Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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The wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine Middleton took place on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey in London. The groom, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is the eldest son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales, and second, after his father, in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II.

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The bride, Catherine "Kate" Middleton is the eldest of three children of Michael and Carole Middleton of Bucklebury, Berkshire. The Dean of Westminster, John Hall, presided at the service; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, conducted the marriage; Richard Chartres, the Bishop of London, preached the sermon; and a reading was given by the bride's brother, James. William's best man was his brother, Prince Harry, while the bride's sister, Pippa, was maid of honour. The…

…ceremony was attended by the bride's and groom's families, as well as many foreign royals, diplomats, and the couple's chosen personal guests. After the ceremony, the couple made the traditional appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace. As Prince William was not the heir apparent to the throne, the wedding was not a full state occasion and many details were left to the couple to decide, such as much of the guest list of about 1,900.
Prince William and Kate Middleton met in 2001. Their engagement on 20 October 2010 was announced on 16 November 2010. The build-up to the wedding and the occasion itself attracted much media attention, being compared in many ways with the 1981 marriage of William's parents. The occasion was a public holiday in the United Kingdom and featured many ceremonial aspects, including use of the state carriages and roles for the Foot Guards and Household Cavalry. Events were held around the Commonwealth to mark the wedding; organisations and hotels held events across Canada, over 5,000 street parties were held throughout the United Kingdom, and one million people lined the route between Westminster Abbey and Buckingham Palace. The ceremony was viewed live by tens of millions more around the world, including 72 million on the YouTube Royal Channel. In the United Kingdom, television audiences peaked at 26.3 million viewers, with a total of 36.7 million watching part of the coverage.

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      Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (Catherine Elizabeth "Kate"; née Middleton; born 9 January 1982), is the wife of…
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      Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (Catherine Elizabeth "Kate"; née Middleton; born 9 January 1982), is the wife of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. Following his father Charles, Prince of Wales, William is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, as monarch of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.…

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      Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (Catherine Elizabeth "Kate"; née Middleton; born 9 January 1982), is the wife of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. Following his father Charles, Prince of Wales, William is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, as monarch of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.
      Middleton grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, Berkshire, England. She studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced on 16 November 2010, and she attended many high-profile royal events before they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey.
      She has had a major impact upon British and American fashion which has been termed the "Kate Middleton effect", and in 2012 was selected as one of the "Most Influential People in the World" by Time magazine. On 22 July 2013, she gave birth to a boy, Prince George of Cambridge, who is now third in the line of succession to the British throne.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
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    • He is the brother of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and read the lesson at her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. from James William Middleton

    • Its current holder, since its creation on 29 April 2011, is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who was granted the title as a personal gift, by Queen Elizabeth II, on the day of his wedding to Catherine Middleton. from Baron Carrickfergus

    • She designed Catherine Middleton's wedding dress for her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in April 2011. from Sarah Burton

    • His ten-year-old son, William "Billy" Lowther-Pinkerton, and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year-old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer, were pageboys at the wedding of Prince William to Kate Middleton in April 2011. from Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton

    • Subsequent to the "Cash for access" scandal (below), Sarah was not among the 1,900 people who received an invitation to the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. from Sarah, Duchess of York

    • English designer Sarah Burton, creative director of the luxury fashion house Alexander McQueen, designed the bridal gown worn by Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (née Middleton), at her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, on 29 April 2011. from Wedding dress of Kate Middleton

    • 29 April 2011: Prince William of Wales, second grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, eldest son of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and second in line to the throne, was married to Catherine Elizabeth Middleton. from List of royal weddings

    • She was one of the bridesmaids at the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on 29 April 2011. from Lady Louise Windsor

    • On 14 February 2011, it was announced that Margarita would be a bridesmaid at the wedding of Prince William of Wales, her second cousin, and Catherine Middleton, a duty she performed on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey in London. from Margarita Armstrong-Jones

    • In 2011 Catherine Middleton and her family were based at the hotel for the days surrounding her wedding to Prince William. from Goring Hotel

    • Queen Elizabeth II and her mother, Princess Margaret, Prince Charles, Diana, Princess of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall all wear or wore wedding rings fashioned from Welsh gold, as did Kate Middleton for her marriage to Prince William. from Welsh gold

    • In April 2011, George Michael released a version of the song retitled just "You and I" solely on MP3 as a gift to Prince William and Catherine Middleton on the occasion of their wedding on 29 April 2011. from You and I (We Can Conquer the World)

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      Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG KT ADC(P) (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982), is the elder son…
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      Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG KT ADC(P) (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982), is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. He is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his father.…

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      Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG KT ADC(P) (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982), is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. He is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his father.
      Prince William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in Chile, Belize, Tanzania, and Kenya, where he has lived and holidayed several times. Prince William has also taken Kiswahili studies at universities in Kenya and Tanzania. He also completed training as an officer (eventually being commissioned as a lieutenant in the Blues and Royals Regiment), and a pilot (earning his wings by completing pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell) in the British military. He then underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a full-time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force.
      Prince William married Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. Hours prior to the event, Buckingham Palace announced that he would be created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus. Their first child, Prince George of Cambridge, was born on 22 July 2013.
      Following the end of his more than seven-and-a-half years of full-time service with the British armed forces, in early 2014, from early January to late March, Prince William attended a series of seminars, lectures, and meetings in agricultural management at the University of Cambridge.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

    • Prince William married Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. from Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

    • The groom, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is the eldest son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales, and second, after his father, in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Its current holder, since its creation on 29 April 2011, is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who was granted the title as a personal gift, by Queen Elizabeth II, on the day of his wedding to Catherine Middleton. from Baron Carrickfergus

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    • His ten-year-old son, William "Billy" Lowther-Pinkerton, and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year-old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer, were pageboys at the wedding of Prince William to Kate Middleton in April 2011. from Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton

    • Subsequent to the "Cash for access" scandal (below), Sarah was not among the 1,900 people who received an invitation to the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. from Sarah, Duchess of York

    • She was one of the bridesmaids at the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on 29 April 2011. from Lady Louise Windsor

    • She designed Catherine Middleton's wedding dress for her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in April 2011. from Sarah Burton

    • 29 April 2011: Prince William of Wales, second grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, eldest son of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and second in line to the throne, was married to Catherine Elizabeth Middleton. from List of royal weddings

    • On 14 February 2011, it was announced that Margarita would be a bridesmaid at the wedding of Prince William of Wales, her second cousin, and Catherine Middleton, a duty she performed on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey in London. from Margarita Armstrong-Jones

    • Mealor's motet, a setting of Ubi Caritas et Amor, was commissioned by Prince William for his marriage to Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey on 29 April 2011, when it was sung by the Choirs of Westminster Abbey and Her Majesty's Chapel Royal conducted by James O'Donnell. from Paul Mealor

    • Queen Elizabeth II and her mother, Princess Margaret, Prince Charles, Diana, Princess of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall all wear or wore wedding rings fashioned from Welsh gold, as did Kate Middleton for her marriage to Prince William. from Welsh gold

    • In 2011 Catherine Middleton and her family were based at the hotel for the days surrounding her wedding to Prince William. from Goring Hotel

    • He conducted the London Chamber Orchestra at the April 2011 wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge before a worldwide television audience. from Christopher Warren-Green

    • She was seen sitting in a wheelchair at Westminster Abbey as an invited guest at the wedding of the Duke of Cambridge, son of her first cousin Charles, Prince of Wales. from Princess Margarita of Baden

    • Parry's setting of "I Was Glad" was performed on 29 April 2011 at the Westminster Abbey wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (formerly Kate Middleton) as the processional music for the bride and her father and the bridal attendants. from I was glad

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      Pippa Middleton Philippa Charlotte "Pippa" Middleton (born 6 September 1983) is an English socialite, author, columnist, and the…
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      Philippa Charlotte "Pippa" Middleton (born 6 September 1983) is an English socialite, author, columnist, and the younger sister of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. Middleton began receiving media attention with her appearance at her sister's wedding to Prince William, and has continued to do so for her fashion sense and personal relationships.

