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Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all. Public art is significant within the art world, amongst curators, commissioning bodies and practitioners of public art, to whom it signifies a working practice of site specificity, community involvement and collaboration. Public art may include any art which is exhibited in a public space including publicly accessible buildings, but often it is not that simple. Rather, the relationship between the content and audience, what the art is saying and to whom, is just as important if not more important than its physical location.

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      Site-specific art Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into…
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      Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into account while planning and creating the artwork. The actual term was promoted and refined by Californian artist Robert Irwin, but it was actually first used in the mid-1970s by young sculptors, such as Patricia Johanson, Dennis Oppenheim,…

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      Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into account while planning and creating the artwork. The actual term was promoted and refined by Californian artist Robert Irwin, but it was actually first used in the mid-1970s by young sculptors, such as Patricia Johanson, Dennis Oppenheim, and Athena Tacha, who had started executing public commissions for large urban sites (see Peter Frank, “Site Sculpture”, Art News, Oct. 1975). Site specific environmental art was first described as a movement by architectural critic Catherine Howett (“New Directions in Environmental Art,” Landscape Architecture, Jan. 1977) and art critic Lucy Lippard (“Art Outdoors, In and Out of the Public Domain,” Studio International, March–April 1977).

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    • On the other side, the notion of “site-specific” is revisited in the 1990s in the light of the dissemination of curated public art programs attached to biennials and other cultural events. from Public art

    • Public art is significant within the art world, amongst curators, commissioning bodies and practitioners of public art, to whom it signifies a working practice of site specificity, community involvement and collaboration. from Public art

    • Alice Adams (born 1930) is an American artist known for her sculpture and site-specific land art in the 1970s and for her major public art projects in transit systems, airports, university campuses and other urban sites throughout the United States since 1986. from Alice Adams (artist)

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      Percent for Art The term percent for art refers to a program, often a city ordinance, where a fee, usually some percentage of the…
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      The term percent for art refers to a program, often a city ordinance, where a fee, usually some percentage of the project cost, is placed on large scale development projects in order to fund and install public art. The details of such programs vary from area-to-area. Similar programs, such as "art in public places", attempt…

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      The term percent for art refers to a program, often a city ordinance, where a fee, usually some percentage of the project cost, is placed on large scale development projects in order to fund and install public art. The details of such programs vary from area-to-area. Similar programs, such as "art in public places", attempt to achieve similar goals by requiring that public art be part of a project, yet they often allow developers to pay in-lieu fees to a public art fund as an alternative.
      Percent-for-art programs are used to fund public art where private or specialized funding of public art is unavailable.

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    • Some governments actively encourage the creation of public art, for example, budgeting for artworks in new buildings by implementing a Percent for Art policy. from Public art

    • The Public Art Archive™ is an online cataloging effort whose aim is to document public art collections in the United States, primarily those held by state and municipal Percent for Art and Art in Public Places programs, as well as outdoor sculpture and public art held by U.S. federal, private, non-profit, foundation, campus, transit, and other such related entities. from Public art

    • The New Deal program Art-in-Architecture (A-i-A) developed percent for art programs, a structure for funding public art still utilized today. from Public art

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    • Percent-for-art programs are used to fund public art where private or specialized funding of public art is unavailable. from Percent for Art

    • Similar programs, such as "art in public places", attempt to achieve similar goals by requiring that public art be part of a project, yet they often allow developers to pay in-lieu fees to a public art fund as an alternative. from Percent for Art

    • The term percent for art refers to a program, often a city ordinance, where a fee, usually some percentage of the project cost, is placed on large scale development projects in order to fund and install public art. from Percent for Art

    • The company said the works, which were part of a Percent for Art scheme to promote public art, were the work of Chinese sculptor Zhou Hong. from Igor Olenicoff

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      Save Outdoor Sculpture! Save Outdoor Sculpture! (SOS!) is a community-based effort to identify, document, and conserve outdoor sculpture in…
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      Save Outdoor Sculpture! (SOS!) is a community-based effort to identify, document, and conserve outdoor sculpture in the United States. By fostering awareness and appreciation, SOS! aims to advocate proper care of a nationwide public resource.…

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      Save Outdoor Sculpture! (SOS!) is a community-based effort to identify, document, and conserve outdoor sculpture in the United States. By fostering awareness and appreciation, SOS! aims to advocate proper care of a nationwide public resource.
      The SOS! project may be viewed as a precursor of community-generated or “crowd-sourced” social media-driven initiatives.

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    Connects To Save Outdoor Sculpture!

    • From 1992-1994 Heritage Preservation funded the survey project Save Outdoor Sculpture!, whose acronym SOS! references the international Morse code distress signal, "SOS". from Public art

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      Environmental sculpture Environmental sculpture is sculpture that creates or alters the environment for the viewer, as opposed to…
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      Environmental sculpture is sculpture that creates or alters the environment for the viewer, as opposed to presenting itself figurally or monumentally before the viewer. A frequent trait of larger environmental sculptures is that one can actually enter or pass through the sculpture and be partially or completely surrounded by it. Also, in the same spirit, it may be designed to generate shadows or reflections, or to color the light in the surrounding area.

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    How Public art
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    • Athena Tacha (born in Larissa, Greece, 1936), is best known in the fields of environmental public sculpture and conceptual art, but has also worked extensively in photography, film and artists’ books. from Athena Tacha

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      Public Art Fund The Public Art Fund is a non-profit organization founded in 1977 by Doris Freedman (died 1981), a Director of New…
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      The Public Art Fund is a non-profit organization founded in 1977 by Doris Freedman (died 1981), a Director of New York City's Department of Cultural Affairs, and the President of the Municipal Art Society. They have organized highly visible artists' projects, new commissions, installations and exhibitions in public spaces throughout New York City. The Public…

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      The Public Art Fund is a non-profit organization founded in 1977 by Doris Freedman (died 1981), a Director of New York City's Department of Cultural Affairs, and the President of the Municipal Art Society. They have organized highly visible artists' projects, new commissions, installations and exhibitions in public spaces throughout New York City. The Public Art Fund was born from the merger of two pre-existing organizations, CityWalls (founded in 1966) and the Public Arts Council (founded in 1971). In 2005, it was among 406 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, which was made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. [1] [2]

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    • This change of perspective is also present by the reinforcement of urban cultural policies in these same years, for example the New York based Public Art Fund (1977) and several urban or regional Percent for Art programs in the United States and Europe. from Public art

    • New York City Waterfalls is a public art project by artist Olafur Eliasson, in collaboration with the Public Art Fund, consisting of four man-made waterfalls placed around New York City along the East River. from New York City Waterfalls

    • In "Spanish Harlem" an uptown area of New York City,a public vote, initiated by Doris Freedman, director of the Municipal Arts Society, (later changed to Public Art Fund) in which artists were commissioned to make models of their proposed work, which were then displayed in local schools, banks & on an "Art Bus", allowed citizens, including children, to vote on the public art to be chosen for their neighborhood. from Terry Fugate-Wilcox

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      Land art Land art, earthworks (coined by Robert Smithson), or Earth art is an art movement in which landscape and the work…
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      Land art, earthworks (coined by Robert Smithson), or Earth art is an art movement in which landscape and the work of art are inextricably linked. It is also an art form that is created in nature, using natural materials such as soil, rock (bed rock, boulders, stones), organic media (logs, branches, leaves), and water with…

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      Land art, earthworks (coined by Robert Smithson), or Earth art is an art movement in which landscape and the work of art are inextricably linked. It is also an art form that is created in nature, using natural materials such as soil, rock (bed rock, boulders, stones), organic media (logs, branches, leaves), and water with introduced materials such as concrete, metal, asphalt, or mineral pigments. Sculptures are not placed in the landscape, rather, the landscape is the means of their creation. Often earth moving equipment is involved. The works frequently exist in the open, located well away from civilization, left to change and erode under natural conditions. Many of the first works, created in the deserts of Nevada, New Mexico, Utah or Arizona were ephemeral in nature and now only exist as video recordings or photographic documents. They also pioneered a category of art called site-specific sculpture, designed for a particular outdoor location.

