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Quilting can refer either to the process of creating a quilt or to the sewing of two or more layers of material together to make a thicker padded material. "Quilting" as the process of creating a quilt uses "quilting" as the joining of layers as one of its steps, often along with designing, piecing, appliqué, binding and other steps. A quilter is the name given to someone who works at quilting. Quilting can be done by hand, by sewing machine, or by a specialized longarm quilting system.

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The process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. Typical quilting is done with 3 layers: the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and backing material. The quilter's hand or sewing machine passes the needle and thread through all layers and then brings the needle back up. The process is repeated across the entire area where quilting is wanted. A…

…rocking, straight or running stitch is commonly used and these stitches can be purely functional, or decorative and elaborate. Quilting is done to create bed spreads, art quilt wall hangings, clothing, and a variety of textile products. Quilting can make a project thick, or with dense quilting, can raise one area so that another stands out.
Quilt stores often sell fabric, thread, patterns and other goods that are used for quilting. They often have group sewing and quilting classes, where one can learn how to sew or quilt and work with others to exchange skills. Quilt stores often have quilting machines that can be rented out for use, or customers can drop off their quilts and have them professionally quilted.

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      Quilt A quilt is a type of blanket, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of…
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      A quilt is a type of blanket, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting. A quilt is distinguishable from other types of blanket because it is pieced together with several pieces of cloth. “Quilting” refers…

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      A quilt is a type of blanket, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting. A quilt is distinguishable from other types of blanket because it is pieced together with several pieces of cloth. “Quilting” refers to the technique of joining at least two fabric layers by stitches or ties. In most cases, two fabric layers surround a middle layer of batting (cotton, polyester, silk, wool or combinations of fibers) which is a lighter, insulating layer. Batting is often referred to as “wadding” in Britain. Some modern quilts are made with an upper fabric layer, quilted to a layer of microfleece, perhaps without a fabric backing. The most decorative fabric surface is called the “top”, and is the design focus. A single piece of fabric (a “wholecloth quilt”) may be used as the top, or the top may be “pieced” from smaller fabric pieces. Sewing together smaller pieces of fabric into a larger patchwork "block" of fabric creates the basic unit. The “patchwork” of the top is typically made of a series of blocks (all identical, or of diverse design), which are made sequentially and then assembled. The blocks may be separated by plain fabric strips, called “sashing”. The central design space may be small (a “medallion”) or dominate the top of the quilt. Many tops have decorative "borders", of plainer design, surrounding the central panel of the top and enlarging the quilt. The "binding" is the final edge of fabric that covers the entire edge, and seals the batting. Most modern quilts are made of 100% cotton fabric in a light weight. Early quilts were often made of "calico", which is a cotton fabric in a small, repeating print. “Muslin” is a similar fabric (the name derived from Mosul, where quality cotton fabrics were produced in the Middle Ages), of lower quality on average. Silk and lightweight wool are also used, but less commonly than in the past.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Quilt

    • The process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. from Quilting

    • A quilt is a type of blanket, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting. from Quilt

    • Motifs may be varied or rotated for contrast and variety, or to create new shapes, as with quilt blocks in quilts and quilting. from Motif (textile arts)

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    • While sewing machines are commonly used to piece such quilts as patchwork tops, it is rare to find a vintage quilt that was not hand quilted. Regular (domestic) sewing machines have been used to hold layers of a quilt together since they were invented, however, it wasn't until the 1990s that this productive skill became acceptable and has now replaced hand quilting in popularity. from Machine quilting

    • Mathematical ideas have been used as inspiration for a number of fiber arts including quilt making, knitting, cross-stitch, crochet, embroidery and weaving. from Mathematics and fiber arts

    • Betweens or Quilting: These needles are shorter than sharps, with a small rounded eye and are used for making fine stitches on heavy fabrics such as in tailoring, quilt making and other detailed handwork; note that some manufacturers also distinguish between quilting needles and quilting between needles, the latter being slightly shorter and narrower than the former. from Sewing needle

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      Patchwork Patchwork or "pieced work" is a form of needlework that involves sewing together pieces of fabric into a larger…
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      Patchwork or "pieced work" is a form of needlework that involves sewing together pieces of fabric into a larger design. The larger design is usually based on repeat patterns built up with different fabric shapes (which can be different colors). These shapes are carefully measured and cut, basic geometric shapes making them easy to piece together.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Patchwork

    • Quilting is often combined with embroidery, patchwork, applique, and other forms of needlework. from Quilting

    • To keep the batting from shifting, a patchwork or pieced quilt is often quilted by hand or machine using a running stitch in order to outline the individual shapes that make up the pieced top, or the quilting stitches may be random or highly ordered overall patterns that contrast with the patchwork composition. from Patchwork

    • Crazy quilting does not actually refer to a specific kind of quilting (the needlework which binds two or more layers of fabric together), but a specific kind of patchwork lacking repeating motifs. from Crazy quilting

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    • Running stitches are used in hand-sewing and tailoring to sew basic seams, in hand patchwork to assemble pieces, and in quilting to hold the fabric layers and batting or wadding in place. from Running stitch

    • Sewing is the fundamental process underlying a variety of textile arts and crafts, including embroidery, tapestry, quilting, appliqué and patchwork. from Glossary of sewing terms

    • Traditional and contemporary work is of equal importance within the Guild, and membership is open to anyone who works in patchwork, appliqué, and quilting, or has an interest in quilts. from Quilt Museum and Gallery

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      Appliqué In its broadest sense, an appliqué is a smaller ornament or device applied to another surface. An appliqué is…
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      In its broadest sense, an appliqué is a smaller ornament or device applied to another surface. An appliqué is usually one piece. In the context of ceramics, for example, an appliqué is a separate piece of clay added to the primary work, generally for the purpose of decoration. The term is borrowed from French and,…

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      In its broadest sense, an appliqué is a smaller ornament or device applied to another surface. An appliqué is usually one piece. In the context of ceramics, for example, an appliqué is a separate piece of clay added to the primary work, generally for the purpose of decoration. The term is borrowed from French and, in this context, means "applied" or "thing that has been applied." Appliqué is a surface pattern that is used to decorate an aspect of a garment or product. It is highly used with the Textiles industry, but lately is a key trend for make do mend items.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Appliqué

    • Quilting is often combined with embroidery, patchwork, applique, and other forms of needlework. from Quilting

    • Appliqué is used extensively in quilting. from Appliqué

    • Sewing is the fundamental process underlying a variety of textile arts and crafts, including embroidery, tapestry, quilting, appliqué and patchwork. from Glossary of sewing terms

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    • Traditional and contemporary work is of equal importance within the Guild, and membership is open to anyone who works in patchwork, appliqué, and quilting, or has an interest in quilts. from Quilt Museum and Gallery

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      Motif (textile arts) In the textile arts, a motif  (pronunciation)  (also called a block or square) is a smaller element in a much…
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      In the textile arts, a motif  (pronunciation)  (also called a block or square) is a smaller element in a much larger work. In knitting and crochet, motifs are made one at a time and joined together to create larger works such as afghan blankets or shawls. A good example of a motif is the granny…

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      In the textile arts, a motif  (pronunciation)  (also called a block or square) is a smaller element in a much larger work. In knitting and crochet, motifs are made one at a time and joined together to create larger works such as afghan blankets or shawls. A good example of a motif is the granny square. Motifs may be varied or rotated for contrast and variety, or to create new shapes, as with quilt blocks in quilts and quilting. Contrast with motif-less crazy quilting.
      Motifs can be any size, but usually all the motifs in any given work are the same size. The patterns and stitches used in a motif may vary greatly, but there is almost always some unifying element, such as texture, stitch pattern, or colour, which gives the finished piece more aesthetic appeal. Motifs may commemorate events or convey information or political slogans. For example the individual blocks of the AIDS Memorial Quilt, the possible Quilts of the Underground Railroad, and the "54-40 or Fight" quilt block.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Motif (textile arts)

    • Piecing: Sewing small pieces of cloth into patterns, called blocks, that are then sewn together to make a finished quilt top. from Quilting

    • Motifs may be varied or rotated for contrast and variety, or to create new shapes, as with quilt blocks in quilts and quilting. from Motif (textile arts)