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    • Middleton began receiving media attention with her appearance at her sister's wedding to Prince William, and has continued to do so for her fashion sense and personal relationships. from Pippa Middleton

    • When Richard secured an interview with Pippa Middleton's bum, which had been the hot topic of media coverage during the 2011 Royal Wedding, he was more than a little disappointed to have accidentally booked her anus, rather than her buttocks. from As It Occurs To Me

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      Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer The wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer took place on Wednesday, 29 July 1981 at St Paul's…
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      The wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer took place on Wednesday, 29 July 1981 at St Paul's Cathedral, London, United Kingdom. Their marriage was widely billed as a "fairytale wedding" and the "wedding of the century". It was watched by an estimated global TV audience of 750 million. The United Kingdom had a national holiday on that day to mark the wedding. The couple separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer

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      Prince Harry Prince Harry (Henry Charles Albert David; formally styled Prince Henry of Wales; born 15 September 1984), known as…
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      Prince Harry (Henry Charles Albert David; formally styled Prince Henry of Wales; born 15 September 1984), known as Captain Harry Wales in his military role, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. His paternal grandparents are Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He stands fourth…

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      Prince Harry (Henry Charles Albert David; formally styled Prince Henry of Wales; born 15 September 1984), known as Captain Harry Wales in his military role, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. His paternal grandparents are Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He stands fourth in line to succeed his grandmother as monarch of the Commonwealth realms, preceded by his father, elder brother Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and nephew Prince George of Cambridge.
      After an education at schools in the United Kingdom and spending parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, Harry chose a military career, undergoing officer training at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry Regiment, serving temporarily with his brother, and completed his training as a troop leader. In 2007–2008 he served for 77 days in Helmand, Afghanistan. but he was pulled out following publication of the story in an Australian magazine. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
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    • William's best man was his brother, Prince Harry, while the bride's sister, Pippa, was maid of honour. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Prince Harry wore the uniform at the wedding of his brother, Prince William, to Catherine Middleton. from Blues and Royals

    • In July 2006 The Sun carried an article on the "RAGs" ("Royals and Girlfriends"), a term introduced for young female members of the British Royal Family, as well as Kate Middleton, then girlfriend and now wife of Prince William, and Chelsy Davy, then girlfriend of Prince Harry. from WAGs

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      Baron Carrickfergus Baron Carrickfergus is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, referring to Carrickfergus in County Antrim…
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      Baron Carrickfergus is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, referring to Carrickfergus in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Its current holder, since its creation on 29 April 2011, is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who was granted the title as a personal gift, by Queen Elizabeth II, on the day of his wedding…

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      Baron Carrickfergus is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, referring to Carrickfergus in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Its current holder, since its creation on 29 April 2011, is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who was granted the title as a personal gift, by Queen Elizabeth II, on the day of his wedding to Catherine Middleton. On the same day he was also created Duke of Cambridge and Earl of Strathearn, with his bride becoming Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge as well as Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus as a result of the marriage. Traditionally, when male members of the British royal family marry, they are granted at least one peerage.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
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    • On the morning of the wedding, William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus, with Catherine becoming Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge after the wedding. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Its current holder, since its creation on 29 April 2011, is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who was granted the title as a personal gift, by Queen Elizabeth II, on the day of his wedding to Catherine Middleton. from Baron Carrickfergus

    • On 29 April 2011, the day of his wedding, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus. from Duke of Cambridge

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    • The British peerage title of Baron Carrickfergus, which had become extinct in 1883, was bestowed upon Prince William on his wedding day on 29 April 2011. from Carrickfergus

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      Clarence House Clarence House is a royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster. It is attached to…
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      Clarence House is a royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster. It is attached to St. James's Palace and shares the palace's garden. For nearly 50 years, from 1953 to 2002, it was home to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. It has since been the official residence of Charles,…

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      Clarence House is a royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster. It is attached to St. James's Palace and shares the palace's garden. For nearly 50 years, from 1953 to 2002, it was home to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. It has since been the official residence of Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. Clarence House also served as the official residence for Prince William, Duke of Cambridge from 2003 until his 2011 marriage and for Prince Harry from 2003 until 2012. It is open to visitors for approximately two months each summer, and is one of many royal buildings in London.
      The house was built between 1825 and 1827 to a design by John Nash. It was commissioned by William IV of the United Kingdom, Duke of Clarence, who became King in 1830. He lived there in preference to the nearby St. James's Palace, which he found too cramped. It passed to his sister Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom and, following her death in 1840, to Queen Victoria's mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1866, it became the home of Queen Victoria's second son and fourth child Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Edinburgh until his death in 1900. His younger brother Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Queen Victoria's third son, used the house from 1900 until his death in 1942, during which time the house suffered damage inflicted by enemy bombing. It was used by the Red Cross and the St. John Ambulance Brigade as their headquarters during the rest of World War II, before being given to Elizabeth II and her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Anne, Princess Royal was born there in 1950. After the death of King George VI, the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon moved there in 1953, though the latter eventually moved to an apartment in Kensington Palace.
      The house has four storeys, not including attics or basements, and is faced in pale stucco. It has undergone extensive remodelling and reconstruction over the years, most notably after the Second World War, such that relatively little remains of Nash's original structure. The Prince of Wales moved here in 2003 after the house underwent massive refurbishment following the death of his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. The house has been completely rewired, most of the major rooms were redecorated by the interior designer Robert Kime, and the building was given an external face-lift.
      Since 2003, the term "Clarence House" has often been used as a metonym for the Prince of Wales's private office, the term "St. James's Palace" had been previously used.
      With a reception at Clarence House Prince Charles welcomed representatives of all 14 nations for the 2013 Rugby League World Cup as well as tournament organisers.

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    • The route of the groom and his party to the ceremony went between Buckingham Palace and Westminster Abbey, by The Mall, passing Clarence House, by Horse Guards Road, Horse Guards Parade, through Horse Guards Arch, Whitehall, the south side of Parliament Square, and Broad Sanctuary. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • On 16 November 2010, Clarence House stated that Prince William was to marry Catherine Middleton "in the Spring or Summer of 2011, in London". from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • 27 April – Two days before it was due to air, ABC Television is forced to cancel their planned coverage of the Wedding of Prince William of Wales and Kate Middleton, which was to be a "satirical commentary" by The Chaser, due to restrictions imposed by Clarence House. from 2011 in Australian television

    • For example, the automobile was used at the Wedding of Prince William of Wales and Kate Middleton to carry Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall from Clarence House to Westminster Abbey. from Rolls-Royce Phantom IV

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      Paul Mealor Paul Mealor FRSA (born 25 November 1975) is a Welsh composer. A large proportion of his output is for chorus, both…
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      Paul Mealor FRSA (born 25 November 1975) is a Welsh composer. A large proportion of his output is for chorus, both a cappella and accompanied. He came to wider notice when his motet Ubi Caritas et Amor was performed at the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton in 2011. He later composed the song Wherever You Are, which became the 2011 Christmas number one in the UK Singles Chart.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Paul Mealor

    • Mealor's motet, a setting of Ubi Caritas et Amor, was commissioned by Prince William for his marriage to Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey on 29 April 2011, when it was sung by the Choirs of Westminster Abbey and Her Majesty's Chapel Royal conducted by James O'Donnell. from Paul Mealor

    • Choral compositions featured in the service were Parry's Blest Pair of Sirens during the signing of the register, Paul Mealor's Ubi Caritas et Amor as the motet and a specially commissioned anthem, "This is the day which the Lord hath made" consisting of words chosen from the Psalms, by John Rutter. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • It was set to music by composer Paul Mealor, who is noted for his composition of a choral work sung at the Royal Wedding in 2011. from Wherever You Are (Military Wives song)

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    • Welsh composer Paul Mealor, who composed "Ubi Caritas et Amor" for the wedding of the Duke and Duchess, composed a lullaby entitled "Sleep On", with lyrics by Irish composer Brendan Graham. from Prince George of Cambridge

    • 29 April - The wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton includes original music by Paul Mealor and John Rutter as well as traditional works by British composers such as Hubert Parry's setting of the anthem "I was glad" and William Walton's "Crown Imperial". from 2011 in British music

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      Princess Eugenie of York Princess Eugenie of York (/ˈjuːʒəni/ Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the second child and younger…
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      Princess Eugenie of York (/ˈjuːʒəni/ Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the second child and younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. As such she is seventh, and the second female, in the line of succession to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms. Eugenie works as a benefit auctions manager.…