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    • In most respects 'Land Art' has become part of mainstream public art and in many cases the term "Land Art" is misused to label any kind of art in nature even though conceptually not related to the avant-garde works by the pioneers of Land Art. from Land art

    • The individual, Romantic retreat element implied in the conceptual structure of Land art and its will to reconnect the urban environment with nature, is turned into a political claim in projects such as Wheatfield – A Confrontation (1982), by American artist Agnes Denes, as well as in Joseph Beuys’ 7000 Oaks (1982). from Public art

    • Land artists choose to situate large-scale, process-oriented interventions in remote landscape situations; the Spoleto Festival (1962) creates an open-air museum of sculptures in the medieval city of Spoleto, and the German city of Münster starts, in 1977, a curated event bringing art in public urban places every 10 years (Skulptur Projekte Münster). from Public art

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    • Nancy Holt (April 5, 1938 – February 8, 2014) was an American artist most known for her public sculpture, installation art and land art. from Nancy Holt

    • Alice Adams (born 1930) is an American artist known for her sculpture and site-specific land art in the 1970s and for her major public art projects in transit systems, airports, university campuses and other urban sites throughout the United States since 1986. from Alice Adams (artist)

    • Most of his sculptures and Land art projects were made as public art. from Lucien den Arend

    • During last decade and also currently his works and projects relates to Public Art, Earth art (Land Art), social sculpture defined by Joseph Beuys who was a member of Fluxus movement. from Adam Kalinowski

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      Sustainable art The expression sustainable art has been promoted recently as an art term that can be distinguished from…
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      The expression sustainable art has been promoted recently as an art term that can be distinguished from environmental art that is in harmony with the key principles of sustainability, which include ecology, social justice, non-violence and grassroots democracy.…

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      The expression sustainable art has been promoted recently as an art term that can be distinguished from environmental art that is in harmony with the key principles of sustainability, which include ecology, social justice, non-violence and grassroots democracy.
      Sustainable art may also be understood as art that is produced with consideration for the wider impact of the work and its reception in relationship to its environments (social, economic, biophysical, historical and cultural).

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    How Public art
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    • Sustainable art is a challenge to respond the needs of an opening space in public. from Public art

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      Infecting the City Held in Cape Town, South Africa Infecting the City is a public arts festival that is committed to making art freely…
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      Held in Cape Town, South Africa Infecting the City is a public arts festival that is committed to making art freely available to everyone. The festival hosts a range of different types of site-specific art, art intervention and performance art in the central part of the City. Each year the festival takes on a social…

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      Held in Cape Town, South Africa Infecting the City is a public arts festival that is committed to making art freely available to everyone. The festival hosts a range of different types of site-specific art, art intervention and performance art in the central part of the City. Each year the festival takes on a social issue or theme which the participating artists respond to. In 2011, the Festival worked with Cape Town's artistic and cultural community to present public art under the theme of Treasure. This theme was intended to celebrate the artistic traditions and contemporary practices of the diverse communities within South Africa and to explore Cape Town's "Afropolitan" reality.
      Infecting the city is presented by the Africa Centre, a non-for-profit organisation that creates a platform for exploring contemporary Pan-African artistic practice as a tool for social change. Infecting the City is an integral part of the city, challenging audiences to notice hidden spaces and perspectives of Cape Town and providing an arts and cultural voice in Africa, for Africans.

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    • In Cape Town, South Africa, Africa Centre presents the Infecting the City Public Art Festival. from Public art

    • Held in Cape Town, South Africa Infecting the City is a public arts festival that is committed to making art freely available to everyone. from Infecting the City

    • Infecting the City is a public art festival held annually in the central business district of Cape Town. from Africa Centre

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      Street art Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context…
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      Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues. The term gained popularity during the graffiti art boom of the early 1980s and continues to be applied to subsequent incarnations. Stencil graffiti, wheatpasted poster art or sticker art, and street installation or sculpture are common forms of modern street art. Video projection, yarn bombing and Lock On sculpture became popularized at the turn of the 21st century.…

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      Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues. The term gained popularity during the graffiti art boom of the early 1980s and continues to be applied to subsequent incarnations. Stencil graffiti, wheatpasted poster art or sticker art, and street installation or sculpture are common forms of modern street art. Video projection, yarn bombing and Lock On sculpture became popularized at the turn of the 21st century.
      The terms "urban art", "guerrilla art", "post-graffiti" and "neo-graffiti" are also sometimes used when referring to artwork created in these contexts. Traditional spray-painted graffiti artwork itself is often included in this category, excluding territorial graffiti or pure vandalism.
      Artists who choose the streets as their gallery are often doing so from a preference to communicate directly with the public at large, free from perceived confines of the formal art world. Street artists sometimes present socially relevant content infused with esthetic value, to attract attention to a cause or as a form of "art provocation".
      Street artists often travel between countries to spread their designs. Some artists have gained cult-followings, media and art world attention, and have gone on to work commercially in the styles which made their work known on the streets.

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    • Examples include situations in which the line between graffiti and "guerilla" public art is blurred, such as the art of John Fekner placed on billboards, the early works of Keith Haring (executed without permission in advertising poster holders in the New York City Subway) and the current work of Banksy. from Public art

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      Installation art Installation art describes an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed…
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      Installation art describes an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called land art; however, the boundaries between these terms overlap.

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    How Public art
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    • They collaborated on various conceptual projects, ranging from painting and performance to installation, public sculpture, photography, music, and poetry. from Komar and Melamid

    • La Joute ("the joust") (1969) is a public sculptural installation by Quebec artist Jean-Paul Riopelle, a member of the Automatiste movement. from La Joute

    • Nancy Holt (April 5, 1938 – February 8, 2014) was an American artist most known for her public sculpture, installation art and land art. from Nancy Holt

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    • Collins usually creates sculptures that can be categorized as public art, large outdoor sculpture, installation art and Liturgical art. from Temple VI

    • She works in a variety of media, but mostly video, installation art, artists' books, and public art. from Cheri Gaulke

    • Dorrien specializes in public art installations, creating large-sized abstract sculptures in granite that are often inspired by ancient history, architecture, archaeological ruins, and human figures. from Carlos Dorrien

    • The group, composed of Carlos Almaraz, Frank E. Romero, Gilbert "Magu" Luján, and de la Rocha, was responsible for numerous murals and public art installations in the Los Angeles area. from Roberto de la Rocha

    • She credits her involvement in helping her move towards public art as she created installations that would appeal to the young crowd. from Natalie Jeremijenko

    • Donald Lipski (born May 21, 1947) is an American sculptor best known for his installation work and large-scale public works. from Donald Lipski

    • Hamden was host to the Ghost Parking Lot, a notable roadside public art installation located in front of the Hamden Plaza shopping center in Hamden's commercial district on Dixwell Avenue. from Hamden, Connecticut

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      Apollo Pavilion The Apollo Pavilion, also known as the Pasmore Pavilion, is a piece of public art in the new town of Peterlee in…
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      The Apollo Pavilion, also known as the Pasmore Pavilion, is a piece of public art in the new town of Peterlee in County Durham in the North East of England, designed by British artist and architect Victor Pasmore.…

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      The Apollo Pavilion, also known as the Pasmore Pavilion, is a piece of public art in the new town of Peterlee in County Durham in the North East of England, designed by British artist and architect Victor Pasmore.
      In December 2011 English Heritage gave the pavilion a Grade-II* listing.