    • Crazy quilting does not actually refer to a specific kind of quilting (the needlework which binds two or more layers of fabric together), but a specific kind of patchwork lacking repeating motifs. from Crazy quilting

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      Quilt art Quilt art, sometimes known as art quilting, is an art form that uses both modern and traditional quilting…
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      Quilt art, sometimes known as art quilting, is an art form that uses both modern and traditional quilting techniques to create art objects. Practitioners of quilt art create it based on their experiences, imagery, and ideas rather than traditional patterns. Quilt art generally has more in common with the fine arts than it does with traditional quilting. This art is generally either wall hung or mounted as sculpture, though exceptions exist.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Quilt art

    • During the late 20th century, art quilts became popular for their aesthetic and artistic qualities rather than for functionality (they are displayed on a wall or table rather than spread on a bed). from Quilting

    • Quilt art, sometimes known as art quilting, is an art form that uses both modern and traditional quilting techniques to create art objects. from Quilt art

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      Batting (material) Batting (also known as wadding in the United Kingdom or filler) is a layer of insulation used in quilting between a…
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      Batting (also known as wadding in the United Kingdom or filler) is a layer of insulation used in quilting between a top layer of patchwork and a bottom layer of backing material. Batting is usually made of cotton, polyester, and/or wool.…

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      Batting (also known as wadding in the United Kingdom or filler) is a layer of insulation used in quilting between a top layer of patchwork and a bottom layer of backing material. Batting is usually made of cotton, polyester, and/or wool.
      Fiber artists and hand spinners use a drum carder to make batts that they use for felting, spinning, and other projects. These carders can also be used to make batts that are a blend of multiple fiber types or a blend of fiber colors. Batts produced by hand carders are typically 6–8 inches (150–200 mm) wide and about 2 feet (600 mm) long.
      Batting is also used to simulate snow in Christmas displays, such as for Christmas villages and Christmas tree skirts. It comes in sheets which are a few millimeters or up to a quarter-inch thick, either folded or rolled like giftwrap, and is often sold lightly sprinkled with silvery or multicolored glitter. A different variety called "Buffalo Snow" is much thicker and fluffier, and is sold folded or rolled in packages the size of a standard bed pillow. This was named for Buffalo, New York, which has heavy lake-effect snows, and is also the location of the Buffalo Batt & Felt company that first sold it as a decorative product.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Batting (material)

    • Typical quilting is done with 3 layers: the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and backing material. from Quilting

    • Batting (also known as wadding in the United Kingdom or filler ) is a layer of insulation used in quilting between a top layer of patchwork and a bottom layer of backing material. from Batting (material)

    • Running stitches are used in hand-sewing and tailoring to sew basic seams, in hand patchwork to assemble pieces, and in quilting to hold the fabric layers and batting or wadding in place. from Running stitch

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    • A quilt is a type of blanket, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting. from Quilt

    • ; Quilted fabric : Sleepers are occasionally made from a quilted fabric, incorporating a thin layer of polyester fiberfill batting for increased warmth. from Blanket sleeper

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      Needlework Needlework is a broad term for the handicrafts of decorative sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle…
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      Needlework is a broad term for the handicrafts of decorative sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework. The definition may expand to include related textile crafts such as a crochet hook or tatting shuttles.…

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      Needlework is a broad term for the handicrafts of decorative sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework. The definition may expand to include related textile crafts such as a crochet hook or tatting shuttles.
      Similar abilities often transfer well between different varieties of needlework, such as fine motor skill and a knowledge of textile fibers. Some of the same tools may be used in several different varieties of needlework. For instance, a needle threader is useful in nearly all needlecrafts.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Needlework

    • Quilting is often combined with embroidery, patchwork, applique, and other forms of needlework. from Quilting

    • Meanwhile, women of the wealthier classes prided themselves on their fine quilting of wholecloth quilts with fine needlework. from Quilting

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      Tack (sewing) In sewing, to tack or baste is to make quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed. Tacking is used in a…
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      In sewing, to tack or baste is to make quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed. Tacking is used in a variety of ways:

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Tack (sewing)

    • This involves laying the top, batting, and backing out on a flat surface and either pinning (using large safety pins) or tacking the layers together. from Quilting

    • Often used in quilting or embroidery. from Tack (sewing)

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      Machine quilting Machine quilting is quilting made using a sewing machine to stitch in rows or patterns using select techniques to…
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      Machine quilting is quilting made using a sewing machine to stitch in rows or patterns using select techniques to stitch through layers of fabric and batting in the manner of old-style hand-quilting. Some machines even replicate hand stitching, for example Sashiko or running stitch quilting.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Machine quilting

    • While sewing machines are commonly used to piece such quilts as patchwork tops, it is rare to find a vintage quilt that was not hand quilted. Regular (domestic) sewing machines have been used to hold layers of a quilt together since they were invented, however, it wasn't until the 1990s that this productive skill became acceptable and has now replaced hand quilting in popularity. from Machine quilting

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      Patchwork quilt A patchwork quilt is a quilt in which the top layer consists of pieces of fabric sewn together to form a design…
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      A patchwork quilt is a quilt in which the top layer consists of pieces of fabric sewn together to form a design. Originally, this was to make full use of left-over scraps of fabric, but now fabric is often bought specially for a specific design. Fabrics are now often sold in quarter meters (or "yards"…

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      A patchwork quilt is a quilt in which the top layer consists of pieces of fabric sewn together to form a design. Originally, this was to make full use of left-over scraps of fabric, but now fabric is often bought specially for a specific design. Fabrics are now often sold in quarter meters (or "yards" in the U.S.). (A "fat quarter" is one square meter folded into four and cut along the folds, thus giving a square piece of fabric 50 cm on a side, as opposed to buying a quarter of a meter off the roll, resulting in a long thin piece that is only 25 cm wide).

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Patchwork quilt

    • See also Colorwash. from Quilting

    • The quilting can either outline the patchwork motifs, or be a completely independent design, for when quilting, the design may not necessarily follow the patchwork design, and the design of the quilting may play off the patchwork design. from Patchwork quilt

    • Batting (also known as wadding in the United Kingdom or filler ) is a layer of insulation used in quilting between a top layer of patchwork and a bottom layer of backing material. from Batting (material)

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    • While sewing machines are commonly used to piece such quilts as patchwork tops, it is rare to find a vintage quilt that was not hand quilted. Regular (domestic) sewing machines have been used to hold layers of a quilt together since they were invented, however, it wasn't until the 1990s that this productive skill became acceptable and has now replaced hand quilting in popularity. from Machine quilting

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      Running stitch The running stitch or straight stitch is the basic stitch in hand-sewing and embroidery, on which all other forms…
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      The running stitch or straight stitch is the basic stitch in hand-sewing and embroidery, on which all other forms of sewing are based. The stitch is worked by passing the needle in and out of the fabric. Running stitches may be of varying length, but typically more thread is visible on the top of the sewing than on the underside.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Running stitch

    • Hand quilting is the process of using a needle and thread to sew a running stitch by hand across the entire area to be quilted. from Quilting

    • A rocking, straight or running stitch is commonly used and these stitches can be purely functional, or decorative and elaborate. from Quilting

    • Running stitches are used in hand-sewing and tailoring to sew basic seams, in hand patchwork to assemble pieces, and in quilting to hold the fabric layers and batting or wadding in place. from Running stitch

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    • Traditionally used to reinforce points of wear, or to repair worn places or tears with patches, this running stitch technique is often used for purely decorative purposes in quilting and embroidery. from Sashiko stitching

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      Sashiko stitching Sashiko (刺し子?, literally "little stabs") is a form of decorative reinforcement stitching (or functional…
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      Sashiko (刺し子?, literally "little stabs") is a form of decorative reinforcement stitching (or functional embroidery) from Japan. Traditionally used to reinforce points of wear, or to repair worn places or tears with patches, this running stitch technique is often used for purely decorative purposes in quilting and embroidery. The white cotton thread on the traditional indigo blue cloth gives sashiko its distinctive appearance, though decorative items sometimes use red thread.…

