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Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (25/27 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century, he founded a spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism.

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In the first, more philosophically oriented phase of this movement, Steiner attempted to find a synthesis between science and spirituality; his philosophical work of these years, which he termed spiritual science, sought to apply the clarity of thinking characteristic of Western philosophy to spiritual questions, differentiating this approach from what he considered to be vaguer approaches to mysticism. In a second phase, beginning around 1907, he began working collaboratively in a variety of artistic media,…

…including drama, the movement arts (developing a new artistic form, eurythmy) and architecture, culminating in the building of the Goetheanum, a cultural centre to house all the arts. In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War I, Steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, and anthroposophical medicine.
Steiner advocated a form of ethical individualism, to which he later brought a more explicitly spiritual approach. He based his epistemology on Johann Wolfgang Goethe's world view, in which “Thinking … is no more and no less an organ of perception than the eye or ear. Just as the eye perceives colours and the ear sounds, so thinking perceives ideas." A consistent thread that runs from his earliest philosophical phase through his later spiritual orientation is the goal of demonstrating that there are no essential limits to human knowledge.

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      Anthroposophy Anthroposophy, a philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner, postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually…
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      Anthroposophy, a philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner, postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world accessible to direct experience through inner development. More specifically, it aims to develop faculties of perceptive imagination, inspiration and intuition through cultivating a form of thinking independent of sensory experience, and to present the results thus derived in…

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      Anthroposophy, a philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner, postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world accessible to direct experience through inner development. More specifically, it aims to develop faculties of perceptive imagination, inspiration and intuition through cultivating a form of thinking independent of sensory experience, and to present the results thus derived in a manner subject to rational verification. In its investigations of the spiritual world, anthroposophy aims to attain the precision and clarity attained by the natural sciences in their investigations of the physical world.
      Anthroposophical ideas have been applied practically in many areas including Steiner/Waldorf education, special education (most prominently through the Camphill Movement), biodynamic agriculture, medicine, ethical banking, organizational development, and the arts. The Anthroposophical Society has its international center at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Anthroposophy

    • The early work of the founder of anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner, culminated in his Philosophy of Freedom (also translated as The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity and Intuitive Thinking as a Spiritual Path). from Anthroposophy

    • Anthroposophy, a philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner, postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world accessible to direct experience through inner development. from Anthroposophy

    • These criticized Steiner's thought and Anthroposophy as being incompatible with National Socialist racial ideology and charged both that Steiner was influenced by his close connections with Jews and that he was himself Jewish. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • One of the central points of divergence with conventional Christian though is found in Steiner's views on reincarnation and karma. from Rudolf Steiner

    • It is on this basis that spiritual science is possible, with radically different epistemological foundations than those of natural science. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The German Section of the Theosophical Society grew rapidly under Steiner's leadership as he lectured throughout much of Europe on his spiritual science. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Steiner later spoke of this book as containing implicitly, in philosophical form, the entire content of what he later developed explicitly as anthroposophy. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In the first, more philosophically oriented phase of this movement, Steiner attempted to find a synthesis between science and spirituality; his philosophical work of these years, which he termed spiritual science, sought to apply the clarity of thinking characteristic of Western philosophy to spiritual questions, differentiating this approach from what he considered to be vaguer approaches to mysticism. from Rudolf Steiner

    • At the beginning of the twentieth century, he founded a spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Waldorf (Steiner) education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based on the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. from Waldorf education

    • Today Dornach is famous for the Goetheanum and is home to the international headquarters of the Anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner. from Dornach

    • Founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in conjunction with Ita Wegman (1876–1943), anthroposophical medicine draws on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy. from Anthroposophic medicine

    • Some of the German-speaking members of the Theosophical Society left it to follow Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophy after the forming of the Anthroposophical Society in 1912. from Theosophy

    • It originated out of the philosophy of Anthroposophy founded by Rudolf Steiner. from Social threefolding

    • These ideas were adapted by later esotericists like Rudolf Steiner (Anthroposophy), Max Heindel, Alice Bailey, and Ann Ree Colton, and some of these ideas were included in New Age thought ..... from Esoteric cosmology

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      Waldorf education Waldorf (Steiner) education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based on the educational philosophy of the…
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      Waldorf (Steiner) education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based on the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. The first Waldorf school was founded in 1919 in Stuttgart, Germany. At present there are 1,039 independent Waldorf schools, 2,000 kindergartens and 646 centers for special education, located in 60 countries. There are also Waldorf-based state schools, charter schools and academies, and homeschooling environments.…

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      Waldorf (Steiner) education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based on the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. The first Waldorf school was founded in 1919 in Stuttgart, Germany. At present there are 1,039 independent Waldorf schools, 2,000 kindergartens and 646 centers for special education, located in 60 countries. There are also Waldorf-based state schools, charter schools and academies, and homeschooling environments.
      Waldorf pedagogy distinguishes three broad stages in child development. The early years education focuses on providing practical, hands-on activities and environments that encourage creative play. In the elementary school, the emphasis is on developing pupils' artistic expression and social capacities, fostering both creative and analytical modes of understanding. Secondary education focuses on developing critical understanding and fostering idealism. Throughout, the approach stresses the role of the imagination in learning and places a strong value on integrating intellectual, practical, and artistic themes.
      The educational philosophy's overarching goal is to develop free, morally responsible, and integrated individuals equipped with a high degree of social competence. Teachers generally use formative (qualitative) rather than summative (quantitative) assessment methods, particularly in the pre-adolescent years. The schools have a high degree of autonomy to decide how best to construct their curricula and govern themselves.
      The Waldorf method is a large independent alternative education movement, which has a worldwide following. In central Europe, where most of the schools are located, the Waldorf approach has achieved general acceptance as a model of alternative education. Waldorf education has influenced mainstream education in Europe and Waldorf schools and teacher training programs are funded through the state in many European countries. Public funding of Waldorf schools in some English speaking countries has been controversial, with questions being raised about the role of religious and spiritual content in or underlying the curriculum, and whether the science curriculum, which has achieved notable results, also includes pseudoscience and/or promotes homeopathy. The Waldorf movement has said that concerns over its stance on these matters are unfounded.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Waldorf education

    • Organized by Vitra Design Museum, the traveling exhibition presented many facets of Steiner's life and achievements, including his influence on architecture, furniture design, dance (Eurythmy), education, and agriculture (Biodynamic agriculture). from Rudolf Steiner

    • During Steiner's lifetime, schools based on his educational principles were also founded in Hamburg, Essen, The Hague and London; there are now more than 1000 Waldorf schools worldwide. from Rudolf Steiner

    • He founded a number of schools, the first of which was known as the Waldorf school, which later evolved into a worldwide school network. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • This School, which was led by Steiner, initially had sections for general anthroposophy, education, medicine, performing arts (eurythmy, speech, drama and music), the literary arts and humanities, mathematics, astronomy, science, and visual arts. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Most importantly, from 1919 on Steiner began to work with other members of the society to found numerous practical institutions and activities, including the first Waldorf school, founded that year in Stuttgart, Germany. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War I, Steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, and anthroposophical medicine. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Waldorf (Steiner) education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based on the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. from Waldorf education

    • He was the director of the Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik, and with Rudolf Steiner co-founded the first Waldorf school. from Emil Molt

    • On September 7, 1919, Emil Molt established the first Waldorf school in cooperation with Rudolf Steiner. from Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik

    • Many are Montessori and Waldorf schools (the latter also known as Steiner schools, after their founder Rudolf Steiner). from Alternative education

    • Nineteenth-century educators, including Swiss humanitarian Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; the American transcendentalists Amos Bronson Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau; founders of progressive education John Dewey and Francis Parker, and educational pioneers such as Friedrich Fröbel, Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner (founder of the Waldorf schools) believed that education should cultivate the moral, emotional, physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects of the developing child. from Alternative education

    • Anthroposophy, which was founded by Rudolf Steiner in the early part of the 20th century, includes esoteric versions of education, agriculture, and medicine. from Esotericism

    • The school follows Rudolf Steiner's 3-stage pedagogical model of child development promoted in Waldorf education. from Raphael House Rudolf Steiner School

    • Sophia Mundi Steiner School is a school located in Abbotsford, Melbourne, Australia, that follows Rudolf Steiner's educational philosophy. from Sophia Mundi Steiner School

    • The Holywood Rudolf Steiner School is a Waldorf school located in Holywood, County Down, Northern Ireland which teaches children using methods inspired by Rudolf Steiner. from Holywood Rudolf Steiner School

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      Goetheanum The Goetheanum, located in Dornach (near Basel), Switzerland, is the world center for the anthroposophical…
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      The Goetheanum, located in Dornach (near Basel), Switzerland, is the world center for the anthroposophical movement. Named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the center includes two performance halls (1500 seats), gallery and lecture spaces, a library, a bookstore, and administrative spaces for the Anthroposophical Society; neighboring buildings house the Society's research and educational facilities. Conferences…

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      The Goetheanum, located in Dornach (near Basel), Switzerland, is the world center for the anthroposophical movement. Named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the center includes two performance halls (1500 seats), gallery and lecture spaces, a library, a bookstore, and administrative spaces for the Anthroposophical Society; neighboring buildings house the Society's research and educational facilities. Conferences focusing on themes of general interest occur several times a year. Specialist conferences for teachers, farmers, doctors, therapists, and other professions are held regularly, as well.
      The Goetheanum is open for visitors seven days a week and offers tours several times daily.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Goetheanum

    • Steiner designed 17 buildings, including the First and Second Goetheanums. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Steiner immediately began work designing a second Goetheanum building - this time made of concrete instead of wood - which was completed in 1928, three years after his death. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In 1913, construction began on the first Goetheanum building, in Dornach, Switzerland. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • In a second phase, beginning around 1907, he began working collaboratively in a variety of artistic media, including drama, the movement arts (developing a new artistic form, eurythmy) and architecture, culminating in the building of the Goetheanum, a cultural centre to house all the arts. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In a dedicated gallery, the building also houses a nine-meter high wooden sculpture, The Representative of Humanity, by Edith Maryon and Rudolf Steiner. from Goetheanum

    • The First Goetheanum, a timber and concrete structure designed by Rudolf Steiner, was one of seventeen buildings Steiner designed and supervised between 1908 and 1925. from Goetheanum

    • Today Dornach is famous for the Goetheanum and is home to the international headquarters of the Anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner. from Dornach

    • The work of testing and developing Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course of 1924 was an international enterprise coordinated by Pfeiffer at the Natural Science Section of the Goetheanum. from Ehrenfried Pfeiffer

    • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer began work with Rudolf Steiner in 1920 to develop and install special diffuse stage lighting for eurythmy performances on the stage of the first Goetheanum. from Ehrenfried Pfeiffer

    • Second Goetheanum, designed by Rudolf Steiner, is completed. from 1928 in architecture

    • At 18, Spock studied at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland where she met and worked with Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. from Marjorie Spock

    • In a lecture given at the Goetheanum in Dornach (1916), the ex-theosophist and founder of the Anthroposophical Society, Rudolf Steiner, described the Louvre Philosopher as the "purest expression of light and dark... from Philosopher in Meditation

    • Rudolf Steiner Clinic, The Hague Buijs carried out the commission to build the clinic (1926–28) based on Rudolf Steiner's own architectural ideas; he studied Steiner's Goetheanum for a month before designing it. from Jan Buijs

    • The foundation stone for the Goetheanum, center for the anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner, was set at the building site in the Switzerland town of Dornach, though construction would not be finished for another nine years. from September 1913 (month)

    • Rudolf Steiner commences work on the first Goetheanum. from Expressionist architecture

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      Anthroposophical Society The General Anthroposophical Society is an organization dedicated to supporting the community of those interested…
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      The General Anthroposophical Society is an organization dedicated to supporting the community of those interested in the form of spiritual philosophy known as anthroposophy.…

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      The General Anthroposophical Society is an organization dedicated to supporting the community of those interested in the form of spiritual philosophy known as anthroposophy.
      The Anthroposophical Society was founded in 1913 by members of the Theosophical Society in Germany, most centrally Rudolf Steiner, who had been the General Secretary of the Theosophical Society's German branches, and re-founded as the General Anthroposophical Society in 1923/4. Its declared mission is "to nurture the life of the soul, both in the individual and in human society, on the basis of a true knowledge of the spiritual world." It includes an esoteric School of Spiritual Science.
      The Society's headquarters is at the Goetheanum, located in Dornach, Solothurn, Switzerland. The Society has national Societies in many countries, including every English-speaking country. Its primary activities include organizing members' meetings and conferences, supporting research and providing communication channels for a variety of purposes. The Society also tries to encourage sustainable initiatives in the many practical fields in which its members are active.
      As of 2013, the society has approximately 52,000 members. Formal branches of the society have been established in 50 countries and smaller groups are active in 50 further countries. About 10,000 institutions base their work on anthroposophy, including schools, farms, medical practices, and communities for the handicapped.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Anthroposophical Society