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    • Victor Pasmore's Apollo Pavilion in the English New Town of Peterlee has been a focus for local politicians and other groups complaining about the governance of the town and allocation of resources. from Public art

    • The Apollo Pavilion, also known as the Pasmore Pavilion, is a piece of public art in the new town of Peterlee in County Durham in the North East of England, designed by British artist and architect Victor Pasmore. from Apollo Pavilion

    • Pasmore's choices in this area proved controversial; the centerpiece of the town design became an abstract public art structure of his design, the Apollo Pavilion. from Victor Pasmore

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      Seth Wulsin Seth Wulsin (born in Spring Valley, NY) is an artist working primarily with space and light through large-scale…
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      Seth Wulsin (born in Spring Valley, NY) is an artist working primarily with space and light through large-scale, site-specific, ephemeral sculpture and drawing.…

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      Seth Wulsin (born in Spring Valley, NY) is an artist working primarily with space and light through large-scale, site-specific, ephemeral sculpture and drawing.
      Wulsin is best known for the work, 16 Tons, Prison Demolition, a massive ongoing, public piece in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He is a member of the art collectives Artistas en Latino America and Wubacawi and founder of Cajitas (2009).
      Wulsin currently lives and works in Brooklyn, NY.

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    • 16 Tons, Seth Wulsin's vast 2006 work includes the demolition of the raw material it works with, namely a former jail, Caseros Prison, located in the middle of Buenos Aires. from Public art

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      Christo and Jeanne-Claude Christo (born Hristo Vladimirov Yavachev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев, June 13, 1935) and Jeanne-Claude (born…
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      Christo (born Hristo Vladimirov Yavachev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев, June 13, 1935) and Jeanne-Claude (born Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon, June 13, 1935 – November 18, 2009) were a married couple who created environmental works of art. Christo Yavachev is Bulgarian born and Jeanne-Claude was born in Morocco. Their works include the wrapping of the Reichstag in…

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      Christo (born Hristo Vladimirov Yavachev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев, June 13, 1935) and Jeanne-Claude (born Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon, June 13, 1935 – November 18, 2009) were a married couple who created environmental works of art. Christo Yavachev is Bulgarian born and Jeanne-Claude was born in Morocco. Their works include the wrapping of the Reichstag in Berlin and the Pont-Neuf bridge in Paris, the 24-mile (39 km)-long artwork called Running Fence in Sonoma and Marin counties in California, and The Gates in New York City's Central Park.
      Christo and Jeanne-Claude were born on the same date, Christo in Gabrovo, Bulgaria, and Jeanne-Claude in Morocco. They first met in Paris in October 1958. Their works were credited to just "Christo" until 1994, when the outdoor works and large indoor installations were retroactively credited to "Christo and Jeanne-Claude". They flew in separate planes: in case one crashed, the other could continue their work.
      Jeanne-Claude died, aged 74, on November 18, 2009, from complications of a brain aneurysm.
      Although their work is visually impressive and often controversial as a result of its scale, the artists have repeatedly denied that their projects contain any deeper meaning than their immediate aesthetic impact. The purpose of their art, they contend, is simply to create works of art or joy and beauty and to create new ways of seeing familiar landscapes. Art critic David Bourdon has described Christo's wrappings as a "revelation through concealment." To his critics Christo replies, "I am an artist, and I have to have courage ... Do you know that I don't have any artworks that exist? They all go away when they're finished. Only the preparatory drawings, and collages are left, giving my works an almost legendary character. I think it takes much greater courage to create things to be gone than to create things that will remain."

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    • Amongst the works of the last thirty years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by Christo, Robert Smithson, Andy Goldsworthy, James Turrell and Antony Gormley, whose artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment. from Public art

    • At $15.5 million, it is the most expensive public arts project since Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation of The Gates in Central Park. from New York City Waterfalls

    • At $15.5 million, it was the most expensive public arts project since Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation of The Gates in Central Park. from Olafur Eliasson

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      Big Art Mob The Big Art Mob is a website founded in 2006 and re-launched in 2012 that provides a platform and toolset for…
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      The Big Art Mob is a website founded in 2006 and re-launched in 2012 that provides a platform and toolset for documenting and mapping public art. It is dedicated to showcasing and celebrating all forms of public art including ephemeral works such as street art, performance art and graffiti. The crucial aim of the site…

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      The Big Art Mob is a website founded in 2006 and re-launched in 2012 that provides a platform and toolset for documenting and mapping public art. It is dedicated to showcasing and celebrating all forms of public art including ephemeral works such as street art, performance art and graffiti. The crucial aim of the site is to create the first canonical record of all the public art in the world. The site also offers a new working definition of public art. Initially created to support the Channel 4 documentary series The Big Art Project, the site was spun off as a standalone site owned and administered by Art Public.
      The site was conceived and created by Adam Gee and Alfie Dennen.

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    • The Big Art Mob in its new incarnation shifted focus from mapping the United Kingdom's Public Art to mapping the whole world's and gained instant widespread global press. from Public art

    • On 31 August 2012 Alfie Dennen re-launched the Big Art Mob project and was given control of the project from previous administrators Channel 4. from Public art

    • At the homepage of the Big Art Mob website are images, videos, and descriptive comments documenting public art in all its forms, and other news, as well as navigational tools for searching the site's voluminous archive (approximately 13,000 artworks mapped as of 04.09 2012). from Big Art Mob

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    • The Big Art Mob is a website founded in 2006 and re-launched in 2012 that provides a platform and toolset for documenting and mapping public art. from Big Art Mob

    • The Big Art Mob in its new incarnation shifted focus from mapping the United Kingdom's Public Art to mapping the whole world's. from Alfie Dennen

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      Plop art Plop art (or Plonk art) is a pejorative slang term for public art (usually large, abstract, modernist or…
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      Plop art (or Plonk art) is a pejorative slang term for public art (usually large, abstract, modernist or contemporary sculpture) made for government or corporate plazas, spaces in front of office buildings, skyscraper atriums, parks, and other public venues. The term connotes that the work is unattractive or inappropriate to its surroundings - that is,…

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      Plop art (or Plonk art) is a pejorative slang term for public art (usually large, abstract, modernist or contemporary sculpture) made for government or corporate plazas, spaces in front of office buildings, skyscraper atriums, parks, and other public venues. The term connotes that the work is unattractive or inappropriate to its surroundings - that is, it has been thoughtlessly "plopped" where it lies. Plop art is a play on the term pop art. According to artnet.com, plop art was coined by architect James Wines in 1969. The derisive term was eagerly taken up both by progressives (like Wines) and by conservatives. Progressives were critical of the failure of much public art to take an environmentally-oriented approach to the relationship between public art and architecture. Conservatives liked the term because it suggested something ugly, formless, and meaningless, produced without any real skill or care. The very word "plop" suggested something falling wetly and heavily in the manner of excrement — extruded, as it were, from the fundament of the art world, and often at public expense.
      "Right now architecture and sculpture are calling to each other, and calling for response that's intelligent, not for more ghastly lumps of sculpture . . . which have no sense of scale and are just plonked down in public places." Anthony Caro (1924-), English sculptor. From an interview with Tim Marlowe for Tate: The Art Magazine, 1994.
      More recently, defenders of public art funding have tried to reclaim the term. The book Plop: Recent Projects of the Public Art Fund, celebrates the success of the Public Art Fund in financing many publicly placed works of art over the last few decades, many of which are now beloved, though they may at first have been derided as "ploppings". Several currents or movements in contemporary art, such as environmental sculpture, site-specific art, and land art, counterpose themselves philosophically to "plop art," as well as to traditional public monumental sculpture.

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    • Plop art (or Plonk art) is a pejorative slang term for public art (usually large, abstract, modernist or contemporary sculpture) made for government or corporate plazas, spaces in front of office buildings, skyscraper atriums, parks, and other public venues. from Plop art

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      Lock On (street art) Lock On is a style of street art, where artists create installations by attaching sculptures to public furniture…
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      Lock On is a style of street art, where artists create installations by attaching sculptures to public furniture using lengths of chain and old bike locks. The sculptures are often arranged to give the impression that they are interacting with surroundings. The installations themselves are referred to as "a Lock On" (singular) or "Lock Ons" (plural).

