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The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War (Russian: Великая Отечественная Война) in the former Soviet Union and in modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front (German: die Ostfront), the Eastern Campaign (der Ostfeldzug) or the Russian Campaign (der Rußlandfeldzug).

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The battles on the Eastern Front constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, and immense loss of life variously due to combat, starvation, exposure, disease, and massacres. The Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches, ghettos, and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust. Of the estimated 70 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million,…

…many of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front. The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome of World War II, eventually serving as the main reason for Germany's defeat. It resulted in the destruction of the Third Reich, the partition of Germany for nearly half a century and the rise of the Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower.
The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United Kingdom and the United States both provided substantial material aid in the form of the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union, though they failed to meet the specific quotas that had been agreed on. The joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may also be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front.

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      Operation Barbarossa Operation Barbarossa (German: Fall Barbarossa, literally "Case Barbarossa"), beginning 22 June 1941, was the code…
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      Operation Barbarossa (German: Fall Barbarossa, literally "Case Barbarossa"), beginning 22 June 1941, was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. Over the course of the operation, about four million soldiers of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a 2,900 km (1,800 mi) front, the largest invasion in…

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      Operation Barbarossa (German: Fall Barbarossa, literally "Case Barbarossa"), beginning 22 June 1941, was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. Over the course of the operation, about four million soldiers of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a 2,900 km (1,800 mi) front, the largest invasion in the history of warfare. In addition to troops, Barbarossa initially used 600,000 motor vehicles and 625,000 horses. The ambitious operation was driven by Adolf Hitler's persistent desire to conquer the Soviet territories as embodied in Generalplan Ost. It marked the beginning of the pivotal phase in deciding the victors of the war. The German invasion of the Soviet Union caused a high rate of fatalities: 95 percent of all German Army casualties that occurred from 1941 to 1944, and 65 percent of all Allied military casualties from the entire war.
      Operation Barbarossa was named after Frederick Barbarossa, the medieval Holy Roman Emperor. The invasion was authorized by Hitler on 18 December 1940 (Directive No. 21) for a start date of 15 May 1941, but this would not be met, and instead the invasion began on 22 June 1941. Tactically, the Germans won resounding victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union, mainly in Ukraine. Despite these successes, the German offensive stalled on the outskirts of Moscow and was then pushed back by a Soviet counter offensive without having taken the city. The Germans could never again mount a simultaneous offensive along the entire strategic Soviet–German front. The Red Army repelled the Wehrmacht's strongest blow, and forced an unprepared Germany into a war of attrition with the largest nation on Earth.
      Operation Barbarossa's failure led to Hitler's demands for further operations inside the USSR, all of which eventually failed, such as continuing the Siege of Leningrad, Operation Nordlicht, and Operation Blue, among other battles on occupied Soviet territory.
      Operation Barbarossa was the largest military operation in world history in both manpower and casualties. Its failure was a turning point in the Third Reich's fortunes. Most importantly, Operation Barbarossa opened up the Eastern Front, to which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history. Regions covered by the operation became the site of some of the largest battles, deadliest atrocities, highest casualties, and most horrific conditions for Soviets and Germans alike—all of which influenced the course of both World War II and 20th-century history. The German forces captured over three million Soviet prisoners of war in 1941, who were not granted the protection stipulated in the Geneva Conventions. Most of them never returned alive. Germany deliberately starved the prisoners to death as part of its "Hunger Plan", i.e., the program to reduce the Eastern European population.

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    • The war on the Eastern Front went on for four years. from Operation Barbarossa

    • In addition, resistance by the Soviets, who proclaimed a Great Patriotic War in defense of the motherland, was much more fierce than the German command had expected. from Operation Barbarossa

    • A shortage of modern aircraft severely hampered the Soviet war effort in the first phase of the Eastern-front war. from Operation Barbarossa

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    • Most importantly, Operation Barbarossa opened up the Eastern Front, to which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history. from Operation Barbarossa

    • The Germans could never again mount a simultaneous offensive along the entire strategic Soviet–German front. from Operation Barbarossa

    • Operation Barbarossa: the German invasion of the Soviet Union, 21 June 1941 to 5 December 1941: Operation Barbarossa began just before dawn on 22 June 1941. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The conflict began on 22 June 1941 with the Operation Barbarossa offensive, when Axis forces crossed the borders described in the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact, thereby invading the Soviet Union. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Operation Barbarossa Campaign, also known as the Eastern Front, was the largest and most lethal campaign that the Wehrmacht Heer fought in during World War II. from Wehrmacht

    • During the early morning of 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front. from Joseph Stalin