    • This and other differences, in particular Steiner's vocal rejection of Leadbeater and Besant's claim that Jiddu Krishnamurti was the vehicle of a new Maitreya, or world teacher, led to a formal split in 1912/13, when Steiner and the majority of members of the German section of the Theosophical Society broke off to form a new group, the Anthroposophical Society. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The goal of the Anthroposophical Society in America is to further the work of Rudolf Steiner. from Anthroposophical Society

    • The Anthroposophical Society was founded in 1913 by members of the Theosophical Society in Germany, most centrally Rudolf Steiner, who had been the General Secretary of the Theosophical Society's German branches, and re-founded as the General Anthroposophical Society in 1923/4. from Anthroposophical Society

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    • He joined the Theosophical Society in Germany in 1910, and the Anthroposophical Society in 1912 and became its president after the death of its founder, Rudolf Steiner, in 1925. from Albert Steffen

    • The German branch of Theosophy led by Rudolf Steiner seceded from the movement and became the Anthroposophical Society. from Maitreya (Theosophy)

    • In a lecture given at the Goetheanum in Dornach (1916), the ex-theosophist and founder of the Anthroposophical Society, Rudolf Steiner, described the Louvre Philosopher as the "purest expression of light and dark... from Philosopher in Meditation

    • Rudolf Steiner founded the Anthroposophical Society in Cologne, Germany, breaking away from the Theosophical Society. from December 1912

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      Biodynamic agriculture Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that employs what…
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      Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that employs what proponents describe as "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes". One of the first sustainable agriculture movements, it treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives. Proponents of biodynamic agriculture, including Steiner, have characterized it as "spiritual science" as part of the larger anthroposophy movement.…

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      Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that employs what proponents describe as "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes". One of the first sustainable agriculture movements, it treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives. Proponents of biodynamic agriculture, including Steiner, have characterized it as "spiritual science" as part of the larger anthroposophy movement.
      Biodynamics has much in common with other organic approaches – it emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of artificial chemicals on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include its treatment of animals, crops, and soil as a single system; an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems; its use of traditional and development of new local breeds and varieties; and the use of an astrological sowing and planting calendar. Biodynamic agriculture uses various herbal and mineral additives for compost additives and field sprays; these are sometimes prepared by controversial methods, such as burying ground quartz stuffed into the horn of a cow, which are said to harvest "cosmic forces in the soil", that are more akin to sympathetic magic than agronomy.
      As of 2011 biodynamic techniques were used on 142,482 hectares in 47 countries. Germany accounts for 45% of the global total; the remainder average 1750 ha per country. Biodynamic methods of cultivating grapevines have been taken up by several notable vineyards. There are certification agencies for biodynamic products, most of which are members of the international biodynamics standards group Demeter International.
      No difference in beneficial outcomes has been scientifically established between certified biodynamic agricultural techniques and similar organic and integrated farming practices. Critics have characterized biodynamic agriculture as pseudoscience on the basis of a lack of strong evidence for its efficacy and skepticism about aspects criticized as being magical thinking.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Biodynamic agriculture

    • Organized by Vitra Design Museum, the traveling exhibition presented many facets of Steiner's life and achievements, including his influence on architecture, furniture design, dance (Eurythmy), education, and agriculture (Biodynamic agriculture). from Rudolf Steiner

    • Steiner's agricultural ideas promptly spread and were put to the test internationally and biodynamic agriculture is now practiced in Europe, North America, Asia and Australasia. from Rudolf Steiner

    • He also founded a system of organic agriculture, now known as biodynamic agriculture, which was one of the very first forms of, and has contributed significantly to the development of, modern organic farming. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War I, Steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, and anthroposophical medicine. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The development of biodynamic agriculture began in 1924 with a series of eight lectures on agriculture given by philosopher Rudolf Steiner at Schloss Koberwitz in Silesia, Germany, (now Kobierzyce in Poland southwest of Wrocław). from Biodynamic agriculture

    • Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that employs what proponents describe as "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes". from Biodynamic agriculture

    • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer (19 February 1899 in Munich, Germany – 30 November 1961 in Spring Valley, New York, USA) was a German scientist, soil scientist, leading advocate of biodynamic agriculture, anthroposophist and disciple of Rudolf Steiner. from Ehrenfried Pfeiffer

    • The full focus of the state was not aimed at religious groups until 9 June 1941 when Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the security police, banned lodge organizations and esoteric groups in the wake of the flight to Scotland by Rudolf Hess, who had been attracted and influenced by the organic farming theories of Rudolf Steiner and Anthroposophy. from Esotericism in Germany and Austria

    • Biodynamic farming is an approach based on the esoteric teachings of Rudolf Steiner. from Organic horticulture

    • In Germany Rudolf Steiner's Spiritual Foundations for the Renewal of Agriculture, published in 1924, led to the popularization of biodynamic agriculture, probably the first comprehensive organic farming system, that was based on Steiner's spiritual and philosophical teachings. from Organic movement

    • Early frequent citations for propounding composting within farming are for the German-speaking world Rudolf Steiner, founder of a farming method called biodynamics, and Annie Francé-Harrar, who was appointed on behalf of the government in Mexico and supported the country 1950–1958 to set up a large humus organization in the fight against erosion and soil degradation. from Compost

    • Rudolf Steiner, curator of biodynamics. from Natural wine

    • Community-supported agriculture began in the United States in the 1980s, influenced by European biodynamic agriculture ideas formulated by Rudolf Steiner. from Community-supported agriculture

    • One of the original architects of the gardens at Green Gulch was the renowned late horticulturist Alan Chadwick—who had introduced the biodynamic farming techniques influenced by Rudolf Steiner on the farm. from Green Gulch Farm Zen Center

    • Anthroposophy, which was founded by Rudolf Steiner in the early part of the 20th century, includes esoteric versions of education, agriculture, and medicine. from Esotericism

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      Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Russian: Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Блаватська), born as…
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      Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Russian: Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Блаватська), born as Helena von Hahn (Russian: Елена Петровна Ган, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Ган; 12 August [O.S. 31 July] 1831 – 8 May 1891), was a Russian occultist.…

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      Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Russian: Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Блаватська), born as Helena von Hahn (Russian: Елена Петровна Ган, Ukrainian: Олена Петрівна Ган; 12 August [O.S. 31 July] 1831 – 8 May 1891), was a Russian occultist.
      In 1875, Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, and William Quan Judge established a research and publishing institute called the Theosophical Society. Blavatsky defined Theosophy as "the archaic Wisdom-Religion, the esoteric doctrine once known in every ancient country having claims to civilization." One of the main purposes of the Theosophical Society was "to form a nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of Humanity, without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or color". Blavatsky saw herself as a missionary of this ancient knowledge.
      Her extensive research into the spiritual traditions of the world led to the publication of what is now considered her magnum opus, The Secret Doctrine, which organizes the essence of these teachings into a comprehensive synthesis. Blavatsky's other works include Isis Unveiled, The Key to Theosophy and The Voice of the Silence. Well-known and controversial during her life, Blavatsky was no stranger to criticism. Some authors have questioned the authenticity of her writings and the validity of her claims. while others have praised them. Blavatsky is a leading name in the New Age Movement.
      The Theosophical Society had a major influence on Buddhist modernism and Hindu reform movements, and the spread of those modernised versions in the west. Along with Olcott and Anagarika Dharmapala, Blavatsky was instrumental in the Western transmission and revival of Theravada Buddhism.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Helena Blavatsky

    • During this period, Steiner maintained an original approach, replacing Madame Blavatsky's terminology with his own, and basing his spiritual research and teachings upon the Western esoteric and philosophical tradition. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Rudolf Steiner, head of the German branch of the Theosophical Society in the early part of the 20th-century, disagreed with the Adyar-based international leadership of the Society over several doctrinal matters including the so-called World Teacher Project that showed the desire of some members of the Theosophical Society to set up Krishnamurti as the reincarnation of the Maitreya. from Helena Blavatsky

    • Although many of the metaphysical concepts expounded by such authors as Blavatsky, Steiner, and Gurdjieff provide a conceptual foundation in Aun Weor's teachings, he considered these works and movements conceptual preparation for the real unveiling of occultism or gnosis that he taught. from Samael Aun Weor

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    • Philosophers, scientists, and educators that have proposed theories of spiritual evolution include Schelling, Hegel, Max Théon, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henri Bergson, Rudolf Steiner, Sri Aurobindo, Jean Gebser, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Owen Barfield, Arthur M. Young, Edward Haskell, E. F. Schumacher, Erich Jantsch, Clare W. Graves, Alfred North Whitehead, Terence McKenna, P.R. Sarkar and contemporaries William Irwin Thompson, Brian Swimme, and Ken Wilber. from Spiritual evolution

    • Brother to Eleanor C. Donnelly, Donnelly's work corresponds to the writings of late 19th and early 20th century figures such as Helena Blavatsky, Rudolf Steiner, and James Churchward and has more recently influenced writer Graham Hancock. from Ignatius L. Donnelly

    • Wouter Hanegraaff asserted that Crowley was an extreme representation of "the dark side of the occult", while philosopher John Moore opined that Crowley stood out as a "Modern Master" when compared with other prominent occult figures like George Gurdjieff, P.D. Ouspensky, Rudolf Steiner, or Madame Blavatsky, also describing him as a "living embodiment" of Oswald Spengler's "Faustian Man". from Aleister Crowley

    • Brasseur's work, some of which was illustrated by the talented but very inaccurate Jean-Frédéric Waldeck, influenced other works of pseudoscience and pseudohistory, such as the research of Désiré Charnay, Augustus Le Plongeon, Ignatius L. Donnelly, and James Churchward. Le Plongeon and Donnelly in turn influenced the work of writers such as Madame Blavatsky and Rudolf Steiner who brought misconceptions about the ancient Maya into early New Age circles. from Mayanism

    • The books, four volumes of which are available on-line in French, tell a creation myth and the early history of the world, in an elaborate mythological style reminiscent of the works of H.P. Blavatsky, Rudolf Steiner (Cosmic Memory), Edgar Cayce, and Ann Ree Colton. from Cosmic Tradition

    • Among its readers have been those who have believed that its account of a superior subterranean master race and the energy-form called "Vril" is accurate, to the extent that some theosophists, notably Helena Blavatsky, William Scott-Elliot, and Rudolf Steiner, accepted the book as being (at least in part) based on occult truth. from Vril

    • From a philosophical point of view, Torres García was strongly influenced by the Theosophy of Helena Blavatsky and the Anthroposophy of Rudolf Steiner, as were other artists of the day, such as Piet Mondrian, Paul Klee, and Wassily Kandinsky. from Joaquín Torres García

    • This view is held by teachers such as H.P. Blavatsky, Eliphas Levi, Rudolf Steiner. from Book of Revelation

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      Eurythmy Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the…
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      Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the early 20th century. Primarily a performance art, it is also used in education, especially in Waldorf schools, and – as part of anthroposophic medicine – for claimed therapeutic purposes.…

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      Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the early 20th century. Primarily a performance art, it is also used in education, especially in Waldorf schools, and – as part of anthroposophic medicine – for claimed therapeutic purposes.
      The word eurythmy stems from Greek roots meaning beautiful or harmonious rhythm.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Eurythmy

    • Organized by Vitra Design Museum, the traveling exhibition presented many facets of Steiner's life and achievements, including his influence on architecture, furniture design, dance (Eurythmy), education, and agriculture (Biodynamic agriculture). from Rudolf Steiner

    • Together with Marie von Sivers, Rudolf Steiner also developed the art of eurythmy, sometimes referred to as "visible speech and song". from Rudolf Steiner

    • This School, which was led by Steiner, initially had sections for general anthroposophy, education, medicine, performing arts (eurythmy, speech, drama and music), the literary arts and humanities, mathematics, astronomy, science, and visual arts. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • In a second phase, beginning around 1907, he began working collaboratively in a variety of artistic media, including drama, the movement arts (developing a new artistic form, eurythmy) and architecture, culminating in the building of the Goetheanum, a cultural centre to house all the arts. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Eurythmy was conceived in 1911 when a widow brought her young daughter, Lory Smits, who was interested in movement and dance, to the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner. from Eurythmy

    • Eurythmy's aim is to bring the artists' expressive movement and both the performers' and audience's feeling experience into harmony with a piece's content; eurythmy is thus sometimes called "visible music" or "visible speech", expressions that originate with its founder, Rudolf Steiner, who described eurythmy as an "art of the soul". from Eurythmy

    • Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the early 20th century. from Eurythmy

    • Ehrenfried Pfeiffer began work with Rudolf Steiner in 1920 to develop and install special diffuse stage lighting for eurythmy performances on the stage of the first Goetheanum. from Ehrenfried Pfeiffer

    • Eurythmy, the art of articulating movement originated by Marie von Sivers and Rudolf Steiner in the early 20th century. from Dalcroze Eurhythmics

    • Eurythmy, developed by Rudolf Steiner and Marie Steiner-von Sivers, combines formal elements reminiscent of traditional dance with the new freer style, and introduced a complex new vocabulary to dance. from Dance

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      Anthroposophic medicine Anthroposophic medicine (or anthroposophical medicine) is a form of alternative medicine that in part complements…
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      Anthroposophic medicine (or anthroposophical medicine) is a form of alternative medicine that in part complements and in part replaces mainstream medicine. Founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in conjunction with Ita Wegman (1876–1943), anthroposophical medicine draws on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy.…

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      Anthroposophic medicine (or anthroposophical medicine) is a form of alternative medicine that in part complements and in part replaces mainstream medicine. Founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in conjunction with Ita Wegman (1876–1943), anthroposophical medicine draws on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy.
      Practitioners employ a variety of treatment techniques including massage, exercise, counselling, and the use of anthroposophic drugs.
      A major part of the drugs used in Anthroposophic medicine are ultra-diluted remedies, similar to those used in homeopathy, and are thus completely harmless, except when used as a substitute for mainstream medicine, so missing an effective cure. In Europe, people with cancer are sometimes treated with remedies made from specially-harvested mistletoe, but research has found no firm evidence of clinical benefit. Some anthroposophic doctors oppose childhood vaccination, and this has led to unnecessary outbreaks of disease.
      Certain aspects of anthroposophical medicine's view of the human body and its anatomy are at odds with medical science, proposing for example that the heart does not pump blood but that blood propels itself along. It also proposes that a patient's past lives may influence their illness and that its progress is subject to karmic destiny. Critics, including many scientists and mainstream medical physicians, have characterized anthroposophical medicine as unscientific, pseudoscientific and "pure quackery".

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Anthroposophic medicine

    • His work in medicine led to the development of a broad range of complementary medications and supportive artistic and biographic therapies. from Rudolf Steiner

    • This School, which was led by Steiner, initially had sections for general anthroposophy, education, medicine, performing arts (eurythmy, speech, drama and music), the literary arts and humanities, mathematics, astronomy, science, and visual arts. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In the third phase of his work, beginning after World War I, Steiner worked to establish various practical endeavors, including Waldorf education, biodynamic agriculture, and anthroposophical medicine. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • Founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in conjunction with Ita Wegman (1876–1943), anthroposophical medicine draws on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy. from Anthroposophic medicine

    • Ita Wegman, MD (born 22 February 1876 in Karawang, West Java; died 4 March 1943 in Arlesheim, Switzerland) is known as the co-founder of Anthroposophical Medicine with Rudolf Steiner. from Ita Wegman

    • Anthroposophy, which was founded by Rudolf Steiner in the early part of the 20th century, includes esoteric versions of education, agriculture, and medicine. from Esotericism

    • Mistletoe (or Iscador) – a plant used in Anthroposophical medicine, proposed as a cancer cure by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), who believed it needed to be harvested when planetary alignment most influenced its potency. from Alternative cancer treatments

    • Anthroposophical medicine was invented in the early twentieth century by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman. from Glossary of alternative medicine

    • Anthroposophic medicine, or anthroposophically extended medicine – school of complementary medicine founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Ita Wegman based on the spiritual philosophy of anthroposophy. from List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

    • A second, related influence was Anthroposophy, whose founder, Rudolf Steiner, was particularly interested in developing a genuine Western spirituality, and in the ways that such a spirituality could transform practical institutions such as education, agriculture, and medicine. from Spirituality

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      Dornach Dornach is a municipality in the district of Dorneck in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.
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      Dornach is a municipality in the district of Dorneck in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Dornach

    • In 1913, construction began on the first Goetheanum building, in Dornach, Switzerland. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Today Dornach is famous for the Goetheanum and is home to the international headquarters of the Anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner. from Dornach

    • At 18, Spock studied at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland where she met and worked with Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. from Marjorie Spock

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    • The foundation stone for the Goetheanum, center for the anthroposophical movement founded by Rudolf Steiner, was set at the building site in the Switzerland town of Dornach, though construction would not be finished for another nine years. from September 1913 (month)

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      Ita Wegman Ita Wegman, MD (born 22 February 1876 in Karawang, West Java; died 4 March 1943 in Arlesheim, Switzerland) is known…
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      Ita Wegman, MD (born 22 February 1876 in Karawang, West Java; died 4 March 1943 in Arlesheim, Switzerland) is known as the co-founder of Anthroposophical Medicine with Rudolf Steiner. In 1921, she founded the first anthroposophical medical clinic in Arlesheim, now known as the Ita Wegman Clinic. She also developed a special form of massage therapy, called rhythmical massage, and other therapeutic treatments.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Ita Wegman

    • At around the same time, Dr. Ita Wegman founded a first anthroposophic medical clinic (now the Ita Wegman Clinic) in Arlesheim. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In 1902, when she was 26, she met Rudolf Steiner for the first time. from Ita Wegman

    • Ita Wegman, MD (born 22 February 1876 in Karawang, West Java; died 4 March 1943 in Arlesheim, Switzerland) is known as the co-founder of Anthroposophical Medicine with Rudolf Steiner. from Ita Wegman

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    • Founded in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in conjunction with Ita Wegman (1876–1943), anthroposophical medicine draws on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy. from Anthroposophic medicine

    • Dr. Rudolf Steiner, an Austrian philosopher, and Dr. Ita Wegman, a Dutch gynecologist, founded in 1920, in Arlesheim, Switzerland the "Futurum AG" and in Stuttgart,Germany, "Der Kommende Tag AG - an incorporated company to encourage economic and spiritual values". from Weleda

    • Along with Ita Wegman, she belonged to the innermost circle of founders of anthroposophy and those around Rudolf Steiner. from Edith Maryon

    • Anthroposophical medicine was invented in the early twentieth century by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman. from Glossary of alternative medicine

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      Theosophy Theosophy (from Greek θεοσοφία theosophia, from θεός theos, God + σοφία sophia, wisdom; literally "God's wisdom")…
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      Theosophy (from Greek θεοσοφία theosophia, from θεός theos, God + σοφία sophia, wisdom; literally "God's wisdom"), refers to systems of esoteric philosophy concerning, or investigation seeking direct knowledge of, presumed mysteries of being and nature, particularly concerning the nature of divinity.…

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      Theosophy (from Greek θεοσοφία theosophia, from θεός theos, God + σοφία sophia, wisdom; literally "God's wisdom"), refers to systems of esoteric philosophy concerning, or investigation seeking direct knowledge of, presumed mysteries of being and nature, particularly concerning the nature of divinity.
      Theosophy is considered a part of the broader field of esotericism, referring to hidden knowledge or wisdom that offers the individual enlightenment and salvation. The theosophist seeks to understand the mysteries of the universe and the bonds that unite the universe, humanity, and the divine. The goal of theosophy is to explore the origin of divinity and humanity, and the world. From investigation of those topics, theosophists try to discover a coherent description of the purpose and origin of the universe.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Theosophy

    • He saw race as a physical manifestation of humanity's spiritual evolution and at times discussed race in terms of complex hierarchies largely derived from nineteenth century biology, anthropology, philosophy, and Theosophy. from Rudolf Steiner

    • This school continued after the break with Theosophy but was disbanded at the start of World War I. from Rudolf Steiner

    • This article led to an invitation by the Count and Countess Brockdorff to speak to a gathering of Theosophists on the subject of Nietzsche. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • At the beginning of the twentieth century, he founded a spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Some of the German-speaking members of the Theosophical Society left it to follow Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophy after the forming of the Anthroposophical Society in 1912. from Theosophy

    • Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy and Waldorf Schools, along with other well known Theosophists, such as Annie Besant, also wrote of cultural evolution in much the same vein. from Atlantis

    • The purported Rosicrucian group which Felkin had made contact with was led by Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Anthroposophical Society, and at that time, still head of the German section of the Theosophical Society. from Stella Matutina

    • Saint-Yves' works were also utilised in the development of Theosophy and Rudolf Steiner used Synarchy as a major influence in developing his political thought. from Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre

    • She was influenced by the thinking of both English Theosophist, Annie Besant and Austrian philosopher, Rudolf Steiner. from Marta Steinsvik

    • Everett also studied Theosophy with Rudolf Steiner. from Alexander Everett

    • Mortensson-Egnund’s friend Garborg had an interest in Theosophy, and another of his closest friends, Marta Steinsvik, joined Rudolf Steiner’s Anthroposophy movement. from Ivar Mortensson-Egnund

    • In a lecture given at the Goetheanum in Dornach (1916), the ex-theosophist and founder of the Anthroposophical Society, Rudolf Steiner, described the Louvre Philosopher as the "purest expression of light and dark... from Philosopher in Meditation

    • From a philosophical point of view, Torres García was strongly influenced by the Theosophy of Helena Blavatsky and the Anthroposophy of Rudolf Steiner, as were other artists of the day, such as Piet Mondrian, Paul Klee, and Wassily Kandinsky. from Joaquín Torres García

    • Philosopher Rudolf Steiner, like Diefenbach, was a follower of Theosophy. from Weimar culture

    • His Freemason grandfather was interested in such things as hypnotism, theosophy, spiritualism, homoeopathy and esotericism, and the teachings of philosopher and educationalist Rudolf Steiner. from William Roache

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      Marie Steiner-von Sivers Marie Steiner-von Sivers (born Marie von Sivers – 14 March 1867 – 27 December 1948) was the second wife of Rudolf…
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      Marie Steiner-von Sivers (born Marie von Sivers – 14 March 1867 – 27 December 1948) was the second wife of Rudolf Steiner and one of his closest colleagues. She made a great contribution to the development of anthroposophy, particularly in her work on the renewal of the performing arts (eurythmy, speech and drama), and the editing and publishing of Rudolf Steiner's literary estate.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Marie Steiner-von Sivers

    • Together with Marie von Sivers, Rudolf Steiner also developed the art of eurythmy, sometimes referred to as "visible speech and song". from Rudolf Steiner

    • It was also in connection with this society that Steiner met and worked with Marie von Sivers, who became his second wife in 1914. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Marie von Sivers "appeared one day" at one of Rudolf Steiner's early lectures in 1900. from Marie Steiner-von Sivers

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    • Marie Steiner-von Sivers (born Marie von Sivers – 14 March 1867 – 27 December 1948) was the second wife of Rudolf Steiner and one of his closest colleagues. from Marie Steiner-von Sivers

    • Eurythmy is an expressive movement art originated by Rudolf Steiner in conjunction with Marie von Sivers in the early 20th century. from Eurythmy

    • Eurythmy, the art of articulating movement originated by Marie von Sivers and Rudolf Steiner in the early 20th century. from Dalcroze Eurhythmics

    • Eurythmy, developed by Rudolf Steiner and Marie Steiner-von Sivers, combines formal elements reminiscent of traditional dance with the new freer style, and introduced a complex new vocabulary to dance. from Dance

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      Social threefolding Social threefolding is a sociological theory that suggests increasing the independence of society's three primary…
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      Social threefolding is a sociological theory that suggests increasing the independence of society's three primary realms (economy, politics and culture) in such a way that those three realms can mutually correct each other in an ongoing process. The movement aims for democracy in political life, freedom in cultural life (art, science, religion, education, the media),…

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      Social threefolding is a sociological theory that suggests increasing the independence of society's three primary realms (economy, politics and culture) in such a way that those three realms can mutually correct each other in an ongoing process. The movement aims for democracy in political life, freedom in cultural life (art, science, religion, education, the media), and uncoerced associative cooperation in economic life. It originated out of the philosophy of Anthroposophy founded by Rudolf Steiner. Steiner held that it is socially destructive when one of the three spheres attempts to dominate the others; for example, theocracy means a cultural impulse dominates economy and politics; traditional types of capitalism mean economic life dominates the polity and culture; and state socialism means government dominates culture and economy. A more specific example: Arthur Salter, 1st Baron Salter has suggested that governments frequently fail when they begin to give "discretionary, particularly preferential privileges to competitive industry." Steiner said the three social spheres had very gradually, over thousands of years, been growing independent of each other, and would naturally tend to continue to do so. Consciously effecting stages of this independence thus works in accordance with society's natural evolution, and gradually leads society beyond the three forms of domination mentioned.
      Many institutions have striven to realize a relative independence of the three spheres within their own structures; the Waldorf schools deserve special mention in this regard. Another application has been the creation of various socially responsible banks and foundations. Though many concrete reform proposals to advance a "threefold social order" at various scales have been advanced, Steiner emphasized that the specifics of how this could best be done are contingent on the particular situation. Bernard Lievegoed incorporated significant aspects of social threefolding in his work on organizational development.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Social threefolding