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    • Increasingly most aspects of the built environment are seen as legitimate candidates for consideration as, or location for, public art, including, street furniture, street lighting, Lock On sculptures and graffiti. from Public art

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      Michael Heizer Michael Heizer is a contemporary landscaper specializing in large-scale sculptures and earth art (or land art). He…
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      Michael Heizer is a contemporary landscaper specializing in large-scale sculptures and earth art (or land art). He currently lives and works in Hiko, Nevada.

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    • In the group show When Attitudes Become Form, the exhibition situation is expanded in the public space by Michael Heizer and Daniel Buren’s interventions; architectural scale emerges in the work of artists such as Donald Judd as well as in Gordon Matta-Clark’s temporary interventions in dismissed urban buildings. from Public art

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      Mural A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A…
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      A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.…

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      A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.
      Some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are then attached to the wall (e.g., with marouflage). Whether these works can be accurately called "murals" is a subject of some controversy in the art world, but the technique has been in common use since the late 19th century.

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    • SPARC hosts exhibitions, sponsors workshops and murals, and lobbies for the preservation of Los Angeles-area murals and other works of public art. from Social and Public Art Resource Center

    • Albright, a Queens College graduate and city native who has been commissioned to do several public artworks in the city, is primarily a painter and muralist who focuses on everyday members of the community. from Woodlawn (IRT Jerome Avenue Line)

    • Stephen (Steve) Field RBSA (born 3 May 1954 in Saltash, Cornwall) is an English sculptor, muralist and mosaicist, active mainly in the West Midlands, particularly the Black Country, where a number of his works are on public display. from Steve Field (sculptor)

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    • Spurlock visited the campus and commissioned local illustrator, Michelle Morse, to produce a mural that served as a public work for the school, while also promoting the film's advertising context. from Coral Springs High School

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      Agnes Denes Agnes Denes (Dénes Ágnes; Budapest, 1931) is a Hungarian-born American conceptual artist based in New York. She is…
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      Agnes Denes (Dénes Ágnes; Budapest, 1931) is a Hungarian-born American conceptual artist based in New York. She is known for works in a wide range of media - from poetry and philosophy writings, to complex hand and computer rendered diagrams (which she terms Visual Philosophy), sculpture, and international environmental installations, such as Wheatfield -- A Confrontation (1982), a two-acre wheatfield in downtown Manhattan.

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    Connects To Agnes Denes

    • The individual, Romantic retreat element implied in the conceptual structure of Land art and its will to reconnect the urban environment with nature, is turned into a political claim in projects such as Wheatfield – A Confrontation (1982), by American artist Agnes Denes, as well as in Joseph Beuys’ 7000 Oaks (1982). from Public art

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      Claes Oldenburg Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is an American sculptor, best known for his public art installations…
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      Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is an American sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. Another theme in his work is soft sculpture versions of everyday objects. Many of his works were made in collaboration with his wife, Coosje van Bruggen, who died in 2009 after 32 years of marriage. Oldenburg lives and works in New York.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Claes Oldenburg

    • On the other, through pointing at the incongruities of existing public sculptures and memorials, such as in Krzysztof Wodiczko’s video projections onto urban monuments, or in the building of counter-monuments (1980s) and Claes Oldenburg’s Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks (1969-1974), a giant hybrid pop object – a lipstick – which base is a caterpillar track. from Public art

    • Artists making public art range from the greatest masters such as Michelangelo, Pablo Picasso, and Joan Miró, to those who specialize in public art such as Claes Oldenburg and Pierre Granche, to anonymous artists who make surreptitious interventions. from Public art

    • Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is an American sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. from Claes Oldenburg

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    • Scattered around the Tower's vicinity are public art pieces, most of which are works by international artists such as Claes Oldenburg and his wife Coosje Van Bruggen, Michael Craig-Martin and Lee U-Fan. from Tokyo Big Sight

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      Antony Gormley Sir Antony Mark David Gormley, OBE (born 30 August 1950) is a British sculptor. His best known works include the…
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      Sir Antony Mark David Gormley, OBE (born 30 August 1950) is a British sculptor. His best known works include the Angel of the North, a public sculpture in Gateshead in the North of England, commissioned in 1994 and erected in February 1998, Another Place on Crosby Beach near Liverpool, and Event Horizon, a multi-part site installation which premiered in London in 2007, around Madison Square in New York City, in 2010 and in São Paulo, in 2012.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Antony Gormley

    • His best known works include the Angel of the North, a public sculpture in Gateshead in the North of England, commissioned in 1994 and erected in February 1998, Another Place on Crosby Beach near Liverpool, and Event Horizon, a multi-part site installation which premiered in London in 2007, around Madison Square in New York City, in 2010 and in São Paulo, in 2012. from Antony Gormley

    • Amongst the works of the last thirty years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by Christo, Robert Smithson, Andy Goldsworthy, James Turrell and Antony Gormley, whose artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment. from Public art

    • The gallery was known for bringing the work of significant international artists to Derry, notably an installation of sculptures by Antony Gormley on the city walls, one of the artist's first Public Art projects, as well as promoting Irish artists, such as Willie Doherty and Victor Sloan abroad. from Declan McGonagle

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    • Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi (a bronze statue based on William Blake's study of Isaac Newton) and Antony Gormley. from King's Cross Central

    • Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi (a bronze statue based on William Blake's study of Isaac Newton) and Antony Gormley. from British Library

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      Africa Centre The Africa Centre, in Cape Town, South Africa, is structured as a not-for-profit organisation whose purpose is to…
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      The Africa Centre, in Cape Town, South Africa, is structured as a not-for-profit organisation whose purpose is to provide a platform for Pan-African arts and cultural practice to function as a catalyst for social change. All the projects it conducts, facilitates or supports have some social intention. These projects are supported by a variety of Pan-African artists.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Africa Centre

    • In Cape Town, South Africa, Africa Centre presents the Infecting the City Public Art Festival. from Public art

    • Infecting the City is a public art festival held annually in the central business district of Cape Town. from Africa Centre

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      Alfie Dennen Alfie Dennen is a British creative technologist, Artist, and founder of several prominent websites based around…
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      Alfie Dennen is a British creative technologist, Artist, and founder of several prominent websites based around mobile blogging.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Alfie Dennen

    • On 31 August 2012 Alfie Dennen re-launched the Big Art Mob project and was given control of the project from previous administrators Channel 4. from Public art

    • The Big Art Mob in its new incarnation shifted focus from mapping the United Kingdom's Public Art to mapping the whole world's. from Alfie Dennen

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      Richard Serra Richard Serra (born November 2, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with…
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      Richard Serra (born November 2, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large-scale assemblies of sheet metal. Serra was involved in the Process Art Movement. He lives and works in Tribeca, New York, and on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.