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      Princess Eugenie of York (/ˈjuːʒəni/ Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is the second child and younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. As such she is seventh, and the second female, in the line of succession to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms. Eugenie works as a benefit auctions manager.
      Her first royal engagement was opening Teenage Cancer Trust's unit for young cancer patients in Leeds on 23 October 2008. She also makes appearances with the royal family at events, such as when she and her sister, Princess Beatrice, represented their father at a service of thanksgiving for her aunt, Diana, Princess of Wales, in 2007.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Princess Eugenie of York

    • Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Royal Family (the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence; the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice, and Princess Eugenie; and the Earl and Countess of Wessex). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Princess Eugenie wore three different Westwood designs for the pre-wedding dinner, the wedding ceremony and the after-wedding party at the 2011 royal wedding. from Vivienne Westwood

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      Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton Anthony James Moxon "Jamie" Lowther-Pinkerton, LVO MBE DL (born 28 September 1960) is Private Secretary to The Duke…
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      Anthony James Moxon "Jamie" Lowther-Pinkerton, LVO MBE DL (born 28 September 1960) is Private Secretary to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, in the Household of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry. He was appointed on 2 May 2005 but resigned as full-time Private Secretary with effect from…

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      Anthony James Moxon "Jamie" Lowther-Pinkerton, LVO MBE DL (born 28 September 1960) is Private Secretary to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, in the Household of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry. He was appointed on 2 May 2005 but resigned as full-time Private Secretary with effect from September 2013, remaining for a single day a week in order to mentor and advise the younger staff who shall have to succeed him. The Household shares facilities with the larger Household of The Prince of Wales. Jamie is godfather to Prince George of Cambridge.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
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    • His ten-year-old son, William "Billy" Lowther-Pinkerton, and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year-old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer, were pageboys at the wedding of Prince William to Kate Middleton in April 2011. from Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton

    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Ubi caritas Ubi caritas is a hymn of the Western Church, long used as one of the antiphons for the washing of feet on Maundy…
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      Ubi caritas is a hymn of the Western Church, long used as one of the antiphons for the washing of feet on Maundy Thursday. The Gregorian melody was composed sometime between the fourth and tenth centuries, though some scholars believe the text dates from early Christian gatherings before the formalization of the Mass. It is…

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      Ubi caritas is a hymn of the Western Church, long used as one of the antiphons for the washing of feet on Maundy Thursday. The Gregorian melody was composed sometime between the fourth and tenth centuries, though some scholars believe the text dates from early Christian gatherings before the formalization of the Mass. It is usually sung at Eucharistic Adoration and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and on Holy Thursday evening at the Mass of the Lord's Supper. The current Roman Catholic Missal (1970, 3rd typical edition 2000) reassigned it from the foot-washing mandatum to the offertory procession at the Holy Thursday Mass of the Lord's Supper, and it also is found in current Anglican and Lutheran hymnals.
      In the second typical edition (1975) of the current Roman Missal, the antiphonal response was altered to read "Ubi caritas est vera, Deus ibi est," after certain very early manuscripts. This translates as: "Where true charity is, there is God."
      The well-known Taizé chant by Jacques Berthier (1978) uses only the words of the refrain, with verses taken from I Corinthians 13:2-8. Maurice Duruflé's choral setting makes use of the Gregorian melody, using only the words of the refrain and the first stanza. Paul Halley combined phrases of the original chant melody sung in Latin with other songs in the track Ubi caritas on his 1991 album Angel on a Stone Wall.
      More recent versions of the hymn for choir have been composed by David Conte, Stephen DeCesare, and University of Aberdeen professor Paul Mealor. Mealor's setting, entitled "Ubi Caritas et Amor," was included in the ceremony at the 2011 Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Ubi caritas

    • Mealor's setting, entitled "Ubi Caritas et Amor," was included in the ceremony at the 2011 Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton. from Ubi caritas

    • Choral compositions featured in the service were Parry's Blest Pair of Sirens during the signing of the register, Paul Mealor's Ubi Caritas et Amor as the motet and a specially commissioned anthem, "This is the day which the Lord hath made" consisting of words chosen from the Psalms, by John Rutter. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Mealor's motet, a setting of Ubi Caritas et Amor, was commissioned by Prince William for his marriage to Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey on 29 April 2011, when it was sung by the Choirs of Westminster Abbey and Her Majesty's Chapel Royal conducted by James O'Donnell. from Paul Mealor

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      James William Middleton James William Middleton (born 15 April 1987) is an English businessman and member of the Middleton family…
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      James William Middleton (born 15 April 1987) is an English businessman and member of the Middleton family. Middleton runs the Cake Kit Company, which make themed cakes and cake-making kits for birthdays and other occasions. He is the brother of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and read the lesson at her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.

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    • The Dean of Westminster, John Hall, presided at the service; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, conducted the marriage; Richard Chartres, the Bishop of London, preached the sermon; and a reading was given by the bride's brother, James. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • He is the brother of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and read the lesson at her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. from James William Middleton

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      Line of succession to the British throne The line of succession to the British throne is the ordered sequence of all those people eligible to succeed to the…
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      The line of succession to the British throne is the ordered sequence of all those people eligible to succeed to the throne of the United Kingdom. The line is identical in all other Commonwealth realms. The Act of Settlement 1701 bestowed succession on the Electress Sophia of Hanover and her descendants while excluding Roman Catholics.…

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      The line of succession to the British throne is the ordered sequence of all those people eligible to succeed to the throne of the United Kingdom. The line is identical in all other Commonwealth realms. The Act of Settlement 1701 bestowed succession on the Electress Sophia of Hanover and her descendants while excluding Roman Catholics. The British government does not publish an official list of all those in line to succeed, but the work of genealogical authors and amateur researchers suggests that there are several thousand people potentially in line.
      In the 2011 Perth Agreement, the heads of government of all 16 Commonwealth realms agreed to take the appropriate steps in their respective countries to adopt absolute primogeniture, end the exclusion of people married to Roman Catholics, and limit the requirement for those in line to seek the permission of the monarch to marry. The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 in Britain and equivalent Acts in many other Commonwealth realms have been passed, but these changes will not take effect in any realm until all the realms are ready to implement the change simultaneously.
      In the United Kingdom, the line of succession is also used to select Counsellors of State (and a regent if the need arises) under the provisions of the Regency Act 1937.

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      Sarah Burton Sarah Jane Burton, OBE (née Heard, born 1974) is an English fashion designer, currently creative director of…
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      Sarah Jane Burton, OBE (née Heard, born 1974) is an English fashion designer, currently creative director of fashion brand Alexander McQueen. She designed Catherine Middleton's wedding dress for her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in April 2011. In 2012, she was named in Time 100, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world according to Time.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Sarah Burton

    • The bridal dress, designed by the London-based designer Sarah Burton at Alexander McQueen, was made of satin and featured an overlaid lace bodice and appliqued skirt. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • On 29 April 2011, it was revealed that Burton had designed the wedding dress of Catherine Middleton for her marriage that day to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. from Sarah Burton

    • She designed Catherine Middleton's wedding dress for her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in April 2011. from Sarah Burton

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    • English designer Sarah Burton, creative director of the luxury fashion house Alexander McQueen, designed the bridal gown worn by Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (née Middleton), at her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, on 29 April 2011. from Wedding dress of Kate Middleton

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      Republic (political organisation) Republic is a British republican pressure group advocating the replacement of the United Kingdom's monarchy with an…
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      Republic is a British republican pressure group advocating the replacement of the United Kingdom's monarchy with an elected head of state.
      It is a member organisation of Common Cause and the Alliance of European Republican Movements and is currently the only organisation solely campaigning for a republican constitution for Britain.…

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      Republic is a British republican pressure group advocating the replacement of the United Kingdom's monarchy with an elected head of state.
      It is a member organisation of Common Cause and the Alliance of European Republican Movements and is currently the only organisation solely campaigning for a republican constitution for Britain.
      Republic states that its mission is: "To mount a successful campaign to persuade a majority of voters to support the replacement of hereditary monarchy with a democratic republican constitution."
      Arthur Haynes is current Executive Chair and Graham Smith is the current Chief Executive Officer of Republic.