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      Sashiko (刺し子?, literally "little stabs") is a form of decorative reinforcement stitching (or functional embroidery) from Japan. Traditionally used to reinforce points of wear, or to repair worn places or tears with patches, this running stitch technique is often used for purely decorative purposes in quilting and embroidery. The white cotton thread on the traditional indigo blue cloth gives sashiko its distinctive appearance, though decorative items sometimes use red thread.
      Many Sashiko patterns were derived from Chinese designs, but just as many were developed by the Japanese themselves. The artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849) published the book New Forms for Design in 1824, and these designs have inspired many Sashiko patterns.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Sashiko stitching

    • Sashiko stitching – Basic running stitch worked in heavy, white cotton thread usually on dark indigo colored fabric. from Quilting

    • Traditionally used to reinforce points of wear, or to repair worn places or tears with patches, this running stitch technique is often used for purely decorative purposes in quilting and embroidery. from Sashiko stitching

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      Longarm quilting Longarm quilting is the process by which a longarm sewing machine is used to sew together a quilt top…
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      Longarm quilting is the process by which a longarm sewing machine is used to sew together a quilt top, quilt batting and quilt backing into a finished quilt. The longarm sewing machine typically ranges from 10 to 14 feet in length (or, 3metres to 4.25 metres). One typically consists of an industrial sewing machine, a 10 to 14-foot table, and several rollers on which the fabric layers are placed.…

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      Longarm quilting is the process by which a longarm sewing machine is used to sew together a quilt top, quilt batting and quilt backing into a finished quilt. The longarm sewing machine typically ranges from 10 to 14 feet in length (or, 3metres to 4.25 metres). One typically consists of an industrial sewing machine, a 10 to 14-foot table, and several rollers on which the fabric layers are placed.
      Quilting using a longarm machine can take significantly less time than hand quilting or more traditional machine quilting. This time saving is a large factor in the gain in popularity of longarm quilting.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Longarm quilting

    • Quilting can be done by hand, by sewing machine, or by a specialized longarm quilting system. from Quilting

    • Quilting using a longarm machine can take significantly less time than hand quilting or more traditional machine quilting. from Longarm quilting

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      Broderie perse Broderie perse (French for "Persian embroidery") is a style of appliqué embroidery which uses printed elements to…
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      Broderie perse (French for "Persian embroidery") is a style of appliqué embroidery which uses printed elements to create a scene on the background fabric. It was most popular in Europe in the 17th century, and probably travelled from India, as there are some earlier findings there. The technique could be considered an early form of puzzle piecing.…

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      Broderie perse (French for "Persian embroidery") is a style of appliqué embroidery which uses printed elements to create a scene on the background fabric. It was most popular in Europe in the 17th century, and probably travelled from India, as there are some earlier findings there. The technique could be considered an early form of puzzle piecing.
      Broderie perse can be done with any printed fabric on any ground, but it originally was worked with Chintz type fabrics. Chintz typically has clearly defined, separated motifs, which were cut out and invisibly applied onto the ground fabric. The typical intention was to create a scene from the motifs, but the decoration could also be random. The resulting fabric was often made into bedspreads, either unlined for summer or quilted for winter. They were typically saved for special occasions, such as guest beds.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Broderie perse

    • Broderie perse quilts and medallion quilts were made. from Quilting

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      Sewing needle A sewing needle is a long slender tool with a pointed tip. The first needles were made of bone or wood; modern ones…
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      A sewing needle is a long slender tool with a pointed tip. The first needles were made of bone or wood; modern ones are manufactured from high carbon steel wire, nickel- or 18K gold plated for corrosion resistance. The highest quality embroidery needles are plated with two-thirds platinum and one-thirds titanium alloy. Traditionally, needles have…

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      A sewing needle is a long slender tool with a pointed tip. The first needles were made of bone or wood; modern ones are manufactured from high carbon steel wire, nickel- or 18K gold plated for corrosion resistance. The highest quality embroidery needles are plated with two-thirds platinum and one-thirds titanium alloy. Traditionally, needles have been kept in needle books or needle cases which have become an object of adornment. Sewing needles can also be kept in an etui, a small box that held needles and other items such as scissors, pencils and tweezers.
      A needle for hand-sewing has a hole, called the eye, at the blunt end to carry thread or cord through the fabric after the pointed end pierces it.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Sewing needle

    • Hand quilting is the process of using a needle and thread to sew a running stitch by hand across the entire area to be quilted. from Quilting

    • The process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. from Quilting

    • Betweens or Quilting: These needles are shorter than sharps, with a small rounded eye and are used for making fine stitches on heavy fabrics such as in tailoring, quilt making and other detailed handwork; note that some manufacturers also distinguish between quilting needles and quilting between needles, the latter being slightly shorter and narrower than the former. from Sewing needle

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    • Construction methods such as sewing, knitting, crochet, and tailoring, as well as the tools employed (looms and sewing needles), techniques employed (quilting and pleating) and the objects made (carpets, hooked rugs, and coverlets) all fall under the category of textile arts. from Textile arts

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      Harriet Powers Harriet Powers (October 29, 1837 – January 1, 1910) was an African-American slave, folk artist and quilt maker from…
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      Harriet Powers (October 29, 1837 – January 1, 1910) was an African-American slave, folk artist and quilt maker from rural Georgia. She used traditional appliqué techniques to record local legends, Bible stories, and astronomical events on her quilts. Only two of her quilts have survived: Bible Quilt 1886 and Pictorial Quilt 1898. Her quilts are…

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      Harriet Powers (October 29, 1837 – January 1, 1910) was an African-American slave, folk artist and quilt maker from rural Georgia. She used traditional appliqué techniques to record local legends, Bible stories, and astronomical events on her quilts. Only two of her quilts have survived: Bible Quilt 1886 and Pictorial Quilt 1898. Her quilts are considered among the finest examples of nineteenth-century Southern quilting. Her work is on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Harriet Powers

    • Harriet Powers, a slave-born African American woman, made two famous story quilts. from Quilting

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      Bias (textile) The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as "the bias", is at 45 degrees to its…
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      The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as "the bias", is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. Every piece of woven fabric has two biases, perpendicular to each other. Non-woven fabrics such as felt or interfacing do not have a bias.…

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      The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as "the bias", is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. Every piece of woven fabric has two biases, perpendicular to each other. Non-woven fabrics such as felt or interfacing do not have a bias.
      Woven fabric is more elastic as well as more fluid in the bias direction, compared to the on-grain direction. This property facilitates garments and garment details that require extra elasticity, drapability or flexibility, such as bias-cut skirts and dresses, neckties, piping trims and decorations, bound seams, etc.
      The "bias-cut" is a technique used by designers for cutting clothing to utilize the greater stretch in the bias or diagonal direction of the fabric, thereby causing it to accentuate body lines and curves and drape softly. For example, a full-skirted dress cut on the bias will hang more gracefully or a narrow dress will cling to the figure. Bias-cut garments were an important feature of the designs of Madeleine Vionnet in 1920s and 1930s and bias-cut styles are revived periodically. In the Middle Ages, before the development of knitting, hose were cut on the bias in order to make them fit better. The old spelling was byas, or (less common) byess.
      A garment made of woven fabric is said to be "cut on the bias" when the fabric's warp and weft threads are at 45 degrees to its major seam lines.
      Note: The term "cross-grain" in the US refers to the direction perpendicular to the length-of-grain (selvage edges), not the diagonal.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Bias (textile)

    • Binding: Long fabric strips cut on the bias that are attached to the borders of the quilt. from Quilting

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      Lawn cloth Lawn cloth or lawn is a plain weave textile, originally of linen but now chiefly cotton. Lawn is designed using…
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      Lawn cloth or lawn is a plain weave textile, originally of linen but now chiefly cotton. Lawn is designed using fine, high count yarns, which results in a silky, untextured feel. The fabric is made using either combed or carded yarns. When lawn is made using combed yarns, with a soft feel and slight luster,…

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      Lawn cloth or lawn is a plain weave textile, originally of linen but now chiefly cotton. Lawn is designed using fine, high count yarns, which results in a silky, untextured feel. The fabric is made using either combed or carded yarns. When lawn is made using combed yarns, with a soft feel and slight luster, it is known as "nainsook". The term lawn is also used in the textile industry to refer to a type of starched crisp finish given to a cloth product. The finish can be applied to a variety of fine fabrics, prints or plain.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Lawn cloth

    • Shadow trapunto – This involves quilting a design in fine Lawn and filling some of the spaces in the pattern with small lengths of colored wool. from Quilting