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    Connects To Richard Serra

    • Richard Serra's minimalist piece Tilted Arc was removed from a New York City plaza in 1989 after office workers complained their work routine was disrupted by the piece. from Public art

    • On the one hand, situations of conflict caused by non-mediated artistic interventions such as Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, raise the question of the involvement of the audience at an earlier stage. from Public art

    • The trial instructed by judge Edward D. Re in 1985 to re-locate American artist Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, a monumental intervention commissioned for Manhattan's Federal Plaza by the “Art-in-Architecture” Program, also contributes to the debate about public art site-specificity. from Public art

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      Sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions and one of the plastic arts. Durable…
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      Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions and one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led to an…

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      Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions and one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led to an almost complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast.
      Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, and often represents the majority of the surviving works (other than pottery) from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished almost entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, and this has been lost.
      Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an expression of religion or politics. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as well as many in South America and Africa.
      The Western tradition of sculpture began in Ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith. The revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, and the presentation of found objects as finished art works.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Sculpture

    • Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, and the use of very large sculpture as public art, especially to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. from Sculpture

    • Sculpture is an important form of public art. from Sculpture

    • In a similar example, sculptor Gar Waterman created a giant arch measuring 35x37x3 feet which straddled a city street in New Haven, Connecticut. from Public art

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    • Perceval is a public sculpture by British artist Sarah Lucas, a member of the Young British Artists movement. from Perceval (Public Art)

    • Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is an American sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. from Claes Oldenburg

    • Dream is a sculpture and a piece of public art by Jaume Plensa in Sutton, St Helens, Merseyside. from Dream (sculpture)

    • Alice Adams (born 1930) is an American artist known for her sculpture and site-specific land art in the 1970s and for her major public art projects in transit systems, airports, university campuses and other urban sites throughout the United States since 1986. from Alice Adams (artist)

    • La Joute ("the joust") (1969) is a public sculptural installation by Quebec artist Jean-Paul Riopelle, a member of the Automatiste movement. from La Joute

    • Rachel Joynt (born 1966 in County Kerry) is an Irish sculptor who has created some prominent Irish public art. from Rachel Joynt

    • Collins usually creates sculptures that can be categorized as public art, large outdoor sculpture, installation art and Liturgical art. from Temple VI

    • Liz Magor works in sculpture, installation, public art and photography. from Liz Magor

    • John Raimondi (born May, 1948) is an American sculptor best known as a creator of monumental public sculpture, with works in more than thirty states and several European countries. from John Raimondi

    • Yves Trudeau (born December 3, 1930 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian sculptor and a prominent figure in 20th-century Quebec art, especially public art. from Yves Trudeau (artist)

    • 1989 saw the beginning of a series of Themes for each issue - Public Art, Community Arts, Design, Contemporary Australian Aboriginal Art, Architecture & the Environment, Multicultural Arts, Museums on the Edge, Thinking Craft/Crafting Thought, Naive & Outsider Art, Film & Video, Sculpture, Contemporary Arts of the Region : South East Asia & Australia, and new methods of researching and national networking, as well as a wide canvassing of funding sources. from Artlink Magazine

    • Ashbel Parsons Willard is a piece of public art by American sculptor Henry Dexter, located on the second floor or third level (including the basement) of the Indiana Statehouse, located between Washington Street and Ohio Street in Indianapolis, the capital of Indiana, a U.S. state. from Ashbel Parsons Willard (bust)

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      Pierre Granche Pierre Granche (1948–1997) was a French-Canadian sculptor.Having studied at the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal…
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      Pierre Granche (1948–1997) was a French-Canadian sculptor.
      Having studied at the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal and the Université de Vincennes in Paris, he taught in the art history department of the Université de Montréal for more than twenty years (1975–1997) until his death in Montreal.…

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      Pierre Granche (1948–1997) was a French-Canadian sculptor.
      Having studied at the École des Beaux-Arts de Montréal and the Université de Vincennes in Paris, he taught in the art history department of the Université de Montréal for more than twenty years (1975–1997) until his death in Montreal.
      As a sculptor, his works are mainly abstract semi-representational pieces, many in aluminium. He was highly influential in the Quebec art world in the field of integrating art and architecture.

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    • Artists making public art range from the greatest masters such as Michelangelo, Pablo Picasso, and Joan Miró, to those who specialize in public art such as Claes Oldenburg and Pierre Granche, to anonymous artists who make surreptitious interventions. from Public art

    • The site is decorated with several works of public art including L'artiste est celui qui fait voir l'autre côté des choses by Claude Bettinger, Comme si le temps… de la rue by Pierre Granche, and La voie lactée by Geneviève Cadieux. from Place des Arts

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      Banksy Banksy is a pseudonymous United Kingdom-based graffiti artist, political activist, film director, and painter.His…
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      Banksy is a pseudonymous United Kingdom-based graffiti artist, political activist, film director, and painter.
      His satirical street art and subversive epigrams combine dark humour with graffiti executed in a distinctive stencilling technique. Such artistic works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world.…

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      Banksy is a pseudonymous United Kingdom-based graffiti artist, political activist, film director, and painter.
      His satirical street art and subversive epigrams combine dark humour with graffiti executed in a distinctive stencilling technique. Such artistic works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world.
      Banksy's work was made up of the Bristol underground scene which involved collaborations between artists and musicians. According to author and graphic designer Tristan Manco and the book Home Sweet Home, Banksy "was born in 1974 and raised in Bristol, England. The son of a photocopier technician, he trained as a butcher, but became involved in graffiti during the great Bristol aerosol boom of the late 1980s." Observers have noted that his style is similar to Blek le Rat, who began to work with stencils in 1981 in Paris. Banksy says that he was inspired by "3D", a graffiti artist who later became a founding member of Massive Attack.
      Known for his contempt for the government in labelling graffiti as vandalism, Banksy displays his art on publicly visible surfaces such as walls, even going as far as to build physical prop pieces. Banksy does not sell photographs or reproductions of his street graffiti, but art auctioneers have been known to attempt to sell his street art on location and leave the problem of its removal in the hands of the winning bidder. Banksy's first film, Exit Through the Gift Shop, billed as "the world's first street art disaster movie", made its debut at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival. The film was released in the UK on 5 March 2010. In January 2011, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary for the film. In 2014, he was awarded person of year at the 2014 Webby Awards.

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    Connects To Banksy

    • Examples include situations in which the line between graffiti and "guerilla" public art is blurred, such as the art of John Fekner placed on billboards, the early works of Keith Haring (executed without permission in advertising poster holders in the New York City Subway) and the current work of Banksy. from Public art

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      Robert Smithson Robert Smithson (January 2, 1938 – July 20, 1973) was an American artist famous for his use of photography in…
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      Robert Smithson (January 2, 1938 – July 20, 1973) was an American artist famous for his use of photography in relation to sculpture and land art.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Robert Smithson

    • Amongst the works of the last thirty years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by Christo, Robert Smithson, Andy Goldsworthy, James Turrell and Antony Gormley, whose artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment. from Public art

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      House (sculpture) House was a temporary public sculpture by British artist Rachel Whiteread, completed in East London on 25 October…
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      House was a temporary public sculpture by British artist Rachel Whiteread, completed in East London on 25 October 1993 and demolished eleven weeks later on 11 January 1994. The work won Whiteread the Turner Prize for best young British artist that year. She also received the K Foundation art award for worst British artist in 1994.

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    How Public art
    Connects To House (sculpture)

    • House, a large 1993–94 work by Rachel Whiteread in East London, was destroyed by the local council after a few months. from Public art

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      Public Delivery Public Delivery is an organization for contemporary art, founded in Seoul, South Korea in 2011. They organize…
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      Public Delivery is an organization for contemporary art, founded in Seoul, South Korea in 2011. They organize exhibitions, initiate non-institutional art projects and distribute artwork. Their focus is on public space however they work in a variety of mediums.…

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      Public Delivery is an organization for contemporary art, founded in Seoul, South Korea in 2011. They organize exhibitions, initiate non-institutional art projects and distribute artwork. Their focus is on public space however they work in a variety of mediums.
      In 2010 they organized both Asia and the world's tallest mural in Busan, South Korea. Aside from art in public space, they have organized shows in galleries and museums across the world.
      Its founder, Martin Schulze of Germany, currently resides in Seoul, South Korea where he handles the organization in its entirety.

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    Connects To Public Delivery

    • It was organized by Public Delivery and painted in Busan, Korea in 2013. from Public art

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      James Turrell James Turrell (born May 6, 1943) is an American artist primarily concerned with light and space. Turrell was a…
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      James Turrell (born May 6, 1943) is an American artist primarily concerned with light and space. Turrell was a MacArthur Fellow in 1984. Turrell is best known for his work in progress, Roden Crater, a natural cinder cone crater located outside Flagstaff, Arizona that he is turning into a massive naked-eye observatory.