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      Princess Beatrice of York Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is the first child and elder daughter of…
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      Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is the first child and elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is sixth, and the first female, in the line of succession to the thrones of the sixteen Commonwealth realms. Beatrice works at Sony Pictures Television.…

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      Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is the first child and elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is sixth, and the first female, in the line of succession to the thrones of the sixteen Commonwealth realms. Beatrice works at Sony Pictures Television.
      While studying at Goldsmiths, University of London, Princess Beatrice was not expected to undertake regular royal duties, although she did make appearances at some events; for instance, she and her sister, Princess Eugenie, represented their father at a service of thanksgiving for her aunt, Diana, Princess of Wales, in 2007.

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    • Beatrice was present at the wedding of her cousin Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly in 2008, and the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton. from Princess Beatrice of York

    • Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Royal Family (the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence; the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice, and Princess Eugenie; and the Earl and Countess of Wessex). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Thirty six hats designed by Treacy were worn at the Royal wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton on 29 April 2011, including the fascinator worn by Princess Beatrice of York that was controversial, and to some evoked a toilet seat. from Philip Treacy

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      Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall GCVO CSM (Camilla Rosemary; née Shand, previously Parker Bowles; born 17 July 1947)…
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      Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall GCVO CSM (Camilla Rosemary; née Shand, previously Parker Bowles; born 17 July 1947), is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Instead of using the title "Princess of Wales", she is styled through her husband's secondary designations as…

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      Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall GCVO CSM (Camilla Rosemary; née Shand, previously Parker Bowles; born 17 July 1947), is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Instead of using the title "Princess of Wales", she is styled through her husband's secondary designations as "Duchess of Cornwall" and, in Scotland, "Duchess of Rothesay". These were adopted because of the strong association of the primary title with his first wife, Diana, Princess of Wales.
      Camilla is the eldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife, The Honourable Rosalind Cubitt, the daughter of British aristocrat the 3rd Baron Ashcombe. She was raised in East Sussex, a county in South East England, and was educated in England, Switzerland and France. Subsequently, she worked for different firms based in central London, most notably the decorating firm Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler. In 1973, Camilla married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, with whom she has two children and five grandchildren. They divorced in 1995, shortly after his retirement from the army.
      For many years, Camilla and the Prince of Wales had a controversial relationship, which was highly publicised in the media and attracted worldwide scrutiny. In 2005, it culminated in a civil marriage at Windsor Guildhall, which was followed by a televised Anglican blessing by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.
      As the Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla assists the Prince of Wales on his official duties. She is also the patron and president of numerous charities and organisations, and has taken action and raised awareness in areas including osteoporosis, rape and sexual abuse, and literacy, for which latterly she has been praised.

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    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Royal Family (the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence; the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice, and Princess Eugenie; and the Earl and Countess of Wessex). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Queen Elizabeth II and her mother, Princess Margaret, Prince Charles, Diana, Princess of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall all wear or wore wedding rings fashioned from Welsh gold, as did Kate Middleton for her marriage to Prince William. from Welsh gold

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    • In 2011, Wartski made the wedding ring from Welsh gold that Prince William gave to Kate Middleton, having in 2005 made the wedding rings for Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. from Nicholas Snowman

    • The Australian State Coach was used to convey HRH The Prince of Wales, HRH The Duchess of Cornwall and Mr & Mrs Middleton from Westminster Abbey to Buckingham Palace following the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge on 29 April 2011. from Australian State Coach

    • For example, the automobile was used at the Wedding of Prince William of Wales and Kate Middleton to carry Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall from Clarence House to Westminster Abbey. from Rolls-Royce Phantom IV

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      2011 royal tour of Canada The 2011 royal tour of Canada by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, took place…
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      The 2011 royal tour of Canada by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, took place between 30 June and 8 July 2011. The tour saw the newlywed couple visit all of Canada's regions. It was the first such tour undertaken by the Duke and Duchess since their marriage two months prior,…

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      The 2011 royal tour of Canada by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, took place between 30 June and 8 July 2011. The tour saw the newlywed couple visit all of Canada's regions. It was the first such tour undertaken by the Duke and Duchess since their marriage two months prior, and the first duties the couple carried out as members of the Canadian Royal Family. The tour was followed by more than 1,300 accredited media. It included the first use of the Duke of Cambridge's royal standard for Canada, the first Canadian citizenship ceremony attended by royalty, Canada Day ceremonies attended by approximately 800,000 people, and many smaller events across the country.

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      Duke of Cambridge Duke of Cambridge is a title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) which has been conferred upon members…
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      Duke of Cambridge is a title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) which has been conferred upon members of the British royal family several times. It was first used as a designation for Charles Stuart (1660–1661), the eldest son of James, Duke of York (later James II), though he was never formally created…

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      Duke of Cambridge is a title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) which has been conferred upon members of the British royal family several times. It was first used as a designation for Charles Stuart (1660–1661), the eldest son of James, Duke of York (later James II), though he was never formally created Duke of Cambridge. The title was most recently bestowed upon Prince William on 29 April 2011. Upon their marriage on the same day, his wife Catherine (Kate) became The Duchess of Cambridge.

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    • On 29 April 2011, the day of his wedding, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus. from Duke of Cambridge

    • On the morning of the wedding, William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus, with Catherine becoming Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge after the wedding. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Their most visible presence in recent years was when two sisters, one in Reeboks, sat in the sanctuary of Westminster Abbey during the wedding of TRH The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on 29 April 2012. from Community of the Sisters of the Church

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      Welsh gold Welsh gold is highly prized because of its origin and scarcity, and occurs naturally in two distinct areas of…
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      Welsh gold is highly prized because of its origin and scarcity, and occurs naturally in two distinct areas of Wales. One area is in North Wales in a band stretching from Barmouth, past Dolgellau and up towards Snowdonia. This was mined at several mines, the largest of which were the Gwynfynydd Gold Mine, near Ganllwyd,…

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      Welsh gold is highly prized because of its origin and scarcity, and occurs naturally in two distinct areas of Wales. One area is in North Wales in a band stretching from Barmouth, past Dolgellau and up towards Snowdonia. This was mined at several mines, the largest of which were the Gwynfynydd Gold Mine, near Ganllwyd, and the Clogau Gold Mine near Bontddu. In South Wales, it is found in a small area in the valley of the River Cothi at Dolaucothi where it is known to have been mined by the Romans. Jewellery such as torcs were worn by early Welsh princes but it is not possible to confirm that this was Welsh gold since there were strong trade links between Wales and Ireland at the time and Ireland was a major producer of gold artefacts. Irish gold is especially well known from the Irish Bronze Age as jewellery, torcs, amulets, rings, bracelets and so on. It was presumably collected by panning from alluvial placers in river beds or near old rivers.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
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    • Queen Elizabeth II and her mother, Princess Margaret, Prince Charles, Diana, Princess of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall all wear or wore wedding rings fashioned from Welsh gold, as did Kate Middleton for her marriage to Prince William. from Welsh gold

    • The wedding ring of Catherine is made from Welsh gold. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      St Salvator's Hall St Salvator's Hall (affectionately known as Sallies) is a student Hall of residence at the University of St…
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      St Salvator's Hall (affectionately known as Sallies) is a student Hall of residence at the University of St Andrews. It lies close to the quadrangle of the United College, St Andrews and St Salvator's Chapel, a foundation which was endowed by King James II of Scotland. The Hall is in an area between North Street…

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      St Salvator's Hall (affectionately known as Sallies) is a student Hall of residence at the University of St Andrews. It lies close to the quadrangle of the United College, St Andrews and St Salvator's Chapel, a foundation which was endowed by King James II of Scotland. The Hall is in an area between North Street and The Scores. Regarded as one of the University's most prestigious residences, it boasts numerous self-contained traditions. Architecturally, it has been described as a "rambling Gothic dormitory".