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      Gambeson A gambeson (or aketon or padded jack or arming doublet) is a padded defensive jacket, worn as armour separately…
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      A gambeson (or aketon or padded jack or arming doublet) is a padded defensive jacket, worn as armour separately, or combined with mail or plate armour. Gambesons were produced with a sewing technique called quilting. Usually constructed of linen or wool, the stuffing varied, and could be for example scrap cloth or horse hair. During the 14th century, illustrations usually show buttons or laces up the front.…

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      A gambeson (or aketon or padded jack or arming doublet) is a padded defensive jacket, worn as armour separately, or combined with mail or plate armour. Gambesons were produced with a sewing technique called quilting. Usually constructed of linen or wool, the stuffing varied, and could be for example scrap cloth or horse hair. During the 14th century, illustrations usually show buttons or laces up the front.
      An arming doublet (also called aketon) worn under armour, particularly plate armour of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe contains arming points for attaching plates and fifteenth century examples may include goussets sewn into the elbows and armpits to protect the wearer in locations not covered by plate. German gothic armour arming doublets were generally shorter than Italian white armour doublets, which could extend to the upper thigh. In late fifteenth century Italy this also became a civilian fashion. Men who were not knights wore arming doublets, probably because the garment suggested status and chivalry.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Gambeson

    • Gambesons were produced with a sewing technique called quilting. from Gambeson

    • The medieval quilted gambeson, aketon and arming doublet were garments worn under, or instead of, armor of maille or plate armor. from Quilting

    • Quilted garments known as gambesons were popular in the European Middle Ages. from Quilting

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      Ralli quilt Ralli quilts are traditional quilts made by women in the areas of Sindh, Pakistan, western India, and in…
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      Ralli quilts are traditional quilts made by women in the areas of Sindh, Pakistan, western India, and in surrounding areas. They are just now gaining international recognition, even though women have been making these quilts for hundreds, maybe thousands of years. Rallis (also known as rillis, rellis, rehlis, rallees, gindi and other names) are a…

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      Ralli quilts are traditional quilts made by women in the areas of Sindh, Pakistan, western India, and in surrounding areas. They are just now gaining international recognition, even though women have been making these quilts for hundreds, maybe thousands of years. Rallis (also known as rillis, rellis, rehlis, rallees, gindi and other names) are a cultural symbol for the regions where they are made. The most common uses are for a single person sized bedcover (used on the traditional wooden charpoy bed) or as small bag or eating cloth. Traditionally rallis were made at home, from recycled and hand dyed cotton cloth, for use by the family. Now there is some commercial production of rallis as colourful quilts, table runners and cushions and pillows. This production can be found in Sindh in Umerkot and Tharparkat as well as in the Indian States of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
      In the past decade, rallis have gained much popularity and notice. Articles about rallis have appeared in many popular American quilting magazines and other publications. Rallis have been exhibited for the first time in several quilt museums in the US with the first exhibit at the International Quilt Festival in Houston in 2003. Now the International Quilt Study Center at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has a growing collection of about 150 rallis. Rallis were in the news as a result of the terrible flooding in Pakistan in August 2010. Many people escaped the floods with only their families and their rallis. Women in the refugee camps used their time to make more rallis to use or to sell.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Ralli quilt

    • Ralli Quilting – Pakistani and Indian quilting, often associated with the Sindh (Pakistan) and Gujarat (India) regions. from Quilting

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      Tivaevae Tivaevae or tivaivai (Cook Islands Māori: tīvaevae) in the Cook Islands, tifaifai in French Polynesia, is a form of…
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      Tivaevae or tivaivai (Cook Islands Māori: tīvaevae) in the Cook Islands, tifaifai in French Polynesia, is a form of artistic quilting traditionally done by Polynesian women. The word literally means "patches", in reference to the pieces of material sewn together. The tivaevae are either made by one woman or can be created in groups of women called vainetini. The vainetini use this time together to bond, sing and catch up on village news.…

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      Tivaevae or tivaivai (Cook Islands Māori: tīvaevae) in the Cook Islands, tifaifai in French Polynesia, is a form of artistic quilting traditionally done by Polynesian women. The word literally means "patches", in reference to the pieces of material sewn together. The tivaevae are either made by one woman or can be created in groups of women called vainetini. The vainetini use this time together to bond, sing and catch up on village news.
      Tivaevae are often given on very special occasions either to important visitors, as birthday and wedding gifts or used to cover the body of a loved one who has died. They are often displayed during important events like the traditional boys' hair cutting ceremonies, birthdays and weddings.
      By custom, a tivaevae is not measured by monetary value nor production cost. Its value is said to be reflected by the love and patience that the creator(s) have put into making a stunning work of art. Cook Islands women often described their tivaevae as being "something from the heart."
      Tivaevae are rarely seen for sale on the islands. The Atiu Fibre Arts Studio on Atiu is the only place in the Cook Islands where they are commercially produced and available for purchase.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Tivaevae

    • Tivaevae or tifaifai – A distinct art from the Cook Islands. from Quilting

    • Tivaevae or tivaivai ( ) in the Cook Islands, tifaifai in French Polynesia, is a form of artistic quilting traditionally done by Polynesian women. from Tivaevae

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      Hawaiian quilt A Hawaiian quilt is a distinctive quilting style of the Hawaiian Islands that uses large radially symmetric…
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      A Hawaiian quilt is a distinctive quilting style of the Hawaiian Islands that uses large radially symmetric applique patterns. Motifs often work stylized botanical designs in bold colors on a white background.…

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      A Hawaiian quilt is a distinctive quilting style of the Hawaiian Islands that uses large radially symmetric applique patterns. Motifs often work stylized botanical designs in bold colors on a white background.
      Hawaiian quilt applique is made from a single cut on folded fabric. not true stitches normally follow the contours of the applique design.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Hawaiian quilt

    • "Hawaiian quilting was well established by the beginning of the twentieth century. from Quilting

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      The Quilts of Gee's Bend The Quilts of Gee's Bend were created by a group of women who live in the isolated African-American hamlet of Gee's…
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      The Quilts of Gee's Bend were created by a group of women who live in the isolated African-American hamlet of Gee's Bend, Alabama. "The compositions of these quilts contrast dramatically with the ordered regularity associated with many styles of Euro-American quiltmaking. There's a brilliant, improvisational range of approaches to composition that is more often associated…

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      The Quilts of Gee's Bend were created by a group of women who live in the isolated African-American hamlet of Gee's Bend, Alabama. "The compositions of these quilts contrast dramatically with the ordered regularity associated with many styles of Euro-American quiltmaking. There's a brilliant, improvisational range of approaches to composition that is more often associated with the inventiveness and power of the leading 20th-century abstract painters than it is with textile-making," writes Alvia Wardlaw, curator of Modern and Contemporary Art at the Museum of Fine Arts.
      The quilting tradition in Gee's Bend goes back to the 19th century, when the community was the site of a cotton plantation owned by a Joseph Gee. Perhaps influenced in part by patterned African textiles, female slaves pieced together strips of cloth to make bedcovers. Throughout the post-bellum years and into the 20th century, Gee's Bend women made quilts to keep themselves and their children warm in unheated shacks that lacked running water, telephones and electricity. Along the way they developed a distinctive style, noted for its lively improvisations and geometric simplicity.
      The quilts have been exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art, among others. The Whitney venue, in particular, brought a great deal of art-world attention to the work, starting with Michael Kimmelman's review in The New York Times which called the quilts 'some of the most miraculous works of modern art American has produced' and went on to describe them as a version of Matisse and Klee arising in the rural South. Comparable effect can be seen in the quilts of isolated individuals such as Rosie Lee Tompkins, but the Gee's Bend quilters had the advantage of numbers and backstory.
      More than 50 quiltmakers currently make up the Gee's Bend Collective., which is owned and operated by the women of Gee’s Bend. Every quilt sold by the Gee’s Bend Quilt Collective is unique and individually produced.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To The Quilts of Gee's Bend

    • The contributions made by her and other quilters of Gee's Bend, Alabama has been recognized by the US Postal Service with a series of stamps. from Quilting