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    How Public art
    Connects To James Turrell

    • Amongst the works of the last thirty years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by Christo, Robert Smithson, Andy Goldsworthy, James Turrell and Antony Gormley, whose artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment. from Public art

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      Community arts Community arts, also sometimes known as "dialogical art", "community-engaged" or "community-based art," refers to…
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      Community arts, also sometimes known as "dialogical art", "community-engaged" or "community-based art," refers to artistic activity based in a community setting. Works from this genre can be of any media and is characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often professional artists collaborate with people who may not otherwise normally actively engage in the…

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      Community arts, also sometimes known as "dialogical art", "community-engaged" or "community-based art," refers to artistic activity based in a community setting. Works from this genre can be of any media and is characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often professional artists collaborate with people who may not otherwise normally actively engage in the arts. The term was defined in the late-1960s and spawned a movement which grew in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia. In Scandinavia, the term "community art" means more often contemporary art project.
      Often community art is based in economically deprived areas, with a community-oriented, grassroots approach. Members of a local community will come together to express concerns or issues through an artistic process, sometimes this may involve professional artists or actors. These communal artistic processes act as a catalyst to trigger events or changes within a community or even at a national or international level.
      In English-speaking countries, community art is often seen as the work of community arts centre. Visual arts (fine art, video, new media art), music, and theater are common mediums in community art centers. Many arts companies in the UK do some community-based work, which typically involves developing participation by non-professional members of local communities.

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    Connects To Community arts

    • In the 1990s, the clear differentiation of these new practices from previous forms of artistic presence in the public space calls for alternative definitions, some of them more specific (contextual art, relational art, participatory art, dialogic art, community-based art, activist art), other more comprehensive, such as “new genre public art”. from Public art

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      Jane and Louise Wilson Jane Wilson and Louise Wilson (born 1967, Newcastle upon Tyne)are British artists who work together as a sibling…
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      Jane Wilson and Louise Wilson (born 1967, Newcastle upon Tyne)are British artists who work together as a sibling duo. Jane and Louise Wilson's art work is based in video, film and photography. They are YBA artists who were nominated for the Turner Prize in 1999.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Jane and Louise Wilson

    • In this case artists and cultural leaders from the region mounted a campaign to rehabilitate the reputation of the work with the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art commissioning artists Jane and Louise Wilson to make a video installation about the piece in 2003. from Public art

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      Maya Lin Maya Ying Lin (born October 5, 1959) is an American designer and artist who is known for her work in sculpture and…
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      Maya Ying Lin (born October 5, 1959) is an American designer and artist who is known for her work in sculpture and landscape art. She is best known as the designer of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Maya Lin

    • In 1982, Maya Lin, at the time a senior student in Architecture at Yale, completed the construction of Vietnam Veterans Memorial, listing 59’000 names of American citizens who died in the Vietnam war. from Public art

    • It includes public art from Raymond Kaskey and Maya Lin. from Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse

    • Artist and architect Maya Lin in 2004 designed a public art installation at Ohio University, titled "Input", that looks like a punched card from the air. from Punched card

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      Murals in Northern Ireland Murals in Northern Ireland have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the region's past and present…
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      Murals in Northern Ireland have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the region's past and present political and religious divisions.
      Belfast and Derry contains arguably the most famous political murals in the country. It is believed that almost 2,000 murals have been documented since the 1970s. In 2014, the book, 'The Belfast Mural Guide' estimated that,…

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      Murals in Northern Ireland have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the region's past and present political and religious divisions.
      Belfast and Derry contains arguably the most famous political murals in the country. It is believed that almost 2,000 murals have been documented since the 1970s. In 2014, the book, 'The Belfast Mural Guide' estimated that, in Belfast, there were on display. approximately 300 quality murals, with many more in varying degrees of aging and decay. Murals commemorate, communicate and show display aspects of culture and history. The themes of murals often reflect what is important to a particular community. A mural therefore exists to express an idea or message and could generally be seen as reflecting values held dear to that community. In Republican communities the themes of murals can range from the Hunger Strikes of 1981, with particular emphasis on Bobby Sands; murals of International solidarity with revolutionary groups are equally common, as are those which highlight a particular issue, for example the Ballymurphy and Springhill Massacres or the McGurk's Bar bombing. In working class Unionist communities, murals are used to promote loyalist paramilitary groups such as the UDA and UVF or commemorate deceased members. However traditional themes such as King William of Orange, 1690, the Battle of the Somme and the 36th Ulster Division are equally common. Political point of view, Irish, British or International, an event or person(s), with a particular emphasis on the Troubles are clearly recognizable themes.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Murals in Northern Ireland

    • The Northern Irish murals and those in Los Angeles were often responses to periods of conflict. from Public art

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      Andy Goldsworthy Andy Goldsworthy, OBE (born 26 July 1956) is a British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist producing…
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      Andy Goldsworthy, OBE (born 26 July 1956) is a British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist producing site-specific sculpture and land art situated in natural and urban settings. He lives and works in Scotland.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Andy Goldsworthy

    • Amongst the works of the last thirty years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by Christo, Robert Smithson, Andy Goldsworthy, James Turrell and Antony Gormley, whose artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment. from Public art

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      Richard Long (artist) Richard Long CBE (born 2 June 1945) is an English sculptor, photographer and painter, one of the best known British…
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      Richard Long CBE (born 2 June 1945) is an English sculptor, photographer and painter, one of the best known British land artists.
      Long is the only artist to be shortlisted for the Turner Prize four times, and he is reputed to have refused the prize in 1984. He was nominated in 1984, 1987, 1988 and he then won the award in 1989 for White Water Line. He currently lives and works in Bristol.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Richard Long (artist)

    • Some artists working in this discipline use the freedom afforded by an outdoor site to create very large works that would be unfeasible in a gallery, for instance Richard Long's three-week walk, entitled "The Path is the Place in the Line". from Public art

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      Gar Waterman Gar Waterman is a sculptor based in New Haven, Connecticut. He is notable for large public arts projects for public…
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      Gar Waterman is a sculptor based in New Haven, Connecticut. He is notable for large public arts projects for public places and creations which mimic sealife.…

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      Gar Waterman is a sculptor based in New Haven, Connecticut. He is notable for large public arts projects for public places and creations which mimic sealife.
      He works in marble, stone, bronze, wood, and sometimes glass. Some of his very large sculptures resemble "giant insects welded together from scrap metal," according to one account. He creates sculptures which often resemble creatures from the ocean and nature.
      He married his agent and arts organizer Thea Buxbaum in 1997. Waterman grew up in New Jersey and Maine and lived for a while in Tahiti. He is the youngest son of oceanographic film maker Stan Waterman and grew up "exploring the ocean depths". He graduated from Phillips Academy in 1974 and from Dartmouth in 1978. After college, he moved to Pietrasanta, Italy and lived there for seven years to learn sculpting.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Gar Waterman

    • In a similar example, sculptor Gar Waterman created a giant arch measuring 35x37x3 feet which straddled a city street in New Haven, Connecticut. from Public art

    • He is notable for large public arts projects for public places and creations which mimic sealife. from Gar Waterman

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      Joseph Beuys Joseph Beuys (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening…
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      Joseph Beuys (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.…

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      Joseph Beuys (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.
      His extensive work is grounded in concepts of humanism, social philosophy and anthroposophy; it culminates in his "extended definition of art" and the idea of social sculpture as a gesamtkunstwerk, for which he claimed a creative, participatory role in shaping society and politics. His career was characterized by passionate, even acrimonious public debate. He is now regarded as one of the most influential artists of the second half of the 20th century.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Joseph Beuys

    • The individual, Romantic retreat element implied in the conceptual structure of Land art and its will to reconnect the urban environment with nature, is turned into a political claim in projects such as Wheatfield – A Confrontation (1982), by American artist Agnes Denes, as well as in Joseph Beuys’ 7000 Oaks (1982). from Public art