    • He saw such a division of responsibility, which he called the Threefold Social Order, as a vital task which would take up consciously the historical trend toward the mutual independence of these three realms. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In response to the catastrophic situation in post-war Germany, he proposed extensive social reforms through the establishment of a Threefold Social Order in which the cultural, political and economic realms would be largely independent. from Rudolf Steiner

    • It originated out of the philosophy of Anthroposophy founded by Rudolf Steiner. from Social threefolding

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    • He translated several of Rudolf Steiner's books about Threefold Social Order to Hebrew. from Hugo Bergmann

    • These ideas were founded in the body of social ideas of Rudolf Steiner known as Social Threefolding, of which he was a vigorous and original proponent. from Joseph Beuys

    • Meanwhile, he introduced Rudolf Steiner's theory of social threefolding to Japan. from Shūmei Ōkawa

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      Charles Webster Leadbeater Charles Webster Leadbeater (/ˈlɛdˌbɛtər/; 16 February 1854 – 1 March 1934) was an influential member of the…
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      Charles Webster Leadbeater (/ˈlɛdˌbɛtər/; 16 February 1854 – 1 March 1934) was an influential member of the Theosophical Society, author on occult subjects and co-initiator with J. I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church. Originally a priest of the Church of England, his interest in spiritualism caused him to end his affiliation with Anglicanism in…

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      Charles Webster Leadbeater (/ˈlɛdˌbɛtər/; 16 February 1854 – 1 March 1934) was an influential member of the Theosophical Society, author on occult subjects and co-initiator with J. I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church. Originally a priest of the Church of England, his interest in spiritualism caused him to end his affiliation with Anglicanism in favour of the Theosophical Society, where he became an associate of Annie Besant. He became a high-ranking officer of the society, but resigned in 1906 amid a scandal. Accusations of his detractors were never proven and, with Besant's assistance, he was readmitted a few years later. Leadbeater went on to write over 69 books and pamphlets that examined in detail the hidden side of life as well as maintain regular speaking engagements. His efforts on behalf of the society assured his status as one of its leading members until his death in 1934.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Charles Webster Leadbeater

    • This and other differences, in particular Steiner's vocal rejection of Leadbeater and Besant's claim that Jiddu Krishnamurti was the vehicle of a new Maitreya, or world teacher, led to a formal split in 1912/13, when Steiner and the majority of members of the German section of the Theosophical Society broke off to form a new group, the Anthroposophical Society. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Blavatsky's ideas were further developed by her successors, such as C.W. Leadbeater, Rudolf Steiner, Alice Bailey, and Benjamin Creme, each of whom went into huge detail in constructing baroque cycles of rounds, races, and sub-races. from Spiritual evolution

    • In the 20th century, Theosophy was further developed by Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater, while people like Alice Bailey, Rudolf Steiner and many others, became the source for a whole range of post-theosophical movements such as The Summit Lighthouse. The post-theosophical Anthroposophical movement is a synthesis of occultist, Christian and Neoplatonic ideas with Western esoteric concepts as formulated in the wake of Theosophy. from Esotericism

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    • There is also reference to kamaloka (world of desires) as a sort of astral plane or temporary after-life state, according to the teachings of Blavatsky, Leadbeater, and Steiner. from Loka

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      Esotericism Esotericism (or esoterism) signifies the holding of esoteric opinions or beliefs, that is, ideas preserved or…
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      Esotericism (or esoterism) signifies the holding of esoteric opinions or beliefs, that is, ideas preserved or understood by a small group of those specially initiated, or of rare or unusual interest. The term derives from the Greek ἐσωτερικός (esôterikos), a compound of ἔσω (esô): "within", thus pertaining to interiority or mysticism. Its antonym is "exoteric".…

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      Esotericism (or esoterism) signifies the holding of esoteric opinions or beliefs, that is, ideas preserved or understood by a small group of those specially initiated, or of rare or unusual interest. The term derives from the Greek ἐσωτερικός (esôterikos), a compound of ἔσω (esô): "within", thus pertaining to interiority or mysticism. Its antonym is "exoteric".
      The term can also refer to the academic study of esoteric religious movements and philosophies, or to the study of those religious movements and philosophies whose proponents distinguish their beliefs, practices, and experiences from mainstream exoteric and more dogmatic institutionalized traditions.
      Examples of esoteric religious movements and philosophies include Alchemy, Astrology, Anthroposophy, early Christian mysticism, Freemasonry, Gnosticism, Kabbalah, Neoplatonism, Magic, Merkabah mysticism, Mesmerism, Rosicrucianism, Taoism, Numerology, Swedenborgianism, Scientology, Spiritualism, the Alawites, the Theosophy of Jacob Böhme and his followers, and the Theosophical revivalist movement associated with Helena Blavatsky.
      Although esotericism refers to an exploration of the hidden meanings and symbolism in various philosophical, historical, and religious texts, the texts themselves are often central to mainstream religions. For example, the Bible and the Torah are considered esoteric material.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Esotericism

    • Anthroposophy, which was founded by Rudolf Steiner in the early part of the 20th century, includes esoteric versions of education, agriculture, and medicine. from Esotericism

    • In the 20th century, Theosophy was further developed by Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater, while people like Alice Bailey, Rudolf Steiner and many others, became the source for a whole range of post-theosophical movements such as The Summit Lighthouse. The post-theosophical Anthroposophical movement is a synthesis of occultist, Christian and Neoplatonic ideas with Western esoteric concepts as formulated in the wake of Theosophy. from Esotericism

    • (25/27 February 1861 – 30 March 1925) was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). from The Philosophy of Freedom

    • While undergoing some changes and modifications in the hands of later esotericists such as C.W. Leadbeater, Rudolf Steiner, and Alice Bailey, Blavatsky's description of the seven bodies or principles remained a central part of western esoteric and New Age thinking ever since. from Septenary (Theosophy)

    • Another early Hindu teacher received in the west was Sri Aurobindo (d. 1950), who had considerable influence on western "integral" esotericism, traditionalism ("Perennialism") or spirituality in the tradition of René Guénon, Julius Evola, Rudolf Steiner, etc. from Hinduism in the West

    • His Freemason grandfather was interested in such things as hypnotism, theosophy, spiritualism, homoeopathy and esotericism, and the teachings of philosopher and educationalist Rudolf Steiner. from William Roache

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      Esoteric cosmology Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. Esoteric…
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      Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. Esoteric cosmology maps out the universe with planes of existence and consciousness according to a specific worldview usually from a doctrine.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Esoteric cosmology

    • In Steiner's esoteric cosmology, the spiritual development of humanity is interwoven in and inseparable from the cosmological development of the universe. from Rudolf Steiner

    • These ideas were adapted by later esotericists like Rudolf Steiner (Anthroposophy), Max Heindel, Alice Bailey, and Ann Ree Colton, and some of these ideas were included in New Age thought ..... from Esoteric cosmology

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      Rosicrucianism Rosicrucianism is a philosophical secret society said to have been founded in late medieval Germany by Christian…
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      Rosicrucianism is a philosophical secret society said to have been founded in late medieval Germany by Christian Rosenkreuz. It holds a doctrine or theology "built on esoteric truths of the ancient past", which, "concealed from the average man, provide insight into nature, the physical universe and the spiritual realm." Rosicrucianism is symbolized by the Rosy Cross.…

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      Rosicrucianism is a philosophical secret society said to have been founded in late medieval Germany by Christian Rosenkreuz. It holds a doctrine or theology "built on esoteric truths of the ancient past", which, "concealed from the average man, provide insight into nature, the physical universe and the spiritual realm." Rosicrucianism is symbolized by the Rosy Cross.
      Between 1607 and 1616, two anonymous manifestos were published, first in Germany and later throughout Europe. These were the Fama Fraternitatis RC (The Fame of the Brotherhood of RC) and the Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood of RC). The influence of these documents, presenting a "most laudable Order" of mystic-philosopher-doctors and promoting a "Universal Reformation of Mankind", gave rise to an enthusiasm called by its historian Dame Frances Yates the "Rosicrucian Enlightenment".
      Rosicrucianism was associated with Protestantism (Lutheranism in particular), and the manifestos opposed Roman Catholicism and its preference for dogma over empiricism. They traced their philosophy and science to the Moors, asserting that it had been kept secret for 120 years until the intellectual climate might receive it.
      Early seventeenth-century occult philosophers such as Michael Maier, Robert Fludd and Thomas Vaughan interested themselves in the Rosicrucian world view. According to historian David Stevenson it was also influential to Freemasonry as it was emerging in Scotland. In later centuries, many esoteric societies have claimed to derive their doctrines, in whole or in part, from the original Rosicrucians. Several modern societies have been formed for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Rosicrucianism

    • At the beginning of the twentieth century, he founded a spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Anna Sprengel, a member of this fabled German society of nearly god-like adepts, had allegedly warranted the founding of the Golden Dawn, and Felkin believed that she and her order still existed deep under cover in Germany, along with the tomb of Christian Rosencreutz. In search of this group he and Harriet travelled to Europe in 1906, 1910 and 1914, and on one of these trips he met with Rudolf Steiner and claimed to have contacted other Rosicrucian adepts. from Robert Felkin

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      Emil Molt Emil Molt (born 14 April 1876 in Schwäbisch Gmünd, Kingdom of Württemberg, died 16 June 1936 in Stuttgart) was a…
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      Emil Molt (born 14 April 1876 in Schwäbisch Gmünd, Kingdom of Württemberg, died 16 June 1936 in Stuttgart) was a German businessman, social reformer and anthroposophist. He was the director of the Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik, and with Rudolf Steiner co-founded the first Waldorf school. Hence, Waldorf education was named after the company.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Emil Molt

    • In 1919, Emil Molt invited him to lecture to his workers at the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory in Stuttgart. from Rudolf Steiner

    • He was the director of the Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik, and with Rudolf Steiner co-founded the first Waldorf school. from Emil Molt

    • The first Waldorf School (also known as Rudolf Steiner School) was founded here in 1919 by the director of the Waldorf Astoria tobacco factory, Emil Molt, and Austrian social thinker Rudolf Steiner, a comprehensive school following Steiner's educational principles of anthroposophy and humanistic ideals. from Stuttgart

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      The Christian Community The Christian Community (German: Die Christengemeinschaft) is a Christian denomination. It was founded in 1922 in…
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      The Christian Community (German: Die Christengemeinschaft) is a Christian denomination. It was founded in 1922 in Switzerland by a group of mainly Lutheran theologians and ministers led by Friedrich Rittelmeyer, inspired by Rudolf Steiner, the Austrian philosopher and founder of anthroposophy. Christian Community congregations exist as financially independent groups with regional and international administrative bodies overseeing their work. There are approximately 350 worldwide. The international headquarters are in Berlin, Germany.…

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      The Christian Community (German: Die Christengemeinschaft) is a Christian denomination. It was founded in 1922 in Switzerland by a group of mainly Lutheran theologians and ministers led by Friedrich Rittelmeyer, inspired by Rudolf Steiner, the Austrian philosopher and founder of anthroposophy. Christian Community congregations exist as financially independent groups with regional and international administrative bodies overseeing their work. There are approximately 350 worldwide. The international headquarters are in Berlin, Germany.
      The Christian Community is led by the "circle of priests," with leaders known as coordinators appointed within the circle. A first coordinator (Erzoberlenker) is consulted by two second coordinators (Oberlenkers). There are also third coordinators (Lenkers) on the regional level and a synod of priests. There is no additional ordination for the leadership. The priesthood of the Christian Community has always been open to women.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To The Christian Community

    • The resulting movement for religious renewal became known as "The Christian Community". from Rudolf Steiner

    • It was founded in 1922 in Switzerland by a group of mainly Lutheran theologians and ministers led by Friedrich Rittelmeyer, inspired by Rudolf Steiner, the Austrian philosopher and founder of anthroposophy. from The Christian Community

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      Camphill Movement The Camphill Movement is an initiative for social change inspired by anthroposophy. Camphill communities are…
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      The Camphill Movement is an initiative for social change inspired by anthroposophy. Camphill communities are residential "life-sharing" communities and schools for adults and children with developmental disabilities (called "learning disabilities" in the UK), mental health problems and other special needs, and they provide services and support for work, learning and daily living.…

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      The Camphill Movement is an initiative for social change inspired by anthroposophy. Camphill communities are residential "life-sharing" communities and schools for adults and children with developmental disabilities (called "learning disabilities" in the UK), mental health problems and other special needs, and they provide services and support for work, learning and daily living.
      There are 119 Camphill communities in 23 countries in Europe, North America[citation needed], southern Africa and Asia (as of March 2012).