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      Doublet (clothing) A doublet is a man's snug-fitting buttoned jacket that is shaped and fitted to the man's body which was worn in…
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      A doublet is a man's snug-fitting buttoned jacket that is shaped and fitted to the man's body which was worn in Western Europe from the Middle Ages through to the mid-17th century. The doublet was hip length or waist length and worn over the shirt or drawers. Until the end of the 15th century the…

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      A doublet is a man's snug-fitting buttoned jacket that is shaped and fitted to the man's body which was worn in Western Europe from the Middle Ages through to the mid-17th century. The doublet was hip length or waist length and worn over the shirt or drawers. Until the end of the 15th century the doublet was worn under another layer of clothing such as a gown, mantle, or overtunic. The term also refers to a formal jacket worn with highland dress, a variation of which is called an Argyll jacket or Prince Charlie jacket (or coatee).
      Originally it was a mere stitched and quilted lining ("doubling"), worn under a hauberk or cuirass to prevent bruising and chafing. Doublets were frequently opened to the waistline in a deep V. The edges might be left free or laced across the shirt front. If there was space left it might be filled with a stomacher. By the 1520s, the edges of the doublet met at the center front. Then, like many other originally practical items in the history of men's wear, from the late 15th century onward it became elaborated enough to be seen on its own. A similar jacket, the sherwani, is worn today in India.
      Throughout the 300 years of its use, the doublet served the same purpose: to give fashionable shape and padding to the body, to support the hose by providing ties, and to provide warmth to the body. The only thing that changed about the doublet over its history was its style and cut.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Doublet (clothing)

    • These developed into the later quilted doublet worn as part of fashionable European male clothing from the 14th to 17th century. from Quilting

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      Trapunto quilting Trapunto, from the Italian for "to quilt," is a method of quilting that is also called "stuffed technique…
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      Trapunto, from the Italian for "to quilt," is a method of quilting that is also called "stuffed technique." A puffy, decorative feature, trapunto utilizes at least two layers, the underside of which is slit and padded, producing a raised surface on the quilt.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Trapunto quilting

    • Trapunto quilting – stuffed quilting, often associated with Italy. from Quilting

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      Embroidery Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may…
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      Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. Embroidery is most often used on caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim, stockings, and golf shirts. Embroidery is available with a wide variety of thread or yarn color.…

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      Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. Embroidery is most often used on caps, hats, coats, blankets, dress shirts, denim, stockings, and golf shirts. Embroidery is available with a wide variety of thread or yarn color.
      An interesting characteristic of embroidery is that the basic techniques or stitches on surviving examples of the earliest embroidery—chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch—remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Embroidery

    • Quilting is often combined with embroidery, patchwork, applique, and other forms of needlework. from Quilting

    • Often used in quilting or embroidery. from Tack (sewing)

    • Traditionally used to reinforce points of wear, or to repair worn places or tears with patches, this running stitch technique is often used for purely decorative purposes in quilting and embroidery. from Sashiko stitching

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    • Sewing is the fundamental process underlying a variety of textile arts and crafts, including embroidery, tapestry, quilting, appliqué and patchwork. from Glossary of sewing terms

    • Girls from wealthy families were sent to school to learn embroidery and quilting; fashioning floor rugs and mats was never part of the curriculum. from Rug hooking

    • Mathematical ideas have been used as inspiration for a number of fiber arts including quilt making, knitting, cross-stitch, crochet, embroidery and weaving. from Mathematics and fiber arts

    • 150 needleworkers from the United States, Canada and New Zealand assisted in the project, working on 100 panels, by quilting, macrame, embroidery and other techniques. from Judy Chicago

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      Sewing machine A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were…
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      A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to have been the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790, the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.…

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      A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to have been the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790, the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.
      Home sewing machines are designed for one person to sew individual items while using a single stitch type. In a modern sewing machine the fabric easily glides in and out of the machine without the inconvenience of needles and thimbles and other such tools used in hand sewing, automating the process of stitching and saving time.
      Industrial sewing machines, by contrast to domestic machines, are larger, faster, and more varied in their size, cost, appearance, and task.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Sewing machine

    • Machine quilting is the process of using a home sewing machine or a longarm machine to sew the layers together. from Quilting

    • The quilter's hand or sewing machine passes the needle and thread through all layers and then brings the needle back up. from Quilting

    • Quilting can be done by hand, by sewing machine, or by a specialized longarm quilting system. from Quilting

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    • While sewing machines are commonly used to piece such quilts as patchwork tops, it is rare to find a vintage quilt that was not hand quilted. Regular (domestic) sewing machines have been used to hold layers of a quilt together since they were invented, however, it wasn't until the 1990s that this productive skill became acceptable and has now replaced hand quilting in popularity. from Machine quilting

    • To keep the batting from shifting, a patchwork or pieced quilt is often quilted by hand or machine using a running stitch in order to outline the individual shapes that make up the pieced top, or the quilting stitches may be random or highly ordered overall patterns that contrast with the patchwork composition. from Patchwork

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      Yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles…
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      Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, and ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Yarn

    • The process of tying the quilt is done with yarns or multiple strands of thread. from Quilting

    • Hand quilting is the process of using a needle and thread to sew a running stitch by hand across the entire area to be quilted. from Quilting

    • The process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. from Quilting

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      Thimble A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing…
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      A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing. Usually, thimbles with a closed top are used by dressmakers but special thimbles with an opening at the end are used by tailors as this allows them to manipulate the cloth more easily. Finger guards…

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      A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing. Usually, thimbles with a closed top are used by dressmakers but special thimbles with an opening at the end are used by tailors as this allows them to manipulate the cloth more easily. Finger guards differ from tailors’ thimbles in that they often have a top but are open on one side. Some finger guards are little more that a finger shield attached to a ring to maintain the guard in place. The Old English word þȳmel, the ancestor of thimble, is derived from Old English þūma, the ancestor of our word thumb.
      A single steel needle from the time of the Han Dynasty ancient China (206BC - 202AD) was found in a tomb in Jiangling, and it could conceivably be assumed that thimbles were in use at this time also although no thimble seems to have been discovered with the needle. The earliest known thimble — in the form of a simple ring — dates back to the Han Dynasty ancient China also and was discovered during the Cultural Revolution of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in a lesser dignitary's tomb. Oddly, neither the Romans nor the Greeks before them appear to have used metal thimbles. It may be that leather or cloth finger guards proved sufficiently robust for their purposes. There are so-called Roman thimbles in museum collections, but the provenance of these metal thimbles is, in fact, not certain, and many have been removed from display. No well-documented archeological data link metal thimbles to any Roman site. According to the United Kingdom Detector Finds Database, thimbles dating to the 10th century have been found in England, and thimbles were in widespread use there by the 14th century.
      Although there are isolated examples of thimbles made of precious metals—Elizabeth I is said to have given one of her ladies-in-waiting a thimble set with precious stones—the vast majority of metal thimbles were made of brass. Medieval thimbles were either cast brass or made from hammered sheet.
      Early centers of thimble production were those places known for brass-working, starting with Nuremberg in the 15th century, and moving to Holland by the 17th.
      In 1693, a Dutch thimble manufacturer named John Lofting established a thimble manufactory in Islington, in London, England, expanding British thimble production to new heights. He later moved his mill to Buckinghamshire to take advantage of water-powered production, resulting in a capacity to produce more than two million thimbles per year. By the end of the 18th century, thimble making had moved to Birmingham, and shifted to the "deep drawing" method of manufacture, which alternated hammering of sheet metals with annealing, and produced a thinner-skinned thimble with a taller shape. At the same time, cheaper sources of silver from the Americas made silver thimbles a popular item for the first time.
      Thimbles are usually made from metal, leather, rubber, and wood, and even glass or china. Early thimbles were sometimes made from whale bone, horn, or ivory. Natural sources were also utilized such as Connemara marble, bog oak, or mother of pearl. Rarer works from thimble makers utilized diamonds, sapphires, or rubies.
      Advanced thimblemakers enhanced thimbles with semi-precious stones to adorn the apex or along the outer rim. Cabochon adornments are sometimes made of cinnabar, agate, moonstone, or amber. Thimble artists would also utilize enameling, or the Guilloché techniques advanced by Peter Carl Fabergé.
      Originally, thimbles were used simply solely for pushing a needle through fabric or leather as it was being sewn. Since then, however, they have gained many other uses. From the 16th century onwards silver thimbles were regarded as an ideal gift for ladies.
      Early Meissen porcelain and elaborate, decorated gold thimbles were also given as 'keepsakes' and were usually quite unsuitable for sewing. This tradition has continued to the present day. In the early modern period, thimbles were used to measure spirits, and gunpowder, which brought rise to the phrase "just a thimbleful". Prostitutes used them in the practice of thimble-knocking where they would tap on a window to announce their presence. Thimble-knocking also refers to the practice of Victorian schoolmistresses who would tap on the heads of unruly pupils with dames thimbles.
      Before the 18th century the small dimples on the outside of a thimble were made by hand punching, but in the middle of that century, a machine was invented to do the job. If one finds a thimble with an irregular pattern of dimples, it was likely made before the 1850s. Another consequence of the mechanization of thimble production is that the shape and the thickness of the metal changed. Early thimbles tend to be quite thick and to have a pronounced dome on the top. The metal on later ones is thinner and the top is flatter.
      Collecting thimbles became popular in the UK when many companies made special thimbles to commemorate the Great Exhibition held in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London. In the 19th century, many thimbles were made from silver; however, it was found that silver is too soft a metal and can be easily punctured by most needles.
      Charles Horner solved the problem by creating thimbles consisting of a steel core covered inside and out by silver, so that they retained their aesthetics but were now more practical and durable. He called his thimble the Dorcas, and these are now popular with collectors. There is a small display of his work in Bankfield Museum, Halifax, England.
      Early American thimbles made of whale bone or tooth featuring miniature scrimshaw designs are considered valuable collectibles. Such rare thimbles are prominently featured in a number of New England Whaling Museums.
      During the First World War, silver thimbles were collected from "those who had nothing to give" by the British government and melted down to buy hospital equipment. In the 1930s and 40s glass-topped thimbles were used for advertising. Leaving a sandalwood thimble in a fabric store was a common practice for keeping moths away. Thimbles have also been used as love-tokens and to commemorate important events. People who collect thimbles are known as digitabulists. One superstition about thimbles says that if you have three thimbles given to you, you will never be married.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Thimble

