Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA), one of several specialties in the field of forensic science, inolves the study and analysis of bloodstains at a known or suspected violent crime scene with the goal of to helping investigators draw conclusions about the nature, timing and other details of the crime.

The use of bloodstains as evidence is not new; however, the application of modern science has brought it to a higher level since the 1970s and '80s. New technologies, especially advances in DNA analysis, are available for detectives and criminologists to use in solving crimes and apprehending offenders.
The science of bloodstain pattern analysis applies scientific knowledge from other fields to solve practical problems. Bloodstain pattern analysis draws on the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics

and physics. If an analyst follows a scientific process, this applied science can produce strong, solid evidence, making it an effective tool for investigators, although care does need to be taken when relying on bloodstain pattern analysis in criminal cases. A report released by The National Academy of Sciences calls for more standardization within the field. The report highlights the ability of blood spatter analysts to overstate their qualifications and the reliability of their methods in the court room.

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  • 1. [Blood residue] In forensic science, blood residue – wet and dry remnants of blood, as well the discoloration of surfaces on which blood has been shed – can help investigators identify weapons, reconstruct a criminal action, and link suspects to the crime. Analysis of blood residue is also an important technique in archeology.
  • 2. [Dexter Morgan] Dexter Morgan is a fictional character and the antihero of a series of novels by Jeff Lindsay, including Darkly Dreaming Dexter (2004), Dearly Devoted Dexter (2005), Dexter in the Dark (2007), Dexter by Design (2009), Dexter Is Delicious (2010), Double Dexter (2011) and Dexter's Final Cut (2013). In 2006, the first novel was adapted into
  • 3. [International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts] The International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts (IABPA) was formed 18 November 1983 at the Hilton Hotel in Corning, NY under the guidance of Herbert MacDonell. The concept of an association came about as a result of a group of bloodstain analysts who recognized the need for a coordinated effort to develop themselves and the
  • 4. [Methemoglobin] Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, unlike oxyhemoglobin. It is bluish chocolate-brown in color. In human blood a trace amount of methemoglobin is
  • 5. [David Camm] David Ray Camm (born March 23, 1964) is a former state trooper who was acquitted and released in 2013 after his third trial on charges of murdering his wife, Kimberly, and children, Brad, 7, and Jill, 5, at their Georgetown, Indiana home on September 28, 2000. He had been found guilty in two earlier trials,
  • 6. [Sam Sheppard] Samuel Holmes "Sam" Sheppard ((1923-12-29)December 29, 1923 – April 6, 1970(1970-04-06)) was an American osteopathic physician and, toward the end of his life, a professional wrestler. He was convicted in 1954 of the brutal murder of his pregnant wife, Marilyn Reese Sheppard, at their Bay Village, Ohio, home. He spent almost a decade in prison,
  • 7. [Cytochrome b5] Cytochromes b5 are ubiquitous electron transport hemoproteins found in animals, plants, fungi and purple phototrophic bacteria. The microsomal and mitochondrial variants are membrane-bound, while bacterial and those from erythrocytes and other animal tissues are water-soluble. The family of cytochrome b5-like proteins includes (besides cytochrome b5 itself) hemoprotein domains covalently associated with other redox domains in
  • 8. [Chris Skelton] PC/DC Christopher "Chris" Skelton is a fictional character in BBC One's science fiction/police procedural drama, Life on Mars and its spin-off Ashes to Ashes.
  • 9. [Dexter (TV series)] Dexter is an American television crime drama mystery series. Set in Miami, the series centers on Dexter Morgan (Michael C. Hall), a blood spatter pattern analyst for the fictional Miami Metro Police Department who also leads a secret life as a vigilante serial killer, hunting down murderers who have slipped through the cracks of the
  • 10. [Sam Tyler] DCI/DI Sam Tyler is a fictional character in BBC One's science fiction/police procedural drama, Life on Mars.
    In the original British version of Life on Mars, Tyler is played by John Simm and in the American version he is played by Jason O'Mara.
  • 11. [Normal lens] In photography and cinematography, a normal lens is a lens that reproduces a field of view that generally looks "natural" to a human observer under normal viewing conditions, as compared with lenses with longer or shorter focal lengths which produce an expanded or contracted field of view that distorts the perspective when viewed from a
  • 12. [Reasonable doubt] Evidence that is beyond reasonable doubt is the standard of evidence required to validate a criminal conviction in most adversarial legal systems.
    If doubt does affect a "reasonable person's" belief that the defendant is guilty, the jury is not satisfied beyond "reasonable doubt". The precise meaning of words such as "reasonable" and "doubt" are usually defined
  • 13. [Guilt (law)] In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense. Legal guilt is entirely externally defined by the state, or more generally a “court of law”. Being “guilty” of a criminal offense means that one has committed a violation of criminal law, or performed all the elements of the
  • 14. [Expert witness] An expert witness, professional witness or judicial expert is a witness, who by virtue of education, training, skill, or experience, is believed to have expertise and specialized knowledge in a particular subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially and legally rely upon the witness's specialized (scientific, technical or other) opinion
  • 15. [Forensic science] Forensic science is any scientific field that is applied to the field of law. Forensic scientists are tasked with the collection, preservation, and analysis of scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a purely laboratory role, performing analysis on
  • 16. [Genetic testing] Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ancestry or biological relationship between people. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in
  • 17. [Macro photography] Macro photography (or photomacrography or macrography, and sometimes macrophotography), is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects, in which the size of the subject in the photograph is greater than life size (though macrophotography technically refers to the art of making very large photographs). By some definitions, a macro photograph is one in which
  • 18. [Criminology] Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.
  • 19. [Wide-angle lens] In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane. This type of lens allows more of the scene to be included in the photograph, which is useful in architectural, interior and landscape photography where the photographer may not be able to move farther from the scene to photograph it.
  • 20. [Newton's laws of motion] Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways, over nearly three centuries, and can be summarised as follows.
  • 21. [Free fall] In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it. In the context of general relativity, where gravitation is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in free fall has no force acting on it and moves along a geodesic. The present article only concerns itself with free fall in the Newtonian domain.
  • 22. [Life on Mars (UK TV series)] Life on Mars is a British television series broadcast on BBC One between January 2006 and April 2007. The series combines elements of speculative fiction and police procedural, featuring an officer from the Greater Manchester Police (played by John Simm) who wakes up in the 1970s after being involved in a road accident. The title is a reference to David Bowie's 1973 single "Life on Mars?"
  • 23. [Continuum mechanics] Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. The French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy was the first to formulate such models in the 19th century. Research in the area continues today.
  • 24. [Sine] Sine, in mathematics, is a trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle to the length of the longest side of the triangle (i.e., the hypotenuse).
  • 25. [Showtime (TV network)] Showtime (occasionally abbreviated as "SHO") is an American premium cable and satellite television network that serves as the flagship service of the Showtime Networks subsidiary of CBS Corporation, which also owns sister services The Movie Channel and Flix. Showtime's programming primarily includes theatrically released motion pictures and original television series, along with boxing and mixed martial arts matches, occasional stand-up comedy specials and made-for-TV movies.
  • 26. [Hemoglobin] Hemoglobin (/ˈhmɵˌɡlbɨn/); also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. Hemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the respiratory organs (lungs or gills) to the rest
  • 27. [Blood] Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. When it reaches the lungs, gas exchange occurs when carbon dioxide is diffused out of the blood into the pulmonary alveoli and oxygen
  • 28. [Blood plasma] Blood plasma is the pale yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells. It makes up about 55% of the body's total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside of
  • 29. [Surface tension] Surface tension is the elastic tendency of liquids that makes them acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension causes insects (e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on the water surface.
  • 30. [Fluid dynamics] In physics, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of fluids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of
  • 31. [National Academy of Sciences] The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private non-profit organization in the United States. It was founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress that was approved by Abraham Lincoln.
  • 32. [Biology] Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of many branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern
  • 33. [Science] Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the Universe. In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to this body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied.
  • 34. [Chemistry] Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry deals with such topics as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.
  • 35. [Physics] Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη) phusikḗ (epistḗmē) "knowledge of nature", from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is one of the main analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
  • 36. [Mathematics] Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics.
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