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      Sarah, Duchess of York Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret; née Ferguson; born 15 October 1959) is the former wife of Prince Andrew…
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      Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret; née Ferguson; born 15 October 1959) is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Popularly referred to as "Fergie", she is a charity patron, spokesperson, writer, film producer and television personality. She is the…

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      Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret; née Ferguson; born 15 October 1959) is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Popularly referred to as "Fergie", she is a charity patron, spokesperson, writer, film producer and television personality. She is the younger daughter of Major Ronald Ferguson and Susan Barrantes (née Wright). Her children, Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York, are respectively sixth and seventh in line to succeed their grandmother as monarch of 16 independent Commonwealth realms.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To Sarah, Duchess of York

    • Subsequent to the "Cash for access" scandal (below), Sarah was not among the 1,900 people who received an invitation to the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. from Sarah, Duchess of York

    • The abbey, which has a usual seating capacity of 2000, has been the venue for most royal weddings in the last century, including those of Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) to the Duke of Edinburgh in 1947, Princess Margaret to Antony Armstrong-Jones (later the Earl of Snowdon) in 1960, Princess Anne (later the Princess Royal) to Mark Phillips in 1973, and the Duke of York to Sarah Ferguson in 1986. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • He noted that the number of visitors to Britain was down significantly in July 1981, when Prince Charles and Diana were married, from the same period in other years, and also July 1986, when Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson were married, was down from July 1985. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Blaenwern Blaenwern is a Welsh Christian hymn tune composed by William Penfro Rowlands (1860–1937), during the Welsh revival…
    1. 23

      Blaenwern is a Welsh Christian hymn tune composed by William Penfro Rowlands (1860–1937), during the Welsh revival of 1904–1905. 'Blaenwern' was first published in Henry H. Jones' Cân a Moliant (1915).…

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      Blaenwern is a Welsh Christian hymn tune composed by William Penfro Rowlands (1860–1937), during the Welsh revival of 1904–1905. 'Blaenwern' was first published in Henry H. Jones' Cân a Moliant (1915).
      The meter of the tune is 8.7.8.7.D (alternating lines of eight and seven syllables) in F major or G major key, or occasionally A flat major.
      The tune is named after Blaenwern Farm near Tufton, Pembrokeshire where Rowlands sent his son from Porth to stay with friends of the family to convalesce as it was thought the fresh air would assist his recovery, and he named the tune in honour of them.
      In the United Kingdom BLAENWERN has come to be used as the prevalent setting for the hymn Love Divine, All Loves Excelling, but also in other settings including the Welsh Deued Dyddiau O Bob Cymysg by William Williams Pantycelyn, and Calon Lân by Daniel James. It also became familiar to a wider audience through the Billy Graham crusades when it was used as a setting to What a Friend We Have in Jesus.
      As a setting for Love Divine it is a popular choice at English weddings and was voted as one of Britain's ten favourite hymns in October 2005. Love Divine, All Loves Excelling, set to Blaenwern, was selected as one of three hymns sung at the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, the others being Guide Me, O Thou Great Redeemer, set to Cwm Rhondda, and Jerusalem.
      The tune was also used for Love Divine, All Loves Excelling at the funeral of former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher in 2013.
      Because of the prevalence of tune BEECHER with "Love Divine" in American hymnals, they have been prone to introduce BLAENWERN with other lyrics of matching metrical pattern, such as "It Is Good to Sing Thy Praises" from a versification of Psalm 92 in John McNaugher's Psalter (1912).

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      Muslims Against Crusades Muslims Against Crusades (abbreviated MAC) is a banned Islamist group in the United Kingdom. The group was founded…
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      Muslims Against Crusades (abbreviated MAC) is a banned Islamist group in the United Kingdom. The group was founded in 2010 by Abu Assadullah. Professional boxer Anthony Small and Islam4UK spokesman Anjem Choudary are associated with the group. The group strongly opposes what it describes as "man-made laws" in Britain, and views man-made laws as the biggest threat to the progression of mankind.[citation needed]

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      Muslims Against Crusades (abbreviated MAC) is a banned Islamist group in the United Kingdom. The group was founded in 2010 by Abu Assadullah. Professional boxer Anthony Small and Islam4UK spokesman Anjem Choudary are associated with the group. The group strongly opposes what it describes as "man-made laws" in Britain, and views man-made laws as the biggest threat to the progression of mankind.[citation needed]
      Muslims Against Crusades maintain that Muslims are not "obliged to obey the law of the land in whatever country they reside". In 2011 the group proposed that Muslims should set up independent emirates in select cities in the UK, operating under sharia (Islamic law) entirely outside British law. The group suggested the towns of Bradford, Dewsbury, and Tower Hamlets in the East End of London as the possible first test beds for these entities. The group has often clashed with the English Defence League. Home Secretary Theresa May banned the group from midnight on 11 November 2011, making membership or support of the group a criminal offence.
      The group has been denounced by the Muslim Council of Britain. Many former MAC activists are currently active in Islamist groups known as 'Millatu Ibrahim' and the 'Tawheed Movement.'

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    • The group Muslims Against Crusades announced plans for a "forceful demonstration" at the wedding, but later announced the abandonment of their planned protest. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • They applied to the police to stage a demonstration in London to disrupt the royal wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton on 29 April 2011, but this was not allowed. from Muslims Against Crusades

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      William Penfro Rowlands William Penfro Rowlands (19 April 1860 – 22 October 1937) was a Welsh schoolteacher and composer.Rowlands was born…
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      William Penfro Rowlands (19 April 1860 – 22 October 1937) was a Welsh schoolteacher and composer.
      Rowlands was born at Llys y Frân, Maenclochog, Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro in the Welsh language, hence his middle name). Probably his best-known composition is the hymn-tune "Blaenwern", composed in 1905. As well as being a church musician, Rowlands also taught in several schools. He was also the conductor of the Morriston United Choral Society.…

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      William Penfro Rowlands (19 April 1860 – 22 October 1937) was a Welsh schoolteacher and composer.
      Rowlands was born at Llys y Frân, Maenclochog, Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro in the Welsh language, hence his middle name). Probably his best-known composition is the hymn-tune "Blaenwern", composed in 1905. As well as being a church musician, Rowlands also taught in several schools. He was also the conductor of the Morriston United Choral Society.
      He died in Swansea and is buried in Morriston Cemetery, Swansea, plot B11. A memorial stone to the composer was unveiled in March 1998, close to his birthplace.

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      Lupton family The Lupton family achieved prominence in the Northern English city of Leeds in the Georgian and Victorian eras…
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      The Lupton family achieved prominence in the Northern English city of Leeds in the Georgian and Victorian eras. They were successful woollen cloth merchants and manufacturers who flourished during the Industrial Revolution and traded throughout northern Europe, the Americas and Australia. As Members of Parliament and local politicians, the Lupton family contributed to the political…

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      The Lupton family achieved prominence in the Northern English city of Leeds in the Georgian and Victorian eras. They were successful woollen cloth merchants and manufacturers who flourished during the Industrial Revolution and traded throughout northern Europe, the Americas and Australia. As Members of Parliament and local politicians, the Lupton family contributed to the political life of both the UK and to the civic life of Leeds. Several members were particularly philanthropic and were Mayor and later Lord Mayor of Leeds. Many were progressive in their views, and were associated with the Unitarian church in England and elsewhere. The Lupton family are paternal ancestors of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.

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      Tiggy Legge-Bourke Alexandra Shân "Tiggy" Legge-Bourke MVO (born 1 April 1965) was nanny, later companion, to Prince William, Duke of…
    1. 27

      Alexandra Shân "Tiggy" Legge-Bourke MVO (born 1 April 1965) was nanny, later companion, to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and his brother Prince Harry, and a personal assistant to The Prince of Wales, between 1993 and 1999. Since her marriage she has been known as Tiggy Pettifer.

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    Connects To Tiggy Legge-Bourke

    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • His ten-year-old son, William "Billy" Lowther-Pinkerton, and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year-old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer, were pageboys at the wedding of Prince William to Kate Middleton in April 2011. from Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton

    1. 28
      Clogau Gold Mine The Clogau (pronounced “clog-eye”) Gold Mine (sometimes known as the Clogau St David's Mine) is a gold mine…
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      The Clogau (pronounced “clog-eye”) Gold Mine (sometimes known as the Clogau St David's Mine) is a gold mine situated in Bontddu, near Barmouth, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales.

