Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied due to the Salic law. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements....LESS
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Ulster and 5th Baron of Connaught, KG ( ; 29 November 1338 – 7 October 1368) was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. from Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence
He was the eldest son of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, by his wife Philippa of Clarence, who as the daughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and granddaughter of King Edward III. from Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
Edmund Mortimer was thus a descendant of Henry III and Edward I and a half-great-nephew of Richard II through his mother, and more importantly a descendant of King Edward III through his paternal grandmother Philippa of Clarence, only child of King Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence. from Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Ulster and 5th Baron of Connaught, KG (Norman: Leonell Duc de Clarence; 29 November 1338 – 7 October 1368) was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was named for his birthplace, at Antwerp in the Duchy of Brabant. Prince Lionel was born of a Flemish mother and was a grandson of William I, Count of Hainaut. He grew to be nearly seven feet in height and had an athletic build.
This book provides a systematic analysis of the innovations that occurred in the display of royal power during John II s four years in English captivity. Neil Murphy shows how the French king s competition with Edward III led to a revolution in the presentation of the royal image, manifesting through developments to the sacral character of the French monarchy, lavish displays of gift giving, and the use of courtly display. Showing that the Hundred Years War was not just fought on the battlefields of France, this book unravels how the war played out daily in the competition for status between Edward III and John II."