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Camphill Movement

    • Homes for children and adults with developmental disabilities based on his work (including those of the Camphill movement) are widespread. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The underlying principles of König's Camphill school were derived from concepts of education and social life outlined decades earlier by anthroposophist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). from Camphill Movement

    • Alternatively, the term "social therapy, as used in the Camphill Movement at Camphill communities, is used to label a professional discipline inspired by Rudolf Steiner, a philosopher, teacher and the founder of anthroposophy, and put into practice by Karl König. from Social Therapy

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      The Philosophy of Freedom The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner…
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      The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). It addresses the questions whether and in what sense man can be said to be free.…

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      The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). It addresses the questions whether and in what sense man can be said to be free.
      Part One of The Philosophy of Freedom examines the basis for freedom in human thinking, gives an account of the relationship between knowledge and perception, and explores the reliability of thinking as a means to knowledge. In Part Two Steiner analyzes the conditions necessary for freedom of action and develops a moral philosophy he describes as "ethical individualism". The book's subtitle, Some results of introspective observation following the methods of natural science, describes the philosophical method Steiner intends to follow.
      Originally published in 1894 in German as Die Philosophie der Freiheit, with a second edition published in 1918, the work has appeared under a number of English titles, including The Philosophy of Freedom, The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity, and Intuitive Thinking as a Spiritual Path.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To The Philosophy of Freedom

    • In the Philosophy of Freedom, Steiner further explores potentials within thinking: freedom, he suggests, can only be approached gradually with the aid of the creative activity of thinking. from Rudolf Steiner

    • During his time at the archives, Steiner wrote Die Philosophie der Freiheit (The Philosophy of Freedom or The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity—Steiner's preferred English title) (1894), an exploration of epistemology and ethics that suggested a way for humans to become spiritually free beings. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). from The Philosophy of Freedom

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    • The early work of the founder of anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner, culminated in his Philosophy of Freedom (also translated as The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity and Intuitive Thinking as a Spiritual Path). from Anthroposophy

    • Rudolf Steiner, who collaborated in a complete edition of Arthur Schopenhauer's work, wrote The Philosophy of Freedom, which focuses on the problem of free will. from Free will

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      Weleda Weleda is a multinational company that produces both beauty products and naturopathic medicines. Both branches…
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      Weleda is a multinational company that produces both beauty products and naturopathic medicines. Both branches design their products based on anthroposophic principles. The company takes its name from the German form of the name of the 1st century Bructeri völva Veleda. Weleda is dedicated to use entirely 'natural' ingredients and none of their ingredients or…

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      Weleda is a multinational company that produces both beauty products and naturopathic medicines. Both branches design their products based on anthroposophic principles. The company takes its name from the German form of the name of the 1st century Bructeri völva Veleda. Weleda is dedicated to use entirely 'natural' ingredients and none of their ingredients or products are tested on animals. The company also uses a green energy supplier and are passionate about education for their farmers and their communities.They use plants grown using biodynamic methods. They also abide to fair trade practices and operate in five continents with 20 direct subsidiaries, partnerships in 53 countries, and close to 2,000 employees worldwide. Weleda Group is member of the Union for Ethical BioTrade (UEBT), gradually ensuring that its sourcing practices promote the conservation of biodiversity, respect traditional knowledge and assure the equitable sharing of benefits all along the supply chain.
      Dr. Rudolf Steiner, an Austrian philosopher, and Dr. Ita Wegman, a Dutch gynecologist, founded in 1920, in Arlesheim, Switzerland the "Futurum AG" and in Stuttgart,Germany, "Der Kommende Tag AG - an incorporated company to encourage economic and spiritual values". Der Kommende Tag AG acquired in 1920 the former "Colonial-Werke Paul Rumpus" in Schwäbisch Gmünd. Both companies merged 1921 for economic reasons and were named "Internationale Laboratorien und Klinisch-Therapeutisches Institut Arlesheim AG" - this was the founding hour of the Weleda AG. On December 10, 1928 the new name was officially registered.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Weleda

    • In 1921, pharmacists and physicians gathered under Steiner's guidance to create a pharmaceutical company called Weleda which now distributes natural medical products worldwide. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Dr. Rudolf Steiner, an Austrian philosopher, and Dr. Ita Wegman, a Dutch gynecologist, founded in 1920, in Arlesheim, Switzerland the "Futurum AG" and in Stuttgart,Germany, "Der Kommende Tag AG - an incorporated company to encourage economic and spiritual values". from Weleda

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      Owen Barfield Owen Barfield (9 November 1898 – 14 December 1997) was a British philosopher, author, poet, and critic.Barfield was…
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      Owen Barfield (9 November 1898 – 14 December 1997) was a British philosopher, author, poet, and critic.
      Barfield was born in London. He was educated at Highgate School and Wadham College, Oxford and in 1920 received a first class degree in English language and literature. After finishing his B. Litt., which became his third book Poetic

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      Owen Barfield (9 November 1898 – 14 December 1997) was a British philosopher, author, poet, and critic.
      Barfield was born in London. He was educated at Highgate School and Wadham College, Oxford and in 1920 received a first class degree in English language and literature. After finishing his B. Litt., which became his third book Poetic Diction, he was a dedicated poet and author for over ten years. After 1934 his profession was as a solicitor in London, from which he retired in 1959 aged 60. Thereafter he had many guest appointments as Visiting Professor in North America. Barfield published numerous essays, books, and articles. His primary focus was on what he called the "evolution of consciousness," which is an idea which occurs frequently in his writings. He is best known as the author of Saving the Appearances: A Study in Idolatry and as a founding father of Anthroposophy in the English speaking world.
      In 1923 he married the musician and choreographer Maud Douie. They had two children, Alexander and Lucy; and fostered Geoffrey. Their sole grandchild is Owen A. Barfield, son of Alexander.
      Barfield and C. S. Lewis met in 1919 and were close friends for 44 years. Barfield was instrumental in converting Lewis to theism during the early period of their friendship which they affectionately called 'The Great War'. Maud also guided Lewis. As well as being friend and teacher to Lewis, Barfield was his legal adviser and trustee. Lewis dedicated his 1936 book Allegory of Love to Barfield. Lewis wrote his 1949 book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe for Lucy Barfield and he dedicated The Voyage of the Dawn Treader to Geoffrey in 1952.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Owen Barfield

    • These include philosophers Albert Schweitzer, Owen Barfield and Richard Tarnas; writers Saul Bellow, Andrej Belyj, Michael Ende, Selma Lagerlöf, Edouard Schuré, David Spangler, and William Irwin Thompson; artists Josef Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, and Murray Griffin; esotericist and educationalist George Trevelyan; actor and acting teacher Michael Chekhov; cinema director Andrei Tarkovsky; composers Jonathan Harvey and Viktor Ullmann; and conductor Bruno Walter. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Barfield became an anthroposophist after attending a lecture by Rudolf Steiner in 1924. from Owen Barfield

    • In A Secret History of Consciousness (2003) cultural historian Gary Lachman links Gebser's work to that of other alternative philosophers of consciousness, such as Owen Barfield, Rudolf Steiner, Colin Wilson, and Jurij Moskvitin. from Jean Gebser

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    • Philosophers, scientists, and educators that have proposed theories of spiritual evolution include Schelling, Hegel, Max Théon, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henri Bergson, Rudolf Steiner, Sri Aurobindo, Jean Gebser, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Owen Barfield, Arthur M. Young, Edward Haskell, E. F. Schumacher, Erich Jantsch, Clare W. Graves, Alfred North Whitehead, Terence McKenna, P.R. Sarkar and contemporaries William Irwin Thompson, Brian Swimme, and Ken Wilber. from Spiritual evolution

    • Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), the founder of Anthroposophy, wrote in a variety of fields (his collected works total 350 volumes) and influenced such figures as the novelist Herman Hesse and the philosopher Owen Barfield. from New religious movements and cults in literature and popular culture

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      Arlesheim Arlesheim is a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Its…
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      Arlesheim is a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Its cathedral chapter seat, bishop's residence and cathedral (1681 / 1761) are listed as a heritage site of national significance.…

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      Arlesheim is a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Its cathedral chapter seat, bishop's residence and cathedral (1681 / 1761) are listed as a heritage site of national significance.
      The cathedral has a Baroque organ built by the German builder Johann Andreas Silbermann, based in Alsace, in 1761. The instrument was restored by Metzler in 1959-62, and is an example of the fusion of French and German organ building styles. It has been used in several recordings, including Lionel Rogg's recording of the complete organ works of J. S. Bach, for Harmonia Mundi France in 1970.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Arlesheim

    • At around the same time, Dr. Ita Wegman founded a first anthroposophic medical clinic (now the Ita Wegman Clinic) in Arlesheim. from Rudolf Steiner

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      Friedrich Rittelmeyer Friedrich Rittelmeyer (5 October 1872, Dillingen an der Donau, Bavarian Swabia – 23 March 1938 in Hamburg) was a…
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      Friedrich Rittelmeyer (5 October 1872, Dillingen an der Donau, Bavarian Swabia – 23 March 1938 in Hamburg) was a Protestant German minister, theologian and co-founder and driving force of The Christian Community.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Friedrich Rittelmeyer

    • In the 1920s, Steiner was approached by Friedrich Rittelmeyer, a Lutheran pastor with a congregation in Berlin, who asked if it was possible to create a more modern form of Christianity. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The Nuremberg school teacher Michael Bauer in 1910 enabled Rittelmeyer to have his first encounter with Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. from Friedrich Rittelmeyer

    • It was founded in 1922 in Switzerland by a group of mainly Lutheran theologians and ministers led by Friedrich Rittelmeyer, inspired by Rudolf Steiner, the Austrian philosopher and founder of anthroposophy. from The Christian Community

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      Annie Besant Annie Besant (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a prominent British socialist, theosophist, women's rights…
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      Annie Besant (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a prominent British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.…

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      Annie Besant (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a prominent British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
      At age 20 she married Frank Besant, but separated from him over religious differences. She then became a prominent speaker for the National Secular Society (NSS) and writer and a close friend of Charles Bradlaugh. In 1877 they were prosecuted for publishing a book by birth control campaigner Charles Knowlton. The scandal made them famous, and Bradlaugh was elected M.P. for Northampton in 1880.
      She became involved with union actions including the Bloody Sunday demonstration and the London matchgirls strike of 1888. She was a leading speaker for the Fabian Society and the Marxist Social Democratic Federation (SDF). She was elected to the London School Board for Tower Hamlets, topping the poll even though few women were qualified to vote at that time.
      In 1890 Besant met Helena Blavatsky and over the next few years her interest in theosophy grew while her interest in secular matters waned. She became a member of the Theosophical Society and a prominent lecturer on the subject. As part of her theosophy-related work, she travelled to India. In 1898 she helped establish the Central Hindu College and in 1922 she helped establish the Hyderabad (Sind) National Collegiate Board in Mumbai, India. In 1902, she established the first overseas Lodge of the International Order of Co-Freemasonry, Le Droit Humain. Over the next few years she established lodges in many parts of the British Empire. In 1907 she became president of the Theosophical Society, whose international headquarters were in Adyar, Madras, (Chennai).
      She also became involved in politics in India, joining the Indian National Congress. When World War I broke out in 1914, she helped launch the Home Rule League to campaign for democracy in India and dominion status within the Empire. This led to her election as president of the India National Congress in late 1917. After the war, she continued to campaign for Indian independence and for the causes of theosophy, until her death in 1933.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Annie Besant

    • This and other differences, in particular Steiner's vocal rejection of Leadbeater and Besant's claim that Jiddu Krishnamurti was the vehicle of a new Maitreya, or world teacher, led to a formal split in 1912/13, when Steiner and the majority of members of the German section of the Theosophical Society broke off to form a new group, the Anthroposophical Society. from Rudolf Steiner

    • By 1904, Steiner was appointed by Annie Besant to be leader of the Theosophical Esoteric Society for Germany and Austria. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In the 20th century, Theosophy was further developed by Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater, while people like Alice Bailey, Rudolf Steiner and many others, became the source for a whole range of post-theosophical movements such as The Summit Lighthouse. The post-theosophical Anthroposophical movement is a synthesis of occultist, Christian and Neoplatonic ideas with Western esoteric concepts as formulated in the wake of Theosophy. from Esotericism

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    • She was influenced by the thinking of both English Theosophist, Annie Besant and Austrian philosopher, Rudolf Steiner. from Marta Steinsvik

    • Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy and Waldorf Schools, along with other well known Theosophists, such as Annie Besant, also wrote of cultural evolution in much the same vein. from Atlantis

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      Jiddu Krishnamurti Jiddu Krishnamurti (12 May 1895 – 17 February 1986) was a speaker and writer on philosophical and spiritual…
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      Jiddu Krishnamurti (12 May 1895 – 17 February 1986) was a speaker and writer on philosophical and spiritual subjects. In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and disbanded the organisation behind it. His subject matter included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry,…

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      Jiddu Krishnamurti (12 May 1895 – 17 February 1986) was a speaker and writer on philosophical and spiritual subjects. In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and disbanded the organisation behind it. His subject matter included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society. He constantly stressed the need for a revolution in the psyche of every human being and emphasised that such revolution cannot be brought about by any external entity, be it religious, political, or social.
      Krishnamurti was born in British India and in early adolescence, he had a chance encounter with prominent occultist and theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater in the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters at Adyar in Madras. He was subsequently raised under the tutelage of Annie Besant and Leadbeater, leaders of the Society at the time, who believed him to be a "vehicle" for an expected World Teacher. As a young man, he disavowed this idea and dissolved the Order of the Star in the East, an organisation that had been established to support it.
      He claimed allegiance to no nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy, and spent the rest of his life travelling the world, speaking to large and small groups and individuals. He wrote many books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurti's Notebook. Many of his talks and discussions have been published. His last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at his home in Ojai, California.
      His supporters, working through non-profit foundations in India, Great Britain and the United States, oversee several independent schools based on his views on education. They continue to transcribe and distribute his thousands of talks, group and individual discussions, and writings by use of a variety of media formats and languages.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Jiddu Krishnamurti

    • This and other differences, in particular Steiner's vocal rejection of Leadbeater and Besant's claim that Jiddu Krishnamurti was the vehicle of a new Maitreya, or world teacher, led to a formal split in 1912/13, when Steiner and the majority of members of the German section of the Theosophical Society broke off to form a new group, the Anthroposophical Society. from Rudolf Steiner

    • More recent theorists are Rudolf Steiner, Maria Montessori, Francis Parker, John Dewey, John Caldwell Holt, George Dennison Kieran Egan, Howard Gardner, Jiddu Krishnamurti, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Paul Goodman, Ivan Illich, and Paulo Freire. from Holistic education

    • Example alternative schools include Montessori schools, Waldorf schools (or Steiner schools), Friends schools, Sands School, Summerhill School, The Peepal Grove School, Sudbury Valley School, Krishnamurti schools, and open classroom schools. from Education

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      Edith Maryon Edith Louisa Maryon (London, 9 February 1872 – 2 May 1924 in Dornach, Switzerland) was an English sculptor. Along…
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      Edith Louisa Maryon (London, 9 February 1872 – 2 May 1924 in Dornach, Switzerland) was an English sculptor. Along with Ita Wegman, she belonged to the innermost circle of founders of anthroposophy and those around Rudolf Steiner.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Edith Maryon

    • His primary sculptural work is The Representative of Humanity (1922), a nine-meter high wood sculpture executed as a joint project with the sculptor Edith Maryon. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Along with Ita Wegman, she belonged to the innermost circle of founders of anthroposophy and those around Rudolf Steiner. from Edith Maryon

    • In a dedicated gallery, the building also houses a nine-meter high wooden sculpture, The Representative of Humanity, by Edith Maryon and Rudolf Steiner. from Goetheanum

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      Guardian of the Threshold The Guardian of the Threshold is a menacing figure that is described by a number of esoteric teachers. The term…
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      The Guardian of the Threshold is a menacing figure that is described by a number of esoteric teachers. The term "Guardian of the Threshold", often called "dweller on the threshold" indicates a spectral image which is supposed to manifest itself as soon as "the student of the spirit ascends upon the path into the higher…

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      The Guardian of the Threshold is a menacing figure that is described by a number of esoteric teachers. The term "Guardian of the Threshold", often called "dweller on the threshold" indicates a spectral image which is supposed to manifest itself as soon as "the student of the spirit ascends upon the path into the higher worlds of knowledge". The Guardian of the Threshold is also the title of the third play (of a tetralogy of 'Mystery Dramas') written by Rudolf Steiner in 1912.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Guardian of the Threshold

    • In Rudolf Steiner's play The Guardian of the Threshold, first performed in 1912 and the third in a series of four "Mystery Dramas", the appearance of the Guardian is connected with Lucifer and Ahriman. from Guardian of the Threshold

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      Goethean science Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although primarily known as a literary figure, did research in morphology, anatomy, and…
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      Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although primarily known as a literary figure, did research in morphology, anatomy, and optics, and also developed a phenomenological approach to science and to knowledge in general.
      In 1998, David Seamon and Arthur Zajonc wrote Goethe's way of science: a phenomenology of nature

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      Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although primarily known as a literary figure, did research in morphology, anatomy, and optics, and also developed a phenomenological approach to science and to knowledge in general.
      In his 1792 essay "The experiment as mediator between subject and object", Goethe developed an original philosophy of science, which he used in his research. The essay underscores his experiential standpoint. "The human being himself, to the extent that he makes sound use of his senses, is the most exact physical apparatus that can exist."
      His scientific works include his 1790 Metamorphosis of Plants and his 1810 book Theory of Colors. His work in optics, and his polemics against the reigning Newtonian theory of optics, were poorly received by the scientific establishment of his time.
      Arthur Schopenhauer expanded on Goethe's research in optics using a different methodology in his On Vision and Colors.
      Rudolf Steiner presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological in the Kürschner edition of Goethe's writings.[clarification needed] Steiner elaborated on this in the books Goethean Science (1883) and Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception (1886). in which he emphasizes the need of the perceiving organ of intuition in order to grasp Goethe's biological archetype (i.e. The Typus).
      Steiner's branch of Goethean Science was extended by Oskar Schmiedel and Wilhelm Pelikan, who did research using Steiner's interpretations.
      Ludwig Wittgenstein's discussions of Goethe's Theory of Colors were published as Bemerkungen über die Farben (Remarks on Color)
      As one of the many precursors in the history of evolutionary thought, Goethe writes in Story of My Botanical Studies (1831):
      The ever-changing display of plant forms, which I have followed for so many years, awakens increasingly within me the notion: The plant forms which surround us were not all created at some given point in time and then locked into the given form, they have been given… a felicitous mobility and plasticity that allows them to grow and adapt themselves to many different conditions in many different places.
      Andrew Dickson White also writes with respect to evolutionary thought, in A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896):
      About the end of the eighteenth century fruitful suggestions and even clear presentations of this or that part of a large evolutionary doctrine came thick and fast, and from the most divergent quarters. Especially remarkable were those from Erasmus Darwin in England, Maupertuis in France, Oken in Switzerland, and Herder, and, most brilliantly of all, from Goethe in Germany.
      Goethe's vision of holistic science inspired biologist and paranormal researcher Rupert Sheldrake.
      He went to an Anglican boarding school and then took biology at Cambridge, studying "life" by killing animals and then grinding them up to extract their DNA. This was troubling. Rescue came when a friend turned him on to Goethe. This old German's 18th century vision of "holistic science" appealed to the young Brit very much. Sheldrake used Goethe to investigate how the lilies of the field actually become lilies of the field.
      American philosopher Walter Kaufmann argued that Freud's psychoanalysis was a "poetic science" in Goethe's sense.
      In 1998, David Seamon and Arthur Zajonc wrote Goethe's way of science: a phenomenology of nature
      Biologist Brian Goodwin (1931-2009) in his book How the Leopard Changed Its Spots : The Evolution of Complexity claimed that organisms as dynamic systems are the primary agents of creative evolutionary adaptation, in the book Goodwin stated: "The ideas I am developing in this book are very much in the Goethean spirit."

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Goethean science

    • His philosophical ideas were affected by Franz Brentano, with whom he had studied, as well as by Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, and Goethe's phenomenological approach to science. from Rudolf Steiner

    • At the beginning of the twentieth century, he founded a spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Steiner's branch of Goethean Science was extended by Oskar Schmiedel and Wilhelm Pelikan, who did research using Steiner's interpretations. from Goethean science

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    • Rudolf Steiner presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological in the Kürschner edition of Goethe's writings. from Goethean science

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      Etheric plane The etheric plane (see also Etheric body) is a term introduced into Theosophy by Charles Webster Leadbeater and…
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      The etheric plane (see also Etheric body) is a term introduced into Theosophy by Charles Webster Leadbeater and Annie Besant to represent the subtle part of the lower plane of existence. It represents the fourth [higher] subplane of the physical plane (a hyperplane), the lower three being the states of solid, liquid, and gaseous matter. The idea was later used by authors such as Alice Bailey, Rudolf Steiner, Walter John Kilner and others.…

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      The etheric plane (see also Etheric body) is a term introduced into Theosophy by Charles Webster Leadbeater and Annie Besant to represent the subtle part of the lower plane of existence. It represents the fourth [higher] subplane of the physical plane (a hyperplane), the lower three being the states of solid, liquid, and gaseous matter. The idea was later used by authors such as Alice Bailey, Rudolf Steiner, Walter John Kilner and others.
      The term aether (also written as "ether") was adopted from ancient Greek philosophy and science into Victorian physics (see Luminiferous aether) and utilised by Madame Blavatsky to correspond to akasha, the fifth element (quintessence) of Hindu metaphysics.
      The Greek word aither derives from an Indo-European root aith- ("burn, shine"). Blavatsky also related the idea to the Hindu Prana principle, the vital, life-sustaining force of living beings, present in all natural processes of the universe. Prana was first expounded in the Upanishads, where it is part of the worldly, physical realm, sustaining the body and the mind. Blavatsky also tended to use the word "astral" indiscrimininately for these supposed subtle physical phenomena.
      Leadbeater and Besant (Adyar School of Theosophy) conceived that the etheric plane constituted four higher subplanes of the physical plane. According to the Theosophist Geoffrey A. Farthing, Leadbeater used the term, because of its resonance in the physical sciences, to describe his clairvoyant investigations of sub-atomic physics.
      In physics, there is no aether through which electromagnetic waves propagate (see also aether theories).

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Etheric plane

    • He suggested that this would not be a physical reappearance, but rather, meant that the Christ being would become manifest in non-physical form, in the "etheric realm" – i.e. visible to spiritual vision and apparent in community life – for increasing numbers of people, beginning around the year 1933. from Rudolf Steiner

    • The idea was later used by authors such as Alice Bailey, Rudolf Steiner, Walter John Kilner and others. from Etheric plane

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      Theosophical Society Adyar The Theosophy Society - Adyar is the name of a section of the Theosophical Society founded by Helena Petrovna…
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      The Theosophy Society - Adyar is the name of a section of the Theosophical Society founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and others in 1875. Its headquarters moved with Blavatsky and president Henry Steel Olcott to Adyar, an area of Chennai in 1883. The designation 'Adyar' is added to make it clear that this is the…

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      The Theosophy Society - Adyar is the name of a section of the Theosophical Society founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and others in 1875. Its headquarters moved with Blavatsky and president Henry Steel Olcott to Adyar, an area of Chennai in 1883. The designation 'Adyar' is added to make it clear that this is the Theosophical Society headquartered there, after William Quan Judge was separated by Besant and formed his own organization, known as the "Theosophical Society - Pasadena", with its International Headquarters in Pasadena, California.
      The US National Section of this organization is called the Theosophical Society in America located in Wheaton, Illinois.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Theosophical Society Adyar

    • Steiner continued speaking regularly to the members of the Theosophical Society, becoming the head of its newly constituted German section in 1902 without ever formally joining the society. from Rudolf Steiner

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      Sergei O. Prokofieff Sergei O. Prokofieff was born in Moscow in 1954, where he studied fine arts and painting at the Moscow School of…
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      Sergei O. Prokofieff was born in Moscow in 1954, where he studied fine arts and painting at the Moscow School of Art. He encountered anthroposophy in his youth, and soon made the decision to devote his life to it. He wrote his first book, Rudolf Steiner and the Founding of the New Mysteries while living

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      Sergei O. Prokofieff was born in Moscow in 1954, where he studied fine arts and painting at the Moscow School of Art. He encountered anthroposophy in his youth, and soon made the decision to devote his life to it. He wrote his first book, Rudolf Steiner and the Founding of the New Mysteries while living in Soviet Russia; the book was published in Germany in 1982. After the fall of communism, he became a co-founder of the Anthroposophical Society in Russia, and since Easter 2001 he has been a member of the Executive Council of the General Anthroposophical Society in Dornach, Switzerland. Prokofieff is a prolific author, and an outspoken critic of Valentin Tomberg and his followers.
      Prokofieff’s written work consists primarily in the development of various Christological themes on the foundation of Rudolf Steiner's research.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Sergei O. Prokofieff