    • Another option is called a rocking stitch, where the quilter has one hand, usually with a finger wearing a thimble, on top of the quilt, while the other hand is located beneath the piece to push the needle back up. from Quilting

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      Thread (yarn) Thread is a kind of yarn used for sewing.
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      Thread is a kind of yarn used for sewing.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Thread (yarn)

    • The process of tying the quilt is done with yarns or multiple strands of thread. from Quilting

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      Reef knot The reef knot or square knot is an ancient and simple binding knot used to secure a rope or line around an object…
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      The reef knot or square knot is an ancient and simple binding knot used to secure a rope or line around an object. Although the reef knot is often seen used for tying two ropes together, it is not recommended for this purpose because of the potential instability of the knot, and over-use has resulted in many deaths.…

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      The reef knot or square knot is an ancient and simple binding knot used to secure a rope or line around an object. Although the reef knot is often seen used for tying two ropes together, it is not recommended for this purpose because of the potential instability of the knot, and over-use has resulted in many deaths.
      A reef knot is formed by tying a left-handed overhand knot and then a right-handed overhand knot, or vice versa. A common mnemonic for this procedure is "right over left; left over right", which is often appended with the rhyming suffix "... makes a knot both tidy and tight". Two consecutive overhands of the same handedness will make a granny knot. The working ends of the reef knot must emerge both at the top or both at the bottom, otherwise a thief knot results.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Reef knot

    • Square knots are used to finish off the ties so that the quilt may be washed and used without fear of the knots coming undone. from Quilting

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      Plate armour Plate armour is a historical type of personal armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit…
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      Plate armour is a historical type of personal armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer. While there are early predecessors such as the Roman-era lorica segmentata, full plate armour developed in Europe during the Late Middle Ages, especially in the context of the Hundred…

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      Plate armour is a historical type of personal armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer. While there are early predecessors such as the Roman-era lorica segmentata, full plate armour developed in Europe during the Late Middle Ages, especially in the context of the Hundred Years' War, from the coat of plates worn over mail suits during the 13th century. In Europe, plate armour reached its peak in the late 15th and 16th centuries, and the full suit of armour, commonly perceived as "medieval", was actually only a feature of the very end of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissance period. Full suits of Gothic plate armour were worn on the battlefields of the Burgundian and Italian Wars. The most heavily armoured troops of the period were heavy cavalry such as the gendarmes and early cuirassiers, but the infantry troops of the Swiss mercenaries and the landsknechts also took to wearing lighter suits of "three quarters" plate armour, leaving the lower legs unprotected.
      The use of plate armour declined in the 17th century, but it remained common both among the nobility and for the cuirassiers throughout the European wars of religion. After 1650, plate armour was mostly reduced to the simple breastplate (cuirass) worn by cuirassiers. This was due to the development of the flintlock musket, which could penetrate armour at a considerable distance, severely reducing the payoff from the investment in full plate armour. For infantry, the breastplate gained renewed importance with the development of shrapnel in the late 18th century. The use of steel plates sewn into flak jackets dates to World War II, replaced by more modern materials such as fibre-reinforced plastic since the 1950s. It is a common misconception that the plate armour of European soldiers adversely affected mobility in a significant manner; in fact, plate armour was lighter and featured more even weight distribution than a full complement of a modern firefighter's gear.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Plate armour

    • The medieval quilted gambeson, aketon and arming doublet were garments worn under, or instead of, armor of maille or plate armor. from Quilting

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      Mail (armour) Mail (chainmail, maille) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a…
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      Mail (chainmail, maille) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Mail (armour)

    • The medieval quilted gambeson, aketon and arming doublet were garments worn under, or instead of, armor of maille or plate armor. from Quilting

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      Tessellation A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no…
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      A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps. In mathematics, tessellations can be generalized to higher dimensions.…

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      A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps. In mathematics, tessellations can be generalized to higher dimensions.
      A periodic tiling has a repeat pattern. Some special kinds include regular tilings with regular polygonal tiles all of the same shape, and semi-regular tilings with regular tiles of more than one shape and with every corner identically arranged. The patterns formed by periodic tilings can be categorized into 17 wallpaper groups. A tiling that lacks a repeating pattern is called "non-periodic". An aperiodic tiling uses a small set of tile shapes that cannot form a repeating pattern. In the geometry of higher dimensions, a space filling or honeycomb is also called a tessellation of space.
      A real physical tessellation is a tiling made of materials such as cemented ceramic squares or hexagons. Such tilings may be decorative patterns, or may have functions such as providing durable and water-resistant pavement, floor or wall coverings. Historically, tessellations were used in Ancient Rome and in Islamic art such as in the decorative tiling of the Alhambra palace. In the twentieth century, the work of M. C. Escher often made use of tessellations for artistic effect. Tessellations are sometimes employed for decorative effect in quilting. Tessellations form a class of patterns in nature, for example in the arrays of hexagonal cells found in honeycombs.
      In computer graphics, the term "tessellation" is used to describe the organization of information needed to render to give the appearance of the surfaces of realistic three-dimensional objects.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Tessellation

    • Quilting can be elaborately decorative, comprising stitching fashioned into complex designs and patterns, simple or complex geometric grids, "motifs" traced from published quilting patterns or traced pictures, freehand, or complex repeated designs called tessellations. from Quilting

    • In the context of quilting, tessellation refers to regular and semiregular of tessellation of either patch shapes or the overall design. from Tessellation

    • Tessellations are sometimes employed for decorative effect in quilting. from Tessellation

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      Textile A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often…
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      A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).…

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      A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).
      The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Textile

    • Quilting is done to create bed spreads, art quilt wall hangings, clothing, and a variety of textile products. from Quilting

    • Using textiles, children can learn to sew and quilt and to make collages and toys. from Textile

    • Crazy quilting does not actually refer to a specific kind of quilting (the needlework which binds two or more layers of fabric together), but a specific kind of patchwork lacking repeating motifs. from Crazy quilting

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    • Quilting, the stitching together of layers of padding and fabric, may date back as far as ancient Egypt. from History of quilting

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      Process (engineering) In engineering a process is a set of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks…
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      In engineering a process is a set of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks may be carried out by people, nature, or machines using resources; so an engineering process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the tasks, and the resource attributes involved. Systems Engineering normative documents…