    • During last decade and also currently his works and projects relates to Public Art, Earth art (Land Art), social sculpture defined by Joseph Beuys who was a member of Fluxus movement. from Adam Kalinowski

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      Skulptur Projekte Münster Skulptur Projekte Münster (English: Sculpture Projects Münster) is an exhibition of sculptures in public places in…
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      Skulptur Projekte Münster (English: Sculpture Projects Münster) is an exhibition of sculptures in public places in the town of Münster (Germany). Held every ten years since 1977, the exhibition shows artworks for free in different places all over the town, thereby confronting art with public places.…

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      Skulptur Projekte Münster (English: Sculpture Projects Münster) is an exhibition of sculptures in public places in the town of Münster (Germany). Held every ten years since 1977, the exhibition shows artworks for free in different places all over the town, thereby confronting art with public places.
      The 4th exhibition took place from 16 June 2007 to 30 September 2007.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Skulptur Projekte Münster

    • Land artists choose to situate large-scale, process-oriented interventions in remote landscape situations; the Spoleto Festival (1962) creates an open-air museum of sculptures in the medieval city of Spoleto, and the German city of Münster starts, in 1977, a curated event bringing art in public urban places every 10 years (Skulptur Projekte Münster). from Public art

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      Creative Time Creative Time is a New York-based nonprofit arts organization. It was founded in 1973 to support the creation of…
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      Creative Time is a New York-based nonprofit arts organization. It was founded in 1973 to support the creation of innovative, site-specific, socially engaged works in the public realm, especially in vacant spaces of historical and architectural interest. Creative Time focuses on presenting artworks that both create inspiring personal experiences and foster social progress, while pushing artists beyond their normal boundaries.

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    • Creative Time's projects expand the definition of public art by employing artists concerned with enhancing the viewer's perception of a particular environment, sharing the creative process with the public, and using densely populated locations lacking in cultural amenities. from Creative Time

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      Keith Haring Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist and social activist whose work…
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      Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York City street culture of the 1980s by expressing concepts of birth, death, sexuality, and war. Haring's work was often heavily political and his imagery has become a widely recognized visual language of the 20th century.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Keith Haring

    • Examples include situations in which the line between graffiti and "guerilla" public art is blurred, such as the art of John Fekner placed on billboards, the early works of Keith Haring (executed without permission in advertising poster holders in the New York City Subway) and the current work of Banksy. from Public art

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      John Fekner John Fekner (born in 1950 New York City) is an innovative multidisciplinary artist who created hundreds of…
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      John Fekner (born in 1950 New York City) is an innovative multidisciplinary artist who created hundreds of environmental and conceptual outdoor works consisting of stenciled words, symbols, dates and icons spray painted in New York, Sweden, Canada, England and Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. A seminal figure in the Street Art movement, Fekner participated…

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      John Fekner (born in 1950 New York City) is an innovative multidisciplinary artist who created hundreds of environmental and conceptual outdoor works consisting of stenciled words, symbols, dates and icons spray painted in New York, Sweden, Canada, England and Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. A seminal figure in the Street Art movement, Fekner participated in recent urban art exhibitions such as Wooster Collective's 11 Spring Street Project in 2006 and in "Art in the Streets" at The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 2011. Working with Don Leicht, their project entitled "The Stanley Cup is missing" was part of the annual BLK River street art festival in Vienna, Austria. Art writer Lucy R. Lippard writes, "Fekner does in public what a lot of art world artists don’t even do in galleries: he dispels ambiguity by naming his visions, his viewpoint."
      In 1968, Fekner painted the words Itchycoo Park in large white letters on an empty building in Gorman Park, New York. In 1978 he curated the Detective Show at the same outdoor location in Queens which included the words street museum on the invitational card. Fekner developed a philosophy of ‘reducing the value of an art object to that of a shared visual experience for the public’ through stencil graffiti that interacted, involved and connected with the urban populace across the five boroughs of New York.
      In reaction to the desolation of the abandoned burnt-out buildings of the South Bronx, Fekner stenciled Last Hope in large letters above one crumbling structure so that every time you passed it you couldn’t block it out of your vision. Now you know you can’t change the world, but you can’t sit back and watch it implode either, so you’ll do your part, have your own little victory, and so will the next guy and the next, and maybe things will start to change. Fekner's output includes paintings, cast paper reliefs, video, audio and performance works, sculpture, photography and computer-generated work. Fekner creates multiple versions of work in entirely different media and will use whatever means are necessary to communicate a vision or message, and whose work changes as that vision expands. Throughout his entire career in the arts, Fekner has made a commitment within his work by consistently addressing issues that demonstrate an interest involving concepts of perception and transformation, as well as specific environmental and sociological concerns such as urban decay, greed, chemical pollutants, mass media and Native American Indians. Fekner's stencil Wheels Over Indian Trails greeted motorists and international travelers arriving in New York City at the Pulaski Bridge Queens Midtown Tunnel from 1979 to 1990. The message remained untouched for eleven years, until Earth Day 1990, when Mr. Fekner, feeling the piece had run its course, painted over it.

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    How Public art
    Connects To John Fekner

    • Examples include situations in which the line between graffiti and "guerilla" public art is blurred, such as the art of John Fekner placed on billboards, the early works of Keith Haring (executed without permission in advertising poster holders in the New York City Subway) and the current work of Banksy. from Public art

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      Doual'art doual'art is a non profit cultural organisation and art centre founded in 1991 in Douala, Cameroon and focussed on…
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      doual'art is a non profit cultural organisation and art centre founded in 1991 in Douala, Cameroon and focussed on new urban practices of African cities.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Doual'art

    • This is the context of the experience of doual'art project in Douala (Cameroon, 1991), based on a commissioning system that brings together the community, the artist and the commissioning institution in the realization of the project. from Public art

    • Since 2007 doual'art organises the SUD Salon Urbain de Douala, a triennial cultural event which produces ephemeral and permanent contemporary art and public art for the city of Douala. from Doual'art

    • In 2005 they organize the first Ars&Urbis event, an international symposium to foster discussion and theory about the contribution of art to urban transformation; the event leads to the establishment of the SUD Salon Urbain de Douala, a triennial exhibitions focused on public art. from Doual'art

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      Tilted Arc Tilted Arc was a site-specific sculpture originally commissioned by the United States General Services…
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      Tilted Arc was a site-specific sculpture originally commissioned by the United States General Services Administration Arts-in-Architecture program for the Foley Federal Plaza in front of the Jacob Javits Federal Building in Manhattan, New York City. The post-minimalist artwork was designed by the well-known artist Richard Serra and constructed in 1981. However, after much debate it…

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      Tilted Arc was a site-specific sculpture originally commissioned by the United States General Services Administration Arts-in-Architecture program for the Foley Federal Plaza in front of the Jacob Javits Federal Building in Manhattan, New York City. The post-minimalist artwork was designed by the well-known artist Richard Serra and constructed in 1981. However, after much debate it was removed in 1989 following a lawsuit known for notoriously having absolutely no public backing. Richard Serra is one of the leading minimalist sculptors and started his notable body of work after his graduation from Yale University where he studied fine art. This work exemplifies his minimalist, conceptual style. When Tilted Arc was created Serra was forty years old and was already a respected artist; thus, there was much attention given to the removal of his work.