    • Rudolf Steiner and the Founding of the New Mysteries, Temple Lodge Publishing, London [1986], 2nd Ed. 1994. from Sergei O. Prokofieff

    • He wrote his first book, Rudolf Steiner and the Founding of the New Mysteries while living in Soviet Russia; the book was published in Germany in 1982. from Sergei O. Prokofieff

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      Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher) Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (Russian: Влади́мир Серге́евич Соловьёв; January 28 [O.S. January 16] 1853 – August…
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      Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (Russian: Влади́мир Серге́евич Соловьёв; January 28 [O.S. January 16] 1853 – August 13 [O.S. July 31] 1900) was a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, pamphleteer and literary critic, who played a significant role in the development of Russian philosophy and poetry at the end of the 19th century and in the spiritual renaissance of the early 20th century.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)

    • He influenced the religious philosophy of Nicolas Berdyaev, Sergey Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Lossky, Semen L. Frank, the ideas of Rudolf Steiner and the poetry and theory of Russian Symbolists, namely Andrei Belyi, Alexander Blok, Solovyov's nephew, and others. from Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)

    • Hildegard's reincarnation has been debated since 1924 when Austrian mystic Rudolf Steiner lectured that a nun of her description was the past life of Russian poet philosopher Vladimir Soloviev, whose Sophianic visions are often compared to Hildegard. from Hildegard of Bingen

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      Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ] (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher best…
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      Arthur Schopenhauer [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ] (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy, he…

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      Arthur Schopenhauer [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ] (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), in which he claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers (e.g., asceticism). His faith in "transcendental ideality" led him to accept atheism.
      At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has been influential in the history of phenomenology. He has influenced many thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Otto Weininger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges, among others.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Arthur Schopenhauer

    • During this time he also collaborated in complete editions of the works of Arthur Schopenhauer and the writer Jean Paul and wrote numerous articles for various journals. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Although Goethe's work was rejected by physicists, a number of philosophers and physicists have concerned themselves with it, including Thomas Johann Seebeck, Arthur Schopenhauer (see: On Vision and Colors), Hermann von Helmholtz, Rudolf Steiner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Werner Heisenberg, Kurt Gödel, and Mitchell Feigenbaum. from Theory of Colours

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      John Henry Mackay John Henry Mackay (6 February 1864 – 16 May 1933) was an individualist anarchist, thinker and writer. Born in…
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      John Henry Mackay (6 February 1864 – 16 May 1933) was an individualist anarchist, thinker and writer. Born in Scotland and raised in Germany, Mackay was the author of Die Anarchisten (The Anarchists, 1891) and Der Freiheitsucher (The Searcher for Freedom, 1921). Mackay was published in the United States in his friend Benjamin Tucker's magazine, Liberty. He was a noted homosexual.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To John Henry Mackay

    • Many subscribers were alienated by Steiner's unpopular support of Émile Zola in the Dreyfus Affair and the journal lost more subscribers when Steiner published extracts from his correspondence with anarchist John Henry Mackay. from Rudolf Steiner

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      Joseph Beuys Joseph Beuys (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening…
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      Joseph Beuys (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.…

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      Joseph Beuys (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.
      His extensive work is grounded in concepts of humanism, social philosophy and anthroposophy; it culminates in his "extended definition of art" and the idea of social sculpture as a gesamtkunstwerk, for which he claimed a creative, participatory role in shaping society and politics. His career was characterized by passionate, even acrimonious public debate. He is now regarded as one of the most influential artists of the second half of the 20th century.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Joseph Beuys

    • These include philosophers Albert Schweitzer, Owen Barfield and Richard Tarnas; writers Saul Bellow, Andrej Belyj, Michael Ende, Selma Lagerlöf, Edouard Schuré, David Spangler, and William Irwin Thompson; artists Josef Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, and Murray Griffin; esotericist and educationalist George Trevelyan; actor and acting teacher Michael Chekhov; cinema director Andrei Tarkovsky; composers Jonathan Harvey and Viktor Ullmann; and conductor Bruno Walter. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Josef Beuys' work, itself heavily influenced by Steiner, has led to the modern understanding of Steiner's drawings as artistic objects. from Rudolf Steiner

    • His paintings and drawings influenced Joseph Beuys and other modern artists. from Rudolf Steiner

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    • These ideas were founded in the body of social ideas of Rudolf Steiner known as Social Threefolding, of which he was a vigorous and original proponent. from Joseph Beuys

    • The anthroposophic philosophy of Rudolf Steiner became an increasingly important basis for Beuys' reasoning, in his view it is: "... an approach that refers to reality in a direct and practical way, and that by comparison, all forms of epistemological discourse remain without direct relevance to current trends and movements". from Joseph Beuys

    • For Mamtani it can go as far back as William Blake in the 18th century or extend to a German contemporary like Joseph Beuys, who was influenced by the anthroposophic teachings of Rudolf Steiner. from Mahirwan Mamtani

    • In addition to applying the ideas of Kükelhaus, it also applies the ideas of Anthroposophy by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) and social sculpture by Joseph Beuys (1921–1986). from Wiesbaden-Dotzheim

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    1. 38
      Organic farming Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost…
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      Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control. Depending on whose definition is used, organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides (which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) if they are considered natural (such as bone meal from animals or pyrethrin from flowers),…

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      Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control. Depending on whose definition is used, organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides (which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) if they are considered natural (such as bone meal from animals or pyrethrin from flowers), but it excludes or strictly limits the use of various methods (including synthetic petrochemical fertilizers and pesticides; plant growth regulators such as hormones; antibiotic use in livestock; genetically modified organisms; human sewage sludge; and nanomaterials.) for reasons including sustainability, openness, independence, health, and safety.
      Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972. The USDA National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) definition as of April 1995 is:
      “Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony."
      Since 1990 the market for organic food and other products has grown rapidly, reaching $63 billion worldwide in 2012. This demand has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland which has grown over the years 2001-2011 at a compounding rate of 8.9% per annum. As of 2011, approximately 37,000,000 hectares (91,000,000 acres) worldwide were farmed organically, representing approximately 0.9 percent of total world farmland (2009).

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Organic farming

    • He also founded a system of organic agriculture, now known as biodynamic agriculture, which was one of the very first forms of, and has contributed significantly to the development of, modern organic farming. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In Central Europe Rudolf Steiner, whose Lectures on Agriculture were published in 1925. from Organic farming

    • Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that employs what proponents describe as "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes". from Biodynamic agriculture

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    • Indeed, Howard is grouped, along with Rudolf Steiner, Sir Robert McCarrison and Richard St. Barbe Baker, as one of the key progenitors of the organic agriculture movement. from Albert Howard

    • Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming originally developed by Rudolf Steiner that employs what proponents describe as "a holistic understanding of agricultural processes". from Life sciences

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    1. 39
      Hermann Hesse Hermann Hesse (German: [ˈhɛɐ̯man ˈhɛsə]; 2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German poet, novelist, and painter. His…
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      Hermann Hesse (German: [ˈhɛɐ̯man ˈhɛsə]; 2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game, each of which explores an individual's search for authenticity, self-knowledge and spirituality. In 1946, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Hermann Hesse

    • A petition expressing his basic social ideas was widely circulated and signed by many cultural figures of the day, including Hermann Hesse. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Artists and other famous people attracted to this hill included Hermann Hesse, Carl Jung, Erich Maria Remarque, Hugo Ball, Else Lasker-Schüler, Stefan George, Isadora Duncan, Carl Eugen Keel, Paul Klee, Carlo Mense, Arnold Ehret, Rudolf Steiner, Mary Wigman, Max Picard, Ernst Toller, Henry van de Velde, Fanny zu Reventlow, Rudolf von Laban, Frieda and Else von Richthofen, Otto Gross, Erich Mühsam, Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach, Walter Segal, Max Weber, Gustav Stresemann, and Gustav Nagel. from Monte Verità

    • The colony attracted a large number of artists, anarchists and other famous people, including Hermann Hesse, Hans Habe, Carl Jung, Erich Maria Remarque, Hugo Ball, Else Lasker-Schüler, Stefan George, Isadora Duncan, Paul Klee, Rudolf Steiner, Mary Wigman, Gyula Háy, Max Picard, Ernst Toller, Henri van de Velde, Rudolf Laban, Frieda and Else von Richthofen, Otto Gross, Erich Mühsam, Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach, and Gustav Stresemann. from Ascona

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    1. 40
      GLS Bank The GLS Bank (full name GLS Gemeinschaftsbank eG) is a German ethical bank that was founded in 1974 as an…
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      The GLS Bank (full name GLS Gemeinschaftsbank eG) is a German ethical bank that was founded in 1974 as an anthroposophical initiative by Wilhelm Ernst Barkhoff and Gisela Reuther. It was the first bank in Germany that operated with an ethical philosophy. According to GLS Bank, its focus is on cultural, social and ecological initiatives,…

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      The GLS Bank (full name GLS Gemeinschaftsbank eG) is a German ethical bank that was founded in 1974 as an anthroposophical initiative by Wilhelm Ernst Barkhoff and Gisela Reuther. It was the first bank in Germany that operated with an ethical philosophy. According to GLS Bank, its focus is on cultural, social and ecological initiatives, initiated by people, and not anonymous interests seeking capital or maximum profit. The name stands for Gemeinschaftsbank für Leihen und Schenken which translates as Community bank for loans and gifts. With the main focus on cultural, social and environmental ventures, GLS tries to deal with challenges in the society by developing creative solutions.
      The bank is based in Bochum, Germany and is a co-operative. As of November 2006, the bank's total balance was EUR 645 million. As of 31 December 2008 the balance sheet total was EUR 1,013 million, further rising to EUR 1,847 million as of 31 December 2010.
      In 2010, the bank acquired over 18,000 new customers and in February 2011 GLS announced a growth of 37 per cent, the largest in the bank's history.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To GLS Bank

    • One of the first institutions to practice ethical banking was an anthroposophical bank working out of Steiner's ideas; other anthroposophical social finance institutions have since been founded. from Rudolf Steiner

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      Édouard Schuré Eduard (Édouard) Schuré (January 21, 1841 in Strasbourg – April 7, 1929 in Paris) was a French philosopher, poet…
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      Eduard (Édouard) Schuré (January 21, 1841 in Strasbourg – April 7, 1929 in Paris) was a French philosopher, poet, playwright, novelist, music critic, and publicist of esoteric literature.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Édouard Schuré

    • These include philosophers Albert Schweitzer, Owen Barfield and Richard Tarnas; writers Saul Bellow, Andrej Belyj, Michael Ende, Selma Lagerlöf, Edouard Schuré, David Spangler, and William Irwin Thompson; artists Josef Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, and Murray Griffin; esotericist and educationalist George Trevelyan; actor and acting teacher Michael Chekhov; cinema director Andrei Tarkovsky; composers Jonathan Harvey and Viktor Ullmann; and conductor Bruno Walter. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Fueled by a need to find an artistic home for their yearly conferences, which included performances of plays written by Edouard Schuré and Steiner, the decision was made to build a theater and organizational center. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Schuré called the three most significant of his friendships those with Richard Wagner, Marguerita Albana Mignaty and Rudolf Steiner. from Édouard Schuré

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      Geisteswissenschaft Geisteswissenschaften (German pronunciation: [ˈɡaɪstəsˌvɪsənʃaftən], "spirit" + "science") is a set of human…
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      Geisteswissenschaften (German pronunciation: [ˈɡaɪstəsˌvɪsənʃaftən], "spirit" + "science") is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, social sciences, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are traditional in German universities. Most of its subject matter would come under the much larger humanities faculty in the typical English-speaking university, but it does not contain the arts.…

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      Geisteswissenschaften (German pronunciation: [ˈɡaɪstəsˌvɪsənʃaftən], "spirit" + "science") is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, social sciences, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are traditional in German universities. Most of its subject matter would come under the much larger humanities faculty in the typical English-speaking university, but it does not contain the arts.
      The concept of Geist dates back to eighteenth- and nineteenth-century German idealism, in particular to Herder's and Hegel's concept of a Volksgeist, the alleged common "spirit", or rather, mind, of a people. To understand the term Geisteswissenschaften, one should bear in mind that the continental faculty of philosophy inherited the medieval faculty of arts. Besides philosophy itself it encompassed the natural sciences with mathematics as well as the philological and historical disciplines and later on psychology and the social sciences. The term Geisteswissenschaften first was used as translation of John Stuart Mill’s term “moral sciences”. The historian, philosopher and sociologist Wilhelm Dilthey popularised the term, arguing that psychology and the emerging field of sociology – like the philological and historical disciplines – should be considered as Geisteswissenschaft rather than as Naturwissenschaft (natural science), and that their methodology should reflect this classification. His arguments were very influential in the theories of the prominent German sociologist Max Weber, though Weber preferred the term Kulturwissenschaft, which has been promoted by his neokantian colleagues (Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert).
      Since the times of Dilthey it became common to speak of the 'Naturwissenschaften' on the one hand and the 'Geisteswissenschaften' on the other – not particularly considering the status of mathematics and of philosophy itself. After the separation of the natural sciences and mathematics into a particular faculty (in some universities not until the 1950s), the Geisteswissenschaften were left alone in the philosophical faculty and even philosophy often was subsumed under the term Geisteswissenschaften. Meanwhile many of the German universities have split up these faculties in smaller departments, so that the old common interests and the old borders are less visible.
      The term is presently used irregularly. In administrative contexts it is used broadly to discuss how to organise the academic institutions and describe the culture of academic discussions, so that the faculties of Theology and Law are added to the Geisteswissenschaften. In some contexts of science policy the Geisteswissenschaften are described as non-empirical sciences, drawing them near philosophy and excluding the social sciences from their area. In the context of methodology on the contrary it has been emphasised, that – of course not philosophy, but - Geisteswissenschaften as history and the philological disciplines, relating on empirical data (documents, books and utterances), along with psychology and the social sciences have a common empirical character, which is essentially based on comprehension (Verstehen) or understanding of expressions of meaning.
      Other authors, like Rudolf Steiner, used the term Geisteswissenschaft in a historically quite distinct sense to refer to a proposed "Science of Spirit".