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      In engineering a process is a set of interrelated tasks that, together, transform inputs into outputs. These tasks may be carried out by people, nature, or machines using resources; so an engineering process must be considered in the context of the agents carrying out the tasks, and the resource attributes involved. Systems Engineering normative documents and those related to Maturity Models are typically based on processes. For example, System Engineering processes of the EIA-632 and processes involved in the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) institutionalization and improvement approach. Constraints imposed on the tasks and resources required to implement them are essential for executing the tasks mentioned.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Process (engineering)

    • The process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. from Quilting

    1. 37
      Amish The Amish (/ˈɑːmɪʃ/; Pennsylvania Dutch: Amisch, German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church…
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      The Amish (/ˈɑːmɪʃ/; Pennsylvania Dutch: Amisch, German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships, closely related to but distinct from Mennonite churches, with whom they share Swiss Anabaptist origins. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church…

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      The Amish (/ˈɑːmɪʃ/; Pennsylvania Dutch: Amisch, German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships, closely related to but distinct from Mennonite churches, with whom they share Swiss Anabaptist origins. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann. Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish.
      In the early 18th century, many Amish and Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today, the most traditional descendants of the Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as "Pennsylvania Dutch". However, a dialect of Swiss German predominates in some Old Order Amish communities, especially in the American state of Indiana. As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish live in the United States and approximately 1,500 live in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers have increased to 227,000, and in 2010 a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West.
      Amish church membership begins with baptism, usually between the ages of 16 and 25. It is a requirement for marriage, and once a person has affiliated with the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families, and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home. The district is led by a bishop and several ministers and deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover most aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Most Amish do not buy commercial insurance or participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service.
      Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. Almost 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During adolescence rumspringa ("running around") in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may meet with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish (English) world. There is generally a heavy emphasis on church and family relationships. They typically operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education at grade eight (age 13/14). They value rural life, manual labor and humility.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Amish

    • African-American women developed a distinctive style of quilting, notably different from the style most strongly associated with the Amish. from Quilting

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      Wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from…
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      Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.…

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      Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
      Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters).

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Wool

    • Shadow trapunto – This involves quilting a design in fine Lawn and filling some of the spaces in the pattern with small lengths of colored wool. from Quilting

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      First Dynasty of Egypt The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified…
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      The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, a time at which power was centered at Thinis.…

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      The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, a time at which power was centered at Thinis.
      The date of this period is subject to scholarly debate in the context of the chronology of Ancient Egypt. It falls into the Early Bronze Age and is variously estimated to begin anywhere between the 34th and the 30th centuries BC. In a 2013 study based on radiocarbon dates, the beginning of the First Dynasty (accession of Hor-Aha) was placed close to 3100 BC (3218–3035 with 95% confidence).

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    How Quilting
    Connects To First Dynasty of Egypt

    • The earliest known quilted garment is depicted on the carved ivory figure of a Pharaoh of the Egyptian First Dynasty, about 3400 B.C. from Quilting

    1. 40
      Tristan Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Welsh: Trystan), also known as Tristram, is the male hero of the…
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      Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Welsh: Trystan), also known as Tristram, is the male hero of the Arthurian Tristan and Iseult story. He was a Cornish knight of the Round Table. He is the son of Blancheflor and Rivalen (in later versions Isabelle and Meliodas), and the nephew of King Mark of Cornwall, sent to…

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      Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Welsh: Trystan), also known as Tristram, is the male hero of the Arthurian Tristan and Iseult story. He was a Cornish knight of the Round Table. He is the son of Blancheflor and Rivalen (in later versions Isabelle and Meliodas), and the nephew of King Mark of Cornwall, sent to fetch Iseult back from Ireland to wed the king. However, he and Iseult accidentally consume a love potion while en route and fall helplessly in love. The pair undergo numerous trials that test their secret affair.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Tristan

    • The blocks across the center are scenes from the legend of Tristan. from Quilting

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      Colonial history of the United States The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization…
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      The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization of America until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. Small early attempts—such as the English Lost Colony of…

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      The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization of America until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. Small early attempts—such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke—often disappeared; everywhere the death rate of the first arrivals was very high. Nevertheless successful colonies were established. European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups. No aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers, farmers, and tradesmen arrived. Diversity was an American characteristic as the Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the English Quakers of Pennsylvania, the English Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and the "worthy poor" of Georgia, came to the new continent and built colonies with distinctive social, religious, political and economic styles. Non-British colonies were taken over and the inhabitants were all assimilated, unlike in Nova Scotia, where the British expelled the French Acadian inhabitants. There were no major civil wars among the 13 colonies, and the two chief armed rebellions (in Virginia in 1676 and in New York in 1689–91) were short-lived failures. Wars between the French and the British—the French and Indian Wars and Father Rale's War—were recurrent, and involved French support for Wabanaki Confederacy attacks on the frontiers. By 1760 France was defeated and the British seized its colonies.
      On the eastern seaboard of what would become the United States, the four distinct British regions were: New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South) and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region, the Frontier, which was never separately organized. By the time European settlers arrived around 1600–1650, the majority of the Native Americans living in the eastern United States had been ravaged by new diseases, introduced to them decades before by explorers and sailors.
      See timeline of Colonial America for list of historical events.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Colonial history of the United States

    • In American Colonial times, most women were busy spinning, weaving, and making clothing. from Quilting

    1. 42
      Cook Islands The Cook Islands (/ˈkʊk ˈaɪləndz/; Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is an island country in the South Pacific…
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      The Cook Islands (/ˈkʊk ˈaɪləndz/; Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 small islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres (92.7 sq mi). The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), however, covers 1,800,000 square kilometres (690,000 sq mi) of ocean.…

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      The Cook Islands (/ˈkʊk ˈaɪləndz/; Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 small islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres (92.7 sq mi). The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), however, covers 1,800,000 square kilometres (690,000 sq mi) of ocean.
      The Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs are the responsibility of New Zealand, which is exercised in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an increasingly independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, which is not given to other New Zealand citizens.
      The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga (14,153 in 2006), where there is an international airport. There is a much larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand, particularly the North Island. In the 2006 census, 58,008 self-identified as being of ethnic Cook Islands Māori descent.
      With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010–11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, and the leading element of the economy, far ahead of offshore banking, pearls, and marine and fruit exports.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Cook Islands

    • Tivaevae or tifaifai – A distinct art from the Cook Islands. from Quilting

    • Tivaevae or tivaivai ( ) in the Cook Islands, tifaifai in French Polynesia, is a form of artistic quilting traditionally done by Polynesian women. from Tivaevae

    1. 43
      Victoria and Albert Museum The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A), London, is the world's largest museum of…
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      The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A), London, is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The V&A is located in the Brompton district of the Royal Borough…

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      The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A), London, is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The V&A is located in the Brompton district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in an area that has become known as "Albertopolis" because of its association with Prince Albert, the Albert Memorial and the major cultural institutions with which he was associated. These include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001.
      The V&A covers 12.5 acres (51,000 m2) and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America, Asia and North Africa. The holdings of ceramics, glass, textiles, costumes, silver, ironwork, jewellery, furniture, medieval objects, sculpture, prints and printmaking, drawings and photographs are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world. The museum owns the world's largest collection of post-classical sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, China, Japan, Korea and the Islamic world. The East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world.
      Since 2001, the museum has embarked on a major £150m renovation programme, which has seen a major overhaul of the departments, including the introduction of newer galleries, gardens, shops and visitor facilities.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Victoria and Albert Museum

    • The quilt is 122" by 106" and is in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. from Quilting

    • Techniques represented include weaving, printing, quilting embroidery, lace, tapestry and carpets. from Victoria and Albert Museum

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      Crusades The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and…
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      The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages. In 1095 Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem. Many historians and some of those involved at the time,…

