulfilling prophecy". from Robert K. Merton

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      South Philadelphia High School South Philadelphia High School also known as Southern High is a public secondary high school located in the south…
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      South Philadelphia High School also known as Southern High is a public secondary high school located in the south section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the intersection of Broad Street and Snyder Avenue, just north of the South Philadelphia Sports Complex residential neighborhood, Marconi Plaza, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and near the Passyunk Avenue urban corridor of shops and restaurants.…

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      South Philadelphia High School also known as Southern High is a public secondary high school located in the south section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the intersection of Broad Street and Snyder Avenue, just north of the South Philadelphia Sports Complex residential neighborhood, Marconi Plaza, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Park, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and near the Passyunk Avenue urban corridor of shops and restaurants.
      The school, serving grades 9 through 12, is a part of the School District of Philadelphia.
      The school serves portions of South Philadelphia (including Southwark) and the Rittenhouse Square section of Center City.

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    How Robert K. Merton
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      Society A human society is a group of people involved in persistent interpersonal relationships, or a large social grouping…
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      A human society is a group of people involved in persistent interpersonal relationships, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions;…

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      A human society is a group of people involved in persistent interpersonal relationships, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups..
      Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap.
      A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology.
      More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.
      Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society can be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; or a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may even, though more by means of metaphor, refer to a social organism such as an ant colony or any cooperative aggregate such as, for example, in some formulations of artificial intelligence.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Society

    • Like Durkheim and Parsons he analyzes society with reference to whether cultural and social structures are well or badly integrated. from Robert K. Merton

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      Sociology Sociology is the academic study of social behavior, its origins, development, organization, and institutions. It is…
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      Sociology is the academic study of social behavior, its origins, development, organization, and institutions. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, social disorder and social change. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be…

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      Sociology is the academic study of social behavior, its origins, development, organization, and institutions. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, social disorder and social change. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.
      The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such as health, medical, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
      The range of social scientific methods has also expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-twentieth century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches to the analysis of society. Conversely, recent decades have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.
      Social research informs politicians and policy makers, educators, planners, lawmakers, administrators, developers, business magnates, managers, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, and people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other statistical fields.

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Sociology

    • Robert King Merton (July 4, 1910 – February 23, 2003) was an American sociologist. from Robert K. Merton

    • Merton, Robert K.. from Sociology

    • Important theorists in the sociology of science include Robert K. Merton and Bruno Latour. from Sociology

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    • For instance, Robert K. Merton produced a typology of deviance which includes both individual and system level causal explanations of deviance. from Sociology

    • This approach lends itself to what Robert K. Merton called middle-range theory: abstract statements that generalize from segregated hypotheses and empirical regularities rather than starting with an abstract idea of a social whole. from Sociology

    • Social Theory and Social Structure (STSS) was a landmark publication in sociology by Robert K. Merton. from Social Theory and Social Structure

    • Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research. from Middle range theory (sociology)

    • Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts first clarified for sociology by Robert K. Merton. Merton appeared interested in sharpening the conceptual tools to be employed in a functional analysis. from Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions

    • Although examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ancient Greece and ancient India, it is 20th-century sociologist Robert K. Merton who is credited with coining the expression "self-fulfilling prophecy" and formalizing its structure and consequences. from Self-fulfilling prophecy

    • Stigler named the sociologist Robert K. Merton as the discoverer of "Stigler's law", so as to avoid this law about laws disobeying its very own decree. from Stigler's law of eponymy

    • The term is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton from his 1948 article. from Social influence

    • The concept of anticipatory socialization, first defined by sociologist Robert K. Merton, has its origins in a 1949 study of the United States military which found that privates who modelled their attitudes and behaviours on those of officers were more likely to be promoted than those who didn't. from Anticipatory socialization

    • The term was popularised in the 20th century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton. from Unintended consequences

    • Serendipity is used as a sociological method in Anselm L. Strauss' and Barney G. Glaser's Grounded Theory, building on ideas by sociologist Robert K. Merton, who in Social Theory and Social Structure (1949) referred to the "serendipity pattern" as the fairly common experience of observing an unanticipated, anomalous and strategic datum which becomes the occasion for developing a new theory or for extending an existing theory. from Serendipity

    • This was one of the first studies undertaken by Columbia University Bureau of Applied Social Research under the leadership of sociologist Robert K. Merton. Dr. Merton would become one of the most influential sociologists of the 20th century; he was known as the “Father of the Focus group” and was the first sociologist to win a National Medal of Science (1994). from Winfield Township, New Jersey

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    1. 50
      Pace University School of Law Pace University School of Law, commonly known as "Pace Law School", is the law school of Pace University, a…
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      Pace University School of Law, commonly known as "Pace Law School", is the law school of Pace University, a comprehensive, independent, and diversified university with campuses in New York City and Westchester County. Located approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of New York City proper, Pace Law School is situated on a 13-acre (53,000 m2) landscaped campus of historic and modern buildings in White Plains, New York.…

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      Pace University School of Law, commonly known as "Pace Law School", is the law school of Pace University, a comprehensive, independent, and diversified university with campuses in New York City and Westchester County. Located approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of New York City proper, Pace Law School is situated on a 13-acre (53,000 m2) landscaped campus of historic and modern buildings in White Plains, New York.
      Founded in 1976, Pace Law School is accredited by the American Bar Association. According to Pace Law School's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 40.8% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.
      The law school has several clinics and centers, including the Pace Energy and Climate Center [2], the Pace Environmental Litigation Clinic [3], and the Land Use Law Center [4].
      Other centers and clinics include the Women's Justice Center [5], the Barbara C. Salken Criminal Justice Clinic [6], the Investor Rights Clinic [7], the Kheel Center on the Resolution of Environmental Interest Disputes [8], and the Immigration Justice Clinic [9].
      The Pace Community Law Practice [10] was launched in September 2012. It is a first-of-its-kind legal residency and incubator program where recent Pace Law School graduates serve as Fellows intensively learning legal practice under the supervision of experienced attorneys and gaining the tools to create solo and small practices.
      Pace Law School campus is also home to the New York State Judicial Institute, which serves as a statewide center for the education, training, and research facility for all judges and justices of the New York State Unified Court System

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    How Robert K. Merton
    Connects To Pace University School of Law

    • In 1934, Merton married Suzanne Carhart, with whom he had one son, Robert C. Merton, winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize in economics, and two daughters, Stephanie Merton Tombrello and Vanessa Merton, a professor of law at Pace University School of Law. from Robert K. Merton

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