Albedo () (Latin albedo, "whiteness") is the amount of diffusive reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by a body, for example a planetary body such as Earth. It is dimensionless and measured on a scale from zero (corresponding to a black body that absorbs all incident radiation) to one (corresponding to a body that reflects all incident radiation).
Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of irradiance reflected to the irradiance received by a surface. The proportion reflected is not only determined by properties of the surface itself, but also by the spectral and angular distribution of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. These factors vary with atmospheric composition, geographic location and time (see Position of the Sun). While bi-hemispherical reflectance is calculated for a single angle of incidence (i.e., for a given position of the sun), albedo is the directional integration of reflectance over all solar angles in a given period. The temporal resolution may range from seconds (as obtained from flux measurements) to daily, monthly or annual averages.
Unless given for a specific wavelength (spectral albedo), albedo refers to the entire spectrum of solar radiation. Due to measurement constraints, it is often given for the spectrum in which most solar energy reaches the surface (approximately between 0.3 and 3 μm). This spectrum includes visible light (0.39-0.7 μm), which explains why surfaces with a low albedo appear dark (e.g., trees absorb most radiation), whereas surfaces with a high albedo appear bright (e.g., snow reflects most radiation).
Albedo is an important concept in climatology, astronomy, and environmental management (e.g., as part of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program for sustainable rating of buildings). The average albedo of the Earth at the top of the atmosphere, its planetary albedo, is 30 to 35% because of cloud cover, but widely varies locally across the surface because of different geological and environmental features.
The term albedo was introduced into optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1760 work Photometria....LESS