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    Connects To Clogau Gold Mine

    • Interest in Clogau gold was intensified following the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton who followed Royal tradition dating back to 1923 by using Welsh gold in Middleton's wedding band. from Clogau Gold Mine

    • It was mined from the Clogau Gold Mine in the mountains of North Wales. The Clogau Gold Mine had its heyday in the late nineteenth century, was abandoned in the early twentieth century, was reopened in 1992 and finally closed in 1998. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO  ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960), is the second…
    1. 29

      Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO  ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960), is the second son and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to succeed his mother; he is currently fifth in line.…

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      Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO  ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960), is the second son and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to succeed his mother; he is currently fifth in line.
      He also holds the actual rank of commander and the honorary rank of rear admiral in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active duty helicopter pilot and later instructor in helicopter flight. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy and casualty evacuation.
      In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; the couple's marriage, subsequent separation and eventual divorce in 1996 attracted a high level of media coverage. As well as carrying out various royal duties, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011.

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    Connects To Prince Andrew, Duke of York

    • The three were planning a mock execution of Prince Andrew with a home-made guillotine in central London to coincide with the wedding. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • This is in line with the practice of granting titles upon marriage to royal princes who did not already have one (for example, Prince Andrew was created Duke of York when he married in 1986). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • The abbey, which has a usual seating capacity of 2000, has been the venue for most royal weddings in the last century, including those of Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) to the Duke of Edinburgh in 1947, Princess Margaret to Antony Armstrong-Jones (later the Earl of Snowdon) in 1960, Princess Anne (later the Princess Royal) to Mark Phillips in 1973, and the Duke of York to Sarah Ferguson in 1986. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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    • Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Royal Family (the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence; the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice, and Princess Eugenie; and the Earl and Countess of Wessex). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • He noted that the number of visitors to Britain was down significantly in July 1981, when Prince Charles and Diana were married, from the same period in other years, and also July 1986, when Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson were married, was down from July 1985. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • The three were planning a mock execution of the Duke of York in Central London the following day, to coincide with the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton. from Chris Knight (anthropologist)

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      Margarita Armstrong-Jones Margarita Elizabeth Rose Alleyne Armstrong-Jones (born 14 May 2002) is the only daughter of Viscount and…
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      Margarita Elizabeth Rose Alleyne Armstrong-Jones (born 14 May 2002) is the only daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Linley. She is the only granddaughter of Princess Margaret and the Earl of Snowdon.

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    Connects To Margarita Armstrong-Jones

    • On 14 February 2011, it was announced that Margarita would be a bridesmaid at the wedding of Prince William of Wales, her second cousin, and Catherine Middleton, a duty she performed on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey in London. from Margarita Armstrong-Jones

    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Public holidays in the United Kingdom Public holidays in the United Kingdom are the public holidays observed in some or all of the countries of the…
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      Public holidays in the United Kingdom are the public holidays observed in some or all of the countries of the United Kingdom. Most businesses and non-essential services are closed on public holidays, although an increasing number of retail businesses (especially the larger ones) do open on some of the public holidays.…

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      Public holidays in the United Kingdom are the public holidays observed in some or all of the countries of the United Kingdom. Most businesses and non-essential services are closed on public holidays, although an increasing number of retail businesses (especially the larger ones) do open on some of the public holidays.
      Like Denmark, the United Kingdom has no national day holiday marked and/or celebrated. The lack of a formal founding date and no constitution may be the reason for the lack of a national day.
      Although there is no statutory right for workers to take paid leave on public holidays, where paid leave is given (either because the business is closed or for other reasons), the public holiday can count towards the minimum statutory holiday entitlement. Likewise, if you are required to work on a public holiday, there is no statutory right to an enhanced pay rate nor to a day off in lieu (alternative day off), although many employers do give either or both. Any rights in this respect depend on the person's contract of employment. The statutory minimum holidays are currently 5.6 weeks a year (including any bank holidays or public holidays that are taken).
      In Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland, public holidays are commonly referred to as bank holidays, and the two terms are often used interchangeably, although strictly and legally there is a difference. A government website describes the difference as follows:
      Bank holidays are holidays when banks and many other businesses are closed for the day. Public holidays are holidays which have been observed through custom and practice.
      The latter are often referred to as "Common law holidays".
      Bank holidays may be declared in two ways:
      The distinction between public and bank holidays is discussed in more detail in the article on Bank holidays.
      In the rest of this article, the term "public holiday" is used to include all types of public holidays mentioned above.
      When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the holiday is normally postponed to the next following working weekday, which is then referred to as a 'substitute public holiday' or the date on which the public holiday is "observed". This is normally the next following Monday, but if that day is itself already a public holiday or a substitute public holiday, then it may be the following Tuesday. Most commonly this happens when Christmas Day falls on a Saturday or Sunday, in which case the following Monday will be a substitute public holiday for Christmas Day, and the Tuesday will be a substitute holiday for Boxing Day; whereas if Christmas Day falls on a Friday, then it will be observed on the Friday, but Boxing Day (falling on the Saturday) will be observed on the following Monday. In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' on years when they coincide with weekends (which will already be a day off for many people). (Note that, unlike the USA, where public holidays falling on a Saturday are sometimes observed on the preceding Friday, British public holidays are always moved forwards, not backwards.)
      Increasingly, there are calls for public holidays on the patron saints' days in England, Scotland and Wales (Northern Ireland already has St Patrick's Day as a holiday). An online petition sent to the Prime Minister received 11,000 signatures for a public holiday in Wales on St. David's Day; the Scottish Parliament has passed a bill creating a public holiday on St. Andrew's Day although it must be taken in lieu of another public holiday; campaigners in England are calling for a bank holiday on St. George's Day; and in Cornwall, there are calls for a public holiday on St. Piran's Day.

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    • In 2011, there was a special holiday on Friday, 29 April, to celebrate the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, thereby making the previous week a four-day week because of Good Friday, that week a three-day week because of Easter Monday and the following week a four-day week because of May Day. from Public holidays in the United Kingdom

    • The occasion was a public holiday in the United Kingdom and featured many ceremonial aspects, including use of the state carriages and roles for the Foot Guards and Household Cavalry. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Alexander McQueen (brand) Alexander McQueen is a British luxury fashion house founded by designer Lee Alexander McQueen in 1992. Its current…
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      Alexander McQueen is a British luxury fashion house founded by designer Lee Alexander McQueen in 1992. Its current creative director is Sarah Burton.

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    • The bridal dress, designed by the London-based designer Sarah Burton at Alexander McQueen, was made of satin and featured an overlaid lace bodice and appliqued skirt. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • English designer Sarah Burton, creative director of the luxury fashion house Alexander McQueen, designed the bridal gown worn by Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (née Middleton), at her wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, on 29 April 2011. from Wedding dress of Kate Middleton

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      Love Divine, All Loves Excelling "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling" is a Christian hymn by Charles Wesley with a theme of "Christian perfection."…
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      "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling" is a Christian hymn by Charles Wesley with a theme of "Christian perfection." Judging by general repute, it is among Wesley's finest: "justly famous and beloved, better known than almost any other hymn of Charles Wesley." Judging by its distribution, it is also among his most successful: by the end…

