Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سلطان سليمان اول; Turkish: I. Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman) or simply Solomon as a Biblical name; 6 November 1494 – 7 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and "Kanuni" (the Lawgiver) in the East, was the tenth and longest-reigning Great Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman State ruled over 20 to 30 million people.
Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's economic, military and political power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed much of the Middle East in his conflict with the Persian Safavids and large areas of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf.
At the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. His canonical law (or the Kanuns) fixed the form of the empire for centuries after his death. He was a distinguished poet and goldsmith; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development.
Breaking with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married Roxelana, a former Christian girl converted to Islam from his harem, who became subsequently known and influential as Hürrem Sultan. Their son Selim II succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule, thus beginning a long state of stagnation and decline during Selim II's reign. Suleiman's previous heirs apparent Mehmed and Mustafa had died, the former from smallpox and the latter had been strangled to death 13 years previously at the sultan's order. His other son Bayezid had been killed by his support and Selim's order in 1561 with four of his sons....LESS
is mother was Ayşe Hafsa Sultan (she was possibly the daughter of Meñli I Giray, a descendant of Genghis Khan, through Jochi); little is known of her other than that she died in 1534. from Suleiman the Magnificent
After the birth of her son Suleiman, born 6 November 1494 in Trabzon, she gave birth to one son and three daughters: Suleiman the Magnificent, Hatice Sultan, Fatma Sultan and Hafsa Sultan. from Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
( ; 1479 – 19 March 1534) was wife of Selim I and the first Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire as mother of Suleiman the Magnificent. from Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Hafsa Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: عائشه حفصه سلطان; 1479 – 19 March 1534) was wife of Selim I and the first valide sultan of the Ottoman Empire as mother of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the period between her son's enthronement in 1520 and her death in 1534, she was one of the most influential persons in the Empire.