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Geisteswissenschaft

    • Steiner followed Wilhelm Dilthey in using the term Geisteswissenschaft, usually translated as "spiritual science". from Rudolf Steiner

    • Other authors, like Rudolf Steiner, used the term Geisteswissenschaft in a historically quite distinct sense to refer to a proposed "Science of Spirit". from Geisteswissenschaft

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      Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 – March 17, 1917) was an influential German philosopher…
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      Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 – March 17, 1917) was an influential German philosopher and psychologist whose influence was felt by other such luminaries as Sigmund Freud, Edmund Husserl, Kazimierz Twardowski and Alexius Meinong, who followed and adapted his views.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Franz Brentano

    • His philosophical ideas were affected by Franz Brentano, with whom he had studied, as well as by Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, and Goethe's phenomenological approach to science. from Rudolf Steiner

    • From 1874 to 1895 taught at the University of Vienna; among his students were Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Christian von Ehrenfels, Rudolf Steiner, T.G. Masaryk, Sigmund Freud, Kazimierz Twardowski and many others (see School of Brentano for more details). from Franz Brentano

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      The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily (German title: Märchen or Das Märchen) is a fairy tale by Johann Wolfgang…
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      The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily (German title: Märchen or Das Märchen) is a fairy tale by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published in 1795 in Friedrich Schiller's German magazine Die Horen (The Horae). It concludes Goethe's novella rondo Conversations of German Emigrants (1795). Das Märchen is regarded as the founding example of the genre…

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      The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily (German title: Märchen or Das Märchen) is a fairy tale by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published in 1795 in Friedrich Schiller's German magazine Die Horen (The Horae). It concludes Goethe's novella rondo Conversations of German Emigrants (1795). Das Märchen is regarded as the founding example of the genre of Kunstmärchen, or artistic fairy tale. The story revolves around the crossing and bridging of a river, which represents the divide between the outer life of the senses and the ideal aspirations of the human being.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily

    • Rudolf Steiner, in his 1918 book Goethe's Standard of the Soul, speaks of it as follows: “On the river stands the Temple in which the marriage of the Young Man with the Lily takes place. from The Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily

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      Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – August 9, 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist…
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      Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – August 9, 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom…

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      Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – August 9, 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularized Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the controversial recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarizes its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
      The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures (see: Kunstformen der Natur, "Art Forms of Nature"). As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträtsel (1895–1899, in English, The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Ernst Haeckel

    • Steiner affirms Darwin's and Haeckel's evolutionary perspectives but extended this beyond its materialistic consequences; he sees human consciousness, indeed, all human culture, as a product of natural evolution that transcends itself. from Rudolf Steiner

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      Richard Tarnas Richard Theodore Tarnas (born February 21, 1950) is a cultural historian known for his books The Passion of the…
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      Richard Theodore Tarnas (born February 21, 1950) is a cultural historian known for his books The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View and Cosmos and Psyche: Intimations of a New World View. Tarnas is professor of philosophy and psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies, and is the founding director of its graduate program in Philosophy, Cosmology, and Consciousness.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Richard Tarnas

    • These include philosophers Albert Schweitzer, Owen Barfield and Richard Tarnas; writers Saul Bellow, Andrej Belyj, Michael Ende, Selma Lagerlöf, Edouard Schuré, David Spangler, and William Irwin Thompson; artists Josef Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, and Murray Griffin; esotericist and educationalist George Trevelyan; actor and acting teacher Michael Chekhov; cinema director Andrei Tarkovsky; composers Jonathan Harvey and Viktor Ullmann; and conductor Bruno Walter. from Rudolf Steiner

    1. 47
      Andrei Bely Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (Russian: Бори́с Никола́евич Буга́ев, IPA: [bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪt͡ɕ bʊˈɡajɪf] ( ))…
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      Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (Russian: Бори́с Никола́евич Буга́ев, IPA: [bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪt͡ɕ bʊˈɡajɪf] ( )), better known by the pen name Andrei Bely (Russian: Андре́й Бе́лый, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej ˈbʲelɨj] ( ); 26 October [O.S. 14 October] 1880 – 8 January 1934), was a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic. His novel Petersburg was regarded by Vladimir Nabokov as one of the four greatest novels of the 20th century.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Andrei Bely

    • These include philosophers Albert Schweitzer, Owen Barfield and Richard Tarnas; writers Saul Bellow, Andrej Belyj, Michael Ende, Selma Lagerlöf, Edouard Schuré, David Spangler, and William Irwin Thompson; artists Josef Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, and Murray Griffin; esotericist and educationalist George Trevelyan; actor and acting teacher Michael Chekhov; cinema director Andrei Tarkovsky; composers Jonathan Harvey and Viktor Ullmann; and conductor Bruno Walter. from Rudolf Steiner

    • In his later years Bely was influenced by Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophy and became a personal friend of Steiner's. from Andrei Bely

    • He influenced the religious philosophy of Nicolas Berdyaev, Sergey Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Lossky, Semen L. Frank, the ideas of Rudolf Steiner and the poetry and theory of Russian Symbolists, namely Andrei Belyi, Alexander Blok, Solovyov's nephew, and others. from Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)

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      Robert A. McDermott Robert McDermott is professor of Philosophy and Religion at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San…
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      Robert McDermott is professor of Philosophy and Religion at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. He received his Ph.D. in 1969 in philosophy from Boston University and is president emeritus of the California Institute of Integral Studies. He has taught at Manhattanville College (1964-71) and is professor emeritus and former chair of…

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      Robert McDermott is professor of Philosophy and Religion at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. He received his Ph.D. in 1969 in philosophy from Boston University and is president emeritus of the California Institute of Integral Studies. He has taught at Manhattanville College (1964-71) and is professor emeritus and former chair of the Department of Philosophy at Baruch College, CUNY (1971-90). He was secretary of the American Academy of Religion (1968-71) and secretary treasurer of the Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy (1972-76).
      With Arthur Zajonc, McDermott is co-founder of The Owen Barfield Graduate School of Sunbridge College, is the founding chair of the board of Sophia Project (two homes in Oakland, California, for mothers and children at risk of homelessness), and has been chair of the board and president of many other institutions. He is a teacher and former board chair of the Rudolf Steiner Institute [1].
      He has written a number of books, as well as essays published in scholarly journals and anthologies. His essays have appeared in International Philosophical Quarterly, Cross Currents, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, and Philosophy East and West.
      Topics on which he has written or lectured include the evolution of consciousness, the spiritual mission of America, classic and modern spirituality and spiritual masters (East and West), Sri Aurobindo, and Rudolf Steiner and Anthroposophy.
      His term as president of CIIS marked an extraordinary achievement. He was the first president in its history who filled out his terms of office without resigning or being dismissed. He was able to steer a very small and vulnerable institution away from the very edge of dissolution in bankruptcy into the thriving institution that it is today with an enrollment increase of nearly fourfold since his resignation.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Robert A. McDermott

    • Topics on which he has written or lectured include the evolution of consciousness, the spiritual mission of America, classic and modern spirituality and spiritual masters (East and West), Sri Aurobindo, and Rudolf Steiner and Anthroposophy. from Robert A. McDermott

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      William Irwin Thompson William Irwin Thompson (born July 1938) is known primarily as a social philosopher and cultural critic, but he has…
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      William Irwin Thompson (born July 1938) is known primarily as a social philosopher and cultural critic, but he has also been writing and publishing poetry throughout his career and received the Oslo International Poetry Festival Award in 1986. He describes his writing and speaking style as "mind-jazz on ancient texts". He is the founder of the Lindisfarne Association.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To William Irwin Thompson

    • These include philosophers Albert Schweitzer, Owen Barfield and Richard Tarnas; writers Saul Bellow, Andrej Belyj, Michael Ende, Selma Lagerlöf, Edouard Schuré, David Spangler, and William Irwin Thompson; artists Josef Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, and Murray Griffin; esotericist and educationalist George Trevelyan; actor and acting teacher Michael Chekhov; cinema director Andrei Tarkovsky; composers Jonathan Harvey and Viktor Ullmann; and conductor Bruno Walter. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Influences Thompson is influenced by British philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, Swiss cultural historian Jean Gebser, mystic Rudolf Steiner, the Vedic philosopher Sri Aurobindo Ghose, the famous Kriya Yoga proponent Paramahansa Yogananda with his introduction of Hindu Vedic principles and practices (such as yoga) to the Western populace, and media ecologist Marshall McLuhan. from William Irwin Thompson

    • Philosophers, scientists, and educators that have proposed theories of spiritual evolution include Schelling, Hegel, Max Théon, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henri Bergson, Rudolf Steiner, Sri Aurobindo, Jean Gebser, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Owen Barfield, Arthur M. Young, Edward Haskell, E. F. Schumacher, Erich Jantsch, Clare W. Graves, Alfred North Whitehead, Terence McKenna, P.R. Sarkar and contemporaries William Irwin Thompson, Brian Swimme, and Ken Wilber. from Spiritual evolution

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      Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German…
    1. 50

      Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature.…

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      Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his former university roommate, early friend, and later rival. Interpreting Schelling's philosophy is regarded as difficult because of its apparently ever-changing nature.
      Schelling's thought in the large has been neglected, especially in the English-speaking world, as has been his later work on mythology and revelation, much of which remains untranslated. An important factor was the ascendancy of Hegel, whose mature works portray Schelling as a mere footnote in the development of idealism. Schelling's Naturphilosophie also has been attacked by scientists for its analogizing tendency and lack of empirical orientation. However, some 20th century philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Slavoj Žižek have shown interest in re-examining Schelling's body of work.

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    How Rudolf Steiner
    Connects To Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

    • Before attending the Vienna Institute of Technology, Steiner had studied Kant, Fichte and Schelling. from Rudolf Steiner

    • Philosophers, scientists, and educators that have proposed theories of spiritual evolution include Schelling, Hegel, Max Théon, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henri Bergson, Rudolf Steiner, Sri Aurobindo, Jean Gebser, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Owen Barfield, Arthur M. Young, Edward Haskell, E. F. Schumacher, Erich Jantsch, Clare W. Graves, Alfred North Whitehead, Terence McKenna, P.R. Sarkar and contemporaries William Irwin Thompson, Brian Swimme, and Ken Wilber. from Spiritual evolution

    • These include Goethe, Schelling, Hegel, Gustav Fechner, William James, Rudolf Steiner, Alfred North Whitehead, James Mark Baldwin, Jürgen Habermas, Sri Aurobindo, and Abraham Maslow. from Integral (spirituality)

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    • In the essay "Inner and Outer Realities: Jean Gebser in a Cultural/Historical Perspective", Integral philosopher Allan Combs claims that ten modern thinkers can be called Neo-Platonists: Goethe, Schiller, Schelling, Hegel, Coleridge, Emerson, Rudolf Steiner, Carl Jung, Jean Gebser and the modern theorist Brian Goodwin. from Neoplatonism

    • According to Tarnas, participatory epistemology is rooted in the thought of Goethe, Schiller, Schelling, Hegel, Coleridge, Emerson, and Rudolf Steiner. from Participatory theory

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