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    • Richard Serra's minimalist piece Tilted Arc was removed from a New York City plaza in 1989 after office workers complained their work routine was disrupted by the piece. from Public art

    • On the one hand, situations of conflict caused by non-mediated artistic interventions such as Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, raise the question of the involvement of the audience at an earlier stage. from Public art

    • The trial instructed by judge Edward D. Re in 1985 to re-locate American artist Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, a monumental intervention commissioned for Manhattan's Federal Plaza by the “Art-in-Architecture” Program, also contributes to the debate about public art site-specificity. from Public art

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    • In 1979 the Art-in-Architecture program decided to commission a work of public art to grace the open space in front of a planned addition to the Jacob Javits Federal Building in Manhattan. from Tilted Arc

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      Suzanne Lacy Suzanne Lacy (born 1945, Wasco, CA) is an American artist, educator, and writer. She has worked in a variety of…
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      Suzanne Lacy (born 1945, Wasco, CA) is an American artist, educator, and writer. She has worked in a variety of media, including installation, video, performance, public art, photography, and artists' books, and describes her work as focusing on "social themes and urban issues." She also served in the education cabinet of Jerry Brown, then mayor…

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      Suzanne Lacy (born 1945, Wasco, CA) is an American artist, educator, and writer. She has worked in a variety of media, including installation, video, performance, public art, photography, and artists' books, and describes her work as focusing on "social themes and urban issues." She also served in the education cabinet of Jerry Brown, then mayor of Oakland, California, and as arts commissioner for the city. She designed multiple educational programs beginning with her role as performance faculty at The Feminist Studio Workshop at The Woman's Building in Los Angeles.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Suzanne Lacy

    • In artist Suzanne Lacy’s words, “new genre public art” is “visual art that uses both traditional and non traditional media to communicate and interact within a broad and diversified audience about issues directly relevant to their life”. from Public art

    • This approach eventually developed into the “new genre public art”, which is defined by Suzanne Lacy as “socially engaged, interactive art for diverse audiences with connections to identity politics and social activism”. from Public art

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      Heidelberg Project The Heidelberg Project is an outdoor art project in Detroit, Michigan. It was created in 1986 by artist Tyree…
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      The Heidelberg Project is an outdoor art project in Detroit, Michigan. It was created in 1986 by artist Tyree Guyton and his grandfather Sam Mackey ("Grandpa Sam") as an outdoor art environment in the McDougall-Hunt neighborhood on the city's east side, just north of the city's historically African-American Black Bottom area. The Heidelberg Project is…

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      The Heidelberg Project is an outdoor art project in Detroit, Michigan. It was created in 1986 by artist Tyree Guyton and his grandfather Sam Mackey ("Grandpa Sam") as an outdoor art environment in the McDougall-Hunt neighborhood on the city's east side, just north of the city's historically African-American Black Bottom area. The Heidelberg Project is in part a political protest, as Tyree Guyton's childhood neighborhood began to deteriorate after the 1967 riots. Guyton described coming back to Heidelberg Street after serving in the Army; he was astonished to see that the surrounding neighborhood looked as if "a bomb went off".
      At first, the project consisted of his painting a series of houses on Detroit's Heidelberg Street with bright dots of many colors and attaching salvaged items to the houses. It was a constantly evolving work that transformed a hard-core inner city neighborhood where people were afraid to walk, even in daytime, into one in which neighbors took pride and where visitors were many and welcomed. Tyree Guyton worked on the Heidelberg Project daily with the children on the block. He and director Jenenne Whitfield gave lectures and workshops on the project around the country. Their main goal was to develop the Heidelberg Project into the city's first indoor and outdoor museum, complete with an artists' colony, creative art center, community garden, amphitheater, and more. In 2005 the Heidelberg Project was awarded the Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence silver medal.

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    • Detroit's Heidelberg Project has remained controversial since its inception in 1986. from Public art

    • It was created in 1986 by artist Tyree Guyton and his grandfather Sam Mackey ("Grandpa Sam") as an outdoor art environment in the McDougall-Hunt neighborhood on the city's east side, just north of the city's historically African-American Black Bottom area. from Heidelberg Project

    • The Heidelberg Project is an outdoor art project in Detroit, Michigan. from Heidelberg Project

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      Participatory art Participatory art is an approach to making art in which the audience is engaged directly in the creative process…
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      Participatory art is an approach to making art in which the audience is engaged directly in the creative process, allowing them to become co-authors, editors, and observers of the work. Therefore,this type of art is incomplete without the viewers physical interaction. Its intent is to challenge the dominant form of making art in the West,…

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      Participatory art is an approach to making art in which the audience is engaged directly in the creative process, allowing them to become co-authors, editors, and observers of the work. Therefore,this type of art is incomplete without the viewers physical interaction. Its intent is to challenge the dominant form of making art in the West, in which a small class of professional artists make the art while the public takes on the role of passive observer or consumer, i.e., buying the work of the professionals in the marketplace. Commended works by advocates that popularized participatory art include Augusto Boal in his Theater of the oppressed, as well as Allan Kaprow in happenings.
      Artwork that is interactive and participatory may be referred to as "participatory art;" it may also be categorized under terms including relational art, social practice, community art, and new genre public art.
      Folk and tribal art are also considered to be "participatory art" in that many or all of the members of the society participate in the making of art. As the ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl wrote, the tribal group "has no specialization or professionalization; its division of labor depends almost exclusively on sex and occasionally on age, and only rarely are certain individuals proficient in any technique to a distinctive degree ... the same songs are known by all the members of the group, and there is little specialization in composition, performance or instrument making.”
      In the Fall/Winter issue of Oregon Humanities magazine, writer Eric Gold describes "an artistic tradition called 'social practice,' which refers to works of art in which the artist, audience, and their interactions with one another are the medium. While a painter uses pigment and canvas, and a sculptor wood or metal, the social practice artist often creates a scenario in which the audience is invited to participate. Although the results may be documented with photography, video, or otherwise, the artwork is really the interactions that emerge from the audience's engagement with the artist and the situation."

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    Connects To Participatory art

    • In the 1990s, the clear differentiation of these new practices from previous forms of artistic presence in the public space calls for alternative definitions, some of them more specific (contextual art, relational art, participatory art, dialogic art, community-based art, activist art), other more comprehensive, such as “new genre public art”. from Public art

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      Mary Jane Jacob Mary Jane Jacob is an American curator, writer, and educator from Chicago, Illinois. She is a professor at the…
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      Mary Jane Jacob is an American curator, writer, and educator from Chicago, Illinois. She is a professor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and is the Executive Director of Exhibitions and Exhibition Studies. She has held posts as Chief Curator at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles and at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago.…

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      Mary Jane Jacob is an American curator, writer, and educator from Chicago, Illinois. She is a professor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and is the Executive Director of Exhibitions and Exhibition Studies. She has held posts as Chief Curator at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles and at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago.
      Since 1990 Jacob has been a pioneer in the areas of public, site-specific, and socially engaged art. Jacob is the author and editor of many key texts including Conversations at the Castle: Changing Audiences and Contemporary Art (1996) and Culture in Action: New Public Art in Chicago (1993).
      Jacob has mounted exhibitions, and created public art opportunities that have featured the work of some of the most influential artists in contemporary art including Mark Dion, Suzanne Lacy, Ernesto Pujol, J. Morgan Puett, Pablo Helguera, Marina Abramovic, Rick Lowe, and Alfredo Jaar. The Women's Caucus for Art honored Jacob as a 2010 recipient of the organization's Lifetime Achievement Award.
      Jacob received her M.A. in the History of Art and Museum Studies from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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    How Public art
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    • Curator Mary Jane Jacob of "Sculpture Chicago” developed a show, ‘’Culture in Action’’, in summer 1993 that followed principles of new genre public art. from Public art

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      Guggenheim Museum Bilbao The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect…
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      The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. The museum was inaugurated on October 18, 1997, by King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian…

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      The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, and located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. The museum was inaugurated on October 18, 1997, by King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian Sea, it is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists.
      One of the most admired works of contemporary architecture, the building has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics, academics, and the general public were all completely united about something." The museum was the building most frequently named as one of the most important works completed since 1980 in the 2010 World Architecture Survey among architecture experts.

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    How Public art
    Connects To Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

    • This latter point will develop during the 1990s and the years 2000s, in coincidence with the dissemination of biennials and cultural events and as a consequence of city marketing strategies in the context of the “Bilbao effect” and the “destination culture” emerging after the opening of the Guggenheim museum in Bilbao. from Public art

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