    • Unable to do so, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact with Germany, which was broken in 1941 when Germany invaded the Soviet Union, beginning the Great Patriotic War. from Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    • The Battle of Uman (15 July – 8 August 1941) was the German and allied encirclement of the 6th (General Lieutenant I.N. Muzyrchenko) and 12th (General Major P.G. Ponedelin) Soviet armies south of the city of Uman during the initial offensive operations of German Army Group South, commanded by Generalfeldmarshall Gerd von Rundstedt, as part of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front during World War II. from Battle of Uman

    • The Slovak military played a prominent role throughout the War on the Eastern Front, participating in Operation Barbarossa, Case Blue, and other key operations. from Slovak Republic (1939–45)

    • In June 1941, the XXXXI Panzer Corps was deployed on the Eastern Front for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. from XXXXI Panzer Corps

    • During Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent German–Soviet War, millions of Red Army prisoners of war were taken. from German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war

    • In June 1941, JG 51 and the majority of the Luftwaffe were transferred to the Eastern Front in preparation for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. from Werner Mölders

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      Battle of Stalingrad The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi…
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      The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the south-western Soviet Union. Marked by constant close quarters combat and disregard for military and…

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      The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the south-western Soviet Union. Marked by constant close quarters combat and disregard for military and civilian casualties, it is amongst the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. The heavy losses inflicted on the Wehrmacht make it arguably the most strategically decisive battle of the whole war. It was a turning point in the European theatre of World War II–the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses.
      The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in late summer 1942 using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. The fighting degenerated into building-to-building fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones generally along the west bank of the Volga River.
      On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian forces protecting the German 6th Army's flanks. The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining elements of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days.

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    • It was a turning point in the European theatre of World War II–the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses. from Battle of Stalingrad

    • The disastrous encirclements later in the war – at Stalingrad, Korsun and many other places – were the direct result of Hitler's orders. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • However, following the decisive Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943 and the resulting dire German military situation, Hitler and his Nazi propaganda proclaimed the war to be a German defence of Western civilization against destruction by the vast "Bolshevik hordes" that were pouring into Europe. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • The defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and Battle of Kursk ensured the gradual decline of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. from Luftwaffe

    • But by the end of 1942, the Luftwaffe was still stretched thin on the Eastern Front and its most powerful air command, Luftflotte 4 was engaged in the Battle of Stalingrad. from Defence of the Reich

    • The intensity and sheer scale of the battle of Stalingrad illustrate the ferocity of the German-Soviet War. from Hero City

    • It returned to the Russian Front at the end of the year and participated in the failed attempt to relieve the Sixth Army at Battle of Stalingrad. Thereafter it fought in the battles of Kharkov and Kursk and the defensive battles back across the Ukraine and White Russia afterward. from 6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • They were used with great success during World War II on the Eastern Front, in such victories as the Battle of Stalingrad and Operation Bagration. from Mikhail Tukhachevsky

    • Following the assembly, Rohleder, Obergefreiter (Corporal) Fritz Reiser (Dominique Horwitz) and the rest are sent to the Eastern Front to fight for Stalingrad. from Stalingrad (1993 film)

    • The movie follows a platoon of World War II German Army soldiers transferred to Russia, where they ultimately find themselves participants in the Battle of Stalingrad. from Stalingrad (1993 film)

    • Viktor Pavičić (15 October 1898 – 20 January 1943) was a Croatian military commander who led the 369th Reinforced Croatian Infantry Regiment, which fought on the Eastern Front and was involved in the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II. from Viktor Pavičić

    • Along with the rest of the Croatian Legion, Mesić participated in the Battle of Stalingrad on the Eastern Front. from Marko Mesić (soldier)

    • He is best known for being the final commander of Croatian legionnaires in World War II, serving in the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front and in the Battle of Stalingrad. from Marko Mesić (soldier)

    • In October the division was reorganized as the 302nd Infantry Division (with improved mobility and offensive capabilities), and after a few additional months serving as a reserve in France was transferred to the Russian Front in early 1943 to help shore up the line after the German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad. from 302nd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • The Romanian vânători de munte saw action in World War II on the Eastern Front in some of the harshest battles - including the sieges of Sevastopol and Stalingrad - where their performance lived up to their reputation: virtually all their commanders from brigade level and up received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, with general Mihail Lascăr being the first foreigner to receive Oak Leaves on 22 November 1942 (see List of foreign recipients of the Knight's Cross). from Vânători de munte

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      Red Army The Red Workers' and Peasants' Army (Russian: Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya…
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      The Red Workers' and Peasants' Army (Russian: Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, often shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army), was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which after 1922 