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      The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages. In 1095 Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem. Many historians and some of those involved at the time, like Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, give equal precedence to other papal-sanctioned military campaigns undertaken for a variety of religious, economic, and political reasons, such as the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, the Reconquista, and the Northern Crusades. Following the First Crusade there was an intermittent 200-year struggle for control of the Holy Land, with six more major crusades and numerous minor ones. In 1291, the conflict ended in failure with the fall of the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land at Acre, after which Roman Catholic Europe mounted no further coherent response in the east.
      Some historians see the Crusades as part of a purely defensive war against Islamic conquest; some see them as part of long-running conflict at the frontiers of Europe; and others see them as confident, aggressive, papal-led expansion attempts by Western Christendom. Crusading attracted men and women of all classes. The massacres involved were mainly attributed as being caused by disorder, an epidemic of ergotism and economic distress. The Byzantine Empire was unable to recover territory lost during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the Arab–Byzantine Wars and the Byzantine–Seljuq Wars; these conquests culminated in the loss of fertile farmlands and vast grazing areas of Anatolia in 1071, after a sound victory by the occupying armies of Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert. Urban II sought to reunite the Christian church under his leadership by providing Emperor Alexios I with military support.
      Several hundred thousand Roman Catholic Christians became crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church. These crusaders were Christians from all over Western Europe under feudal rather than unified command, and the politics were often complicated to the point of intra-faith competition leading to alliances between combatants of different faiths against their coreligionists, such as the Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rûm during the Fifth Crusade. Furthermore, whoever joined the ranks of the crusaders gained spiritual immunity, Pope Urban II promised forgiveness of all sins to whosoever took up the cross and joined in the war. While there were additional motivations for taking up the cross—opportunity for economic or political gain, desire for adventure, and the feudal obligation to follow one’s lord into battle—to become a soldier for Christ was to express total devotion to God. Certain monarchs across Europe also pledged their servants for service for the perks of being "a part of the war". Whether obligated, or willing, the time that one put forth to glorify the kingdom of God through his time during the war was greater than any treasure one could gain while upon the earth.
      The impact of the crusades was profound, and judgment of the conduct of crusaders has varied widely from laudatory to highly critical. Jonathan Riley-Smith identifies the independent states established, such as the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusader States, as the first experiments in "Europe Overseas". These ventures reopened the Mediterranean to trade and travel, enabling Genoa and Venice to flourish. Crusading armies would engage in commerce with the local populations while on the march, with Orthodox Byzantine emperors often organizing markets for Crusader forces moving through their territory. The crusading movement consolidated the collective identity of the Latin Church under the Pope’s leadership and was the source of heroism, chivalry, and medieval piety. This in turn spawned medieval romance, philosophy, and literature. However, the crusades reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism that ran counter to the Peace and Truce of God that Urban had promoted.
      The crusaders often pillaged the countries through which they travelled in the typical medieval manner of supplying an army on the move. Nobles often retained much of the territory gained rather than returning it to the Byzantines as they had sworn to do. The Peoples' Crusade prompted Rhineland massacres and the murder of thousands of Jews. In the late 19th century this episode was used by Jewish historians to support Zionism. The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sack of Constantinople by the Roman Catholics, effectively ending the chance of reuniting the Christian church by reconciling the East–West Schism and leading to the weakening and eventual fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans. Nevertheless, some crusaders were merely poor people trying to escape the hardships of medieval life in an armed pilgrimage leading to Apotheosis at Jerusalem.

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    Connects To Crusades

    • Crusaders brought quilted objects from the Middle East to Europe in the late 11th century. from Quilting

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      Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution (/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOE-nee-ən), established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion…
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      The Smithsonian Institution (/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOE-nee-ən), established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic…

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      The Smithsonian Institution (/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOE-nee-ən), established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 137 million items, the Institution's Washington, D.C. nucleus of nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo—many of them historical or architectural landmarks—is the largest such complex in the world. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, New York City, Virginia, Panama and elsewhere, and 168 other museums are Smithsonian affiliates. The Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge; funding comes from the Institution's own endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, government support, and retail, concession and licensing revenues. Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.

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    Connects To Smithsonian Institution

    • The Gee's Bend quilting community was celebrated in an exhibition that travelled to museums including the Smithsonian. from Quilting

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      Middle Ages In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with…
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      In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: Antiquity, Medieval period, and Modern period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High, and the Late Middle Ages.…

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      In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: Antiquity, Medieval period, and Modern period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High, and the Late Middle Ages.
      Depopulation, deurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The barbarian invaders, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East, once part of the Eastern Roman Empire came under the rule of the Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with Antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established an empire covering much of Western Europe; the Carolingian Empire in the later 8th and early 9th century, when it succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions—Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, and Saracens from the south.
      During the High Middle Ages, which began after AD 1000, the population of Europe increased greatly as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, and feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Middle Eastern Holy Land from the Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. The theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, and the architecture of Gothic cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements of this period.
      The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine, plague, and war, which much diminished the population of Western Europe; between 1347 and 1350, the Black Death killed about a third of Europeans. Controversy, heresy, and schism within the Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, and peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.

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    Connects To Middle Ages

    • Quilted garments known as gambesons were popular in the European Middle Ages. from Quilting

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      Pharaoh Pharaoh (/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/ or /fær.oʊ/) is the common title of the kings of Ancient Egyptian dynasties until the…
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      Pharaoh (/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/ or /fær.oʊ/) is the common title of the kings of Ancient Egyptian dynasties until the Graeco-Roman conquest.

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    How Quilting
    Connects To Pharaoh

    • The earliest known quilted garment is depicted on the carved ivory figure of a Pharaoh of the Egyptian First Dynasty, about 3400 B.C. from Quilting

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      Mongolia Mongolia /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ (Mongolian:  Монгол Улс ) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia. It is bordered by…
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      Mongolia /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ (Mongolian:  Монгол Улс ) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.…

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      Mongolia /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ (Mongolian:  Монгол Улс ) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
      The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. The Tibetan influence of Mongolia dates back to the Tibetan empire expansion of Central Asia and South Asia.
      At the end of the 17th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchus' Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty the Mongols established Temporary Government of Khalkha in 30 November 1911. On 29 December 1911 Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty and this National Liberation Revolution ended 220 years of Manchu rule (153 years after the collapse of the Zunghar Khanate).
      Shortly thereafter, the country came under Soviet influence, resulting in the proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic as a Soviet satellite state in 1924. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Europe in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own democratic revolution in early 1990; it led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.
      At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of around 2.9 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south.
      Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.

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    • In 1924 archaeologists discovered a quilted floor covering in Mongolia. from Quilting

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      Middle East The Middle East (also called the Mid East) is a region that roughly encompasses a majority of Western Asia…
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      The Middle East (also called the Mid East) is a region that roughly encompasses a majority of Western Asia (excluding the Caucasus) and Egypt. The term is used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. Arabs, Persians, and…

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      The Middle East (also called the Mid East) is a region that roughly encompasses a majority of Western Asia (excluding the Caucasus) and Egypt. The term is used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. Arabs, Persians, and Turks constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population, while Kurds, Azeris, Copts, Jews, Assyrians, Maronites, Circassians, Somalis, Armenians, Druze and other denominations form a significant minority.
      The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and the region has generally been a major center of world affairs. However, in the context of its ancient history, the term "Near East" is more commonly used. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the Baha'i faith, Mandaeism, Unitarian Druze, and numerous other belief systems were also established within the region. The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with the sovereign nations of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting from petroleum exports. In modern times the Middle East remains a strategically, economically, politically, culturally and religiously sensitive region.

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    Connects To Middle East

    • Crusaders brought quilted objects from the Middle East to Europe in the late 11th century. from Quilting

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      Knight A knight (/naɪt/) is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for…
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      A knight (/naɪt/) is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the Monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood has been conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By…

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      A knight (/naɪt/) is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the Monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood has been conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country.
      Historically, the ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature, especially the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, the former based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain"), written in the 1130s. Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur ("The Death of Arthur"), written in 1485, was important in defining the ideal of chivalry which is essential to the modern concept of the knight as an elite warrior sworn to uphold the values of faith, loyalty, courage, and honour. Furthermore, Geoffroi de Charny's "Book of Chivalry" expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a Knights life. During the Renaissance, the genre of chivalric romance became popular in literature, growing ever more idealistic and eventually giving rise to a new form of realism in literature popularised by Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes' world. In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
      Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend; others have disappeared into obscurity. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in several countries, such as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, and the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. Each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement.
      Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, cavalier and related terms (see Etymology section below). The special prestige given to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus (ιππεύς) and the Roman eques of Classical Antiquity.

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    • Knights wore them under their armor for comfort and sometimes as an outer garment to protect the metal armor from the weather. from Quilting

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