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      "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling" is a Christian hymn by Charles Wesley with a theme of "Christian perfection." Judging by general repute, it is among Wesley's finest: "justly famous and beloved, better known than almost any other hymn of Charles Wesley." Judging by its distribution, it is also among his most successful: by the end of the 19th century, it is found in 15 of the 17 hymn books consulted by the authors of Lyric Studies. . On a larger scale, it is found almost universally in general collections of the past century, including not only Methodist and Anglican hymn books and commercial and ecumenical collections, but also hymnals associated with Reformed, Presbyterian, Baptist, Brethren, Lutheran, Congregationalist, Pentecostal, and Roman Catholic traditions, among others including the Churches of Christ. Specifically, it appears in 1,328 of the North American hymnals indexed by the online Dictionary of North American Hymnology, comparable to Newton's "Amazing Grace" (1,036), Wesley's "O for a Thousand Tongues" (1,249), and Watts' "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross" (1,483), though still well short of Toplady's "Rock of Ages" (2,139) or Wesley's own "Jesu, Lover of my Soul" (2,164).
      It first appeared in Wesley's Hymns for those that Seek, and those that Have Redemption (Bristol, 1747), apparently intended as a Christianization of the song "Fairest Isle" sung by Venus in Act 5 of John Dryden and Henry Purcell's semi-opera King Arthur (1691), on which Wesley's first stanza is modelled.
      Wesley wrote:
      Dryden had written:
      In Dryden's song, the goddess of love chooses the Isle of Britain over her native Cyprus; in Wesley's hymn divine love itself is asked to choose the human heart as its residence over its native heaven.
      The last lines of the hymn are likewise adapted from existing material. Wesley's final lines,
      evidently derive from (and improve on) Addison's opening lines from his "Hymn on Gratitude to the Deity"
      It has been suggested that Wesley's words were written specifically for the tune by Purcell to which Dryden's song had been set, and to which the hymn's words themselves were later set (under the tune name "Westminster") by John Wesley in his Sacred Melody, the "annex" to his Select Hymns with tunes annext (1761 et seq.).
      Like many hymns, Love Divine is loosely Trinitarian in organization: Christ is invoked in the first stanza as the expression of divine love; the Holy Spirit in the second stanza as the agent of sanctification; the Father in the third stanza as the source of life; and the Trinity (presumably) in the final stanza as the joint Creator of the New Creation. Like many hymns, too, this one is a tissue of Biblical quotations, including "Alpha and Omega" (st. 2) as an epithet of Christ, from Revelation 21:6; the casting of crowns before God's throne (st. 4), from Revelation 4:10; the promise that Christians shall be "changed from glory into glory" (st. 2 and 4), from 2 Corinthians 3:18; as well as other, more general allusions.

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      Wedding of Prince Albert, Duke of York, and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon The wedding of Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (later Queen…
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      The wedding of Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) took place on 26 April 1923 at Westminster Abbey.

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    Connects To Wedding of Prince Albert, Duke of York, and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon

    1. 35
      Royal Mews A Royal Mews is a mews (i.e. combined stables, carriage house and in recent times also the garage) of the British…
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      A Royal Mews is a mews (i.e. combined stables, carriage house and in recent times also the garage) of the British Royal Family. In London the Royal Mews has occupied two main sites, formerly at Charing Cross, and since the 1820s at Buckingham Palace.

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      David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley David Albert Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley (born 3 November 1961), known professionally as David Linley…
    1. 36

      David Albert Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley (born 3 November 1961), known professionally as David Linley, is an English furniture maker and chairman of the auction house Christie's UK. The son of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, and Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, he is a grandson of King George VI, and is 17th in the line of succession to the British throne and the thrones of the 15 other Commonwealth realms and heir-apparent to the Earldom of Snowdon.

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    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Goring Hotel The Goring Hotel /ˈɡɔərɪŋ/ is a luxury 5-star hotel in London, England. It is located near Buckingham Palace.
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      The Goring Hotel /ˈɡɔərɪŋ/ is a luxury 5-star hotel in London, England. It is located near Buckingham Palace.

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      Christopher Warren-Green Christopher Warren-Green (born 30 July 1955) is a British violinist and conductor. He was born in Gloucestershire…
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      Christopher Warren-Green (born 30 July 1955) is a British violinist and conductor. He was born in Gloucestershire and attended Westminster City School, where he was a chorister, and later the Royal Academy of Music.…

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      Christopher Warren-Green (born 30 July 1955) is a British violinist and conductor. He was born in Gloucestershire and attended Westminster City School, where he was a chorister, and later the Royal Academy of Music.
      Warren-Green has served as concertmaster of the Philharmonia Orchestra. Warren-Green has held the position of Music Director of the London Chamber Orchestra (LCO) since 1988. In 2005, Vladimir Ashkenazy invited Warren-Green and the LCO to Hong Kong as the resident orchestra for the Hong Kong International Piano Competition. On the personal invitation of the Prince of Wales, Warren-Green was invited to arrange the music and conduct the Philharmonia Orchestra for the Service of Dedication and Prayer celebrating the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall. To mark the occasion of the Queen's 80th birthday at Kew Palace, he conducted a private concert for the entire Royal family.
      In 1998, Warren-Green became Principal Guest Conductor of the Nordic Chamber Orchestra, taking over as Chief Conductor from 2001 until 2005. From 1998 to 2001, he was Chief Conductor of the Joenkoeping Sinfonietta. He was appointed Principal Conductor of the Camerata Resident Orchestra of the Megaron Athens in October 2004. In May 2009, the Charlotte Symphony Orchestra named Warren-Green its 11th music director, effective with the 2010-2011 season. In August 2012, the orchestra announced the extension of Warren-Green's contract through the 2015-2016 season.
      Warren-Green has recorded for BMG, EMI, Philips, Virgin, Warner Classics., Chandos and Deutsche Grammophon. In July 2007, he conducted the premiere of Nigel Hess's Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, commissioned by the Prince of Wales in memory of his grandmother, with soloist Lang Lang. He conducted the London Chamber Orchestra at the April 2011 wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge before a worldwide television audience.
      In August 2008 Warren-Green appeared in the reality TV talent show-themed television series, Maestro on BBC Two, as a mentor to Jane Asher, one of the students.
      Warren-Green is married to Rosemary Furniss, a violinist, and artistic director and concertmaster of the LCO. They have three children and three stepchildren.

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      I was glad I was glad (Latin incipit, Laetatus sum) is an introit commonly used in the Anglican church, and also used as an…
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      I was glad (Latin incipit, Laetatus sum) is an introit commonly used in the Anglican church, and also used as an anthem traditionally sung at the coronation of the British monarch. Its most famous setting was written in 1902 by Sir Hubert Parry, which sets only verses 1–3,6,7.…

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      I was glad (Latin incipit, Laetatus sum) is an introit commonly used in the Anglican church, and also used as an anthem traditionally sung at the coronation of the British monarch. Its most famous setting was written in 1902 by Sir Hubert Parry, which sets only verses 1–3,6,7.
      The text of the anthem consists of verses from Psalm 122, from the psalter found in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer:
      Most of the content of the psalm is a prayer for the peace and prosperity of Jerusalem, and its use in the coronation service clearly draws a parallel between Jerusalem and the United Kingdom, as William Blake had in his poem Jerusalem (which Parry set to music later, in 1916).

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    • Parry's setting of "I Was Glad" was performed on 29 April 2011 at the Westminster Abbey wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (formerly Kate Middleton) as the processional music for the bride and her father and the bridal attendants. from I was glad

    • The bride processed down the aisle to the anthem "I Was Glad", written by Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry, from Psalm 122. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • 29 April - The wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton includes original music by Paul Mealor and John Rutter as well as traditional works by British composers such as Hubert Parry's setting of the anthem "I was glad" and William Walton's "Crown Imperial". from 2011 in British music

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      Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh The wedding of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh took place on 20 November 1947 at Westminster…
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      The wedding of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh took place on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey in London.

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    Connects To Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh

    • The abbey, which has a usual seating capacity of 2000, has been the venue for most royal weddings in the last century, including those of Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) to the Duke of Edinburgh in 1947, Princess Margaret to Antony Armstrong-Jones (later the Earl of Snowdon) in 1960, Princess Anne (later the Princess Royal) to Mark Phillips in 1973, and the Duke of York to Sarah Ferguson in 1986. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

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      Wartski Wartski is a family firm of antique dealers specialising in Russian works of art; particularly those by Carl…
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      Wartski is a family firm of antique dealers specialising in Russian works of art; particularly those by Carl Fabergé, fine jewellery and silver. Founded in North Wales in 1865, the business is now located at 14 Grafton Street in Mayfair, London. The company holds royal appointments as Jewellers to the Queen and the Prince of Wales

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    • Wartski made the ring for the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine Middleton, Duchess of Cambridge which took place on 29 April 2011. from Wartski

    • The ring was created by the royal warrant holder Wartski, a company with roots in Bangor, Gwynedd, north Wales. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • In 2011, Wartski made the wedding ring from Welsh gold that Prince William gave to Kate Middleton, having in 2005 made the wedding rings for Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. from Nicholas Snowman

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      Groom's cake A groom's cake is a wedding tradition originating in Victorian England, but observed more often in the modern age…
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      A groom's cake is a wedding tradition originating in Victorian England, but observed more often in the modern age in the American South. While a wedding cake may often be decorated in white and light in texture or color, the groom's cake can take a variety of forms, many incorporating chocolate or fruit. Cheesecake sometimes…

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      A groom's cake is a wedding tradition originating in Victorian England, but observed more often in the modern age in the American South. While a wedding cake may often be decorated in white and light in texture or color, the groom's cake can take a variety of forms, many incorporating chocolate or fruit. Cheesecake sometimes serves as a groom's cake. The groom's cake is often served at a table separate from the wedding cake at a wedding reception or wedding breakfast, though it may be served as a dessert for a rehearsal dinner.

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    • Additionally, McVitie's created a groom's cake from chocolate biscuit for the reception at Buckingham Palace. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • In March 2011, it was announced that Prince William had chosen a groom's cake for his wedding reception, made from 1,700 McVitie's Rich Tea biscuits and 17 kg of chocolate. from McVitie's

    1. 43
      Robert Quinney Robert Quinney (born 1976; Nottingham, England) is Director of Music at Peterborough Cathedral, Director-elect of…
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      Robert Quinney (born 1976; Nottingham, England) is Director of Music at Peterborough Cathedral, Director-elect of the choir of New College, Oxford, and was until recently Sub-Organist at Westminster Abbey. In addition to his work at the Cathedral, he has a busy freelance career as soloist, ensemble player, and writer on music. Since October 2009 he has been Director of Oundle for Organists, whose residential courses provide inspiring tuition for young organists.…

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      Robert Quinney (born 1976; Nottingham, England) is Director of Music at Peterborough Cathedral, Director-elect of the choir of New College, Oxford, and was until recently Sub-Organist at Westminster Abbey. In addition to his work at the Cathedral, he has a busy freelance career as soloist, ensemble player, and writer on music. Since October 2009 he has been Director of Oundle for Organists, whose residential courses provide inspiring tuition for young organists.
      In 2002 Quinney was named Royal College of Organists Performer of the Year.

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      Starry Eyed (Ellie Goulding song) "Starry Eyed" is a song by English recording artist Ellie Goulding, released as the second single from her debut…
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      "Starry Eyed" is a song by English recording artist Ellie Goulding, released as the second single from her debut album, Lights (2010). It was written by Goulding and Jonny Lattimer, and produced by Starsmith. Goulding made her debut US television performance on Jimmy Kimmel Live! on 7 April 2011 performing "Starry Eyed".

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      Earl of Strathearn The Mormaer of Strathearn or Earl of Strathearn was the provincial ruler of Strathearn in medieval Scotland. Of…
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      The Mormaer of Strathearn or Earl of Strathearn was the provincial ruler of Strathearn in medieval Scotland. Of unknown origin, the mormaers are attested for the first time in a document perhaps dating to 1115. The first known mormaer, Maol Íosa I, is mentioned by Ailred of Rievaulx as leading native Scots in the company…

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      The Mormaer of Strathearn or Earl of Strathearn was the provincial ruler of Strathearn in medieval Scotland. Of unknown origin, the mormaers are attested for the first time in a document perhaps dating to 1115. The first known mormaer, Maol Íosa I, is mentioned by Ailred of Rievaulx as leading native Scots in the company of King David I at the Battle of the Standard, 1138. The last ruler of the Strathearn line was Maol Íosa V, also Earl of Orkney, who chose the wrong side in the Balliol-Bruce conflict which followed the death of King Robert I of Scotland. In 1344 possession was given to Maurice de Moravia, a royal favourite who had a vague claim to the lordship.
      Strathearn has since been used as a peerage title for James Stewart, an illegitimate son of King James V of Scotland, who was created Lord Abernethy and Strathearn and Earl of Moray in 1562. In 1631, William Graham, 7th Earl of Menteith was confirmed in this dignity as heir of line of Euphemia Stewart, Countess of Strathearn (d. 1415), but was forced to settle for the less prestigious title of the Earl of Airth in 1633.
      It has also been granted to members of the Royal Family in the titles of Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (created 1766, extinct 1790), Duke of Kent and Strathearn (created 1799, extinct 1820) and Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (created 1874, extinct 1943).
      On 29 April 2011, the title was recreated when Queen Elizabeth II conferred the title on Prince William of Wales. As a result, on marriage his wife Catherine became Countess of Strathearn.

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    • On the morning of the wedding, William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus, with Catherine becoming Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge after the wedding. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • On 29 April 2011, the day of his wedding, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus. from Duke of Cambridge

    1. 46
      Serena Armstrong-Jones, Viscountess Linley Serena Alleyne Armstrong-Jones, Viscountess Linley (née Stanhope; born 1 March 1970) is an Anglo-Irish aristocrat…
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      Serena Alleyne Armstrong-Jones, Viscountess Linley (née Stanhope; born 1 March 1970) is an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, and by marriage, a niece-in-law of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

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    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    1. 47
      Sophie, Countess of Wessex Sophie, Countess of Wessex, GCVO DStJ (Sophie Helen; née Rhys-Jones; born 20 January 1965) is the wife of Prince…
    1. 47

      Sophie, Countess of Wessex, GCVO DStJ (Sophie Helen; née Rhys-Jones; born 20 January 1965) is the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Married in 1999, she worked in public relations until 2002 and now assists her husband in his royal duties.…

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      Sophie, Countess of Wessex, GCVO DStJ (Sophie Helen; née Rhys-Jones; born 20 January 1965) is the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Married in 1999, she worked in public relations until 2002 and now assists her husband in his royal duties. The Earl and Countess have two children: James, Viscount Severn, and Lady Louise Windsor, who are respectively ninth and tenth in the line of succession.

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    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Royal Family (the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence; the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice, and Princess Eugenie; and the Earl and Countess of Wessex). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Sophie, Countess of Wessex wore Bruce Oldfield to the 2011 Royal Wedding. from Bruce Oldfield

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      Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO  ADC(P) (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is the third son…
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      Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex KG GCVO  ADC(P) (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is the third son and fourth and youngest child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was third in line to succeed his mother; he is now eighth in the line of succession.

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    • There were four bridesmaids and two pageboys: Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of the Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple's friend, Hugh van Cutsem; Eliza Lopes, the three-year old granddaughter of the Duchess of Cornwall; William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William's private secretary, Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton; and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry's former nanny, "Tiggy" Pettifer. from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    • Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Royal Family (the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence; the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice, and Princess Eugenie; and the Earl and Countess of Wessex). from Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton

    1. 49
      2011 London anti-cuts protest The 2011 anti-cuts protest in London, also known as the March for the Alternative, was a demonstration held in…
    1. 49

      The 2011 anti-cuts protest in London, also known as the March for the Alternative, was a demonstration held in central London on 26 March 2011. Organised by the Trades Union Congress (TUC), it was a protest march against planned public spending cuts by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government that was formed in May 2010.…

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      The 2011 anti-cuts protest in London, also known as the March for the Alternative, was a demonstration held in central London on 26 March 2011. Organised by the Trades Union Congress (TUC), it was a protest march against planned public spending cuts by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government that was formed in May 2010.
      Various sources estimated that the demonstration was attended by between 250,000 and 500,000 people. It was described as the largest protest in the United Kingdom since the 15 February 2003 anti-Iraq War protest and the largest union-organised rally in London since the Second World War.
      Demonstrators marched from the Thames Embankment, via the Houses of Parliament, to Hyde Park where a rally took place with speakers including the TUC general secretary Brendan Barber and leader of the opposition Ed Miliband, who addressed the assembled crowds.
      Several independent protesting groups, some of whom had moved from the main march, assembled further north in the heart of London's West End, where shops and banks were vandalised and some individuals clashed with police. Further clashes were reported later in Trafalgar Square. 201 people were arrested, and 66 were injured, including 31 police officers.

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      RAF Search and Rescue Force The RAF Search and Rescue Force (SARF or SAR Force) is the Royal Air Force organisation which provides…
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      The RAF Search and Rescue Force (SARF or SAR Force) is the Royal Air Force organisation which provides around-the-clock aeronautical search and rescue cover in the United Kingdom, Cyprus and the Falkland Islands.

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    How Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton
    Connects To RAF Search and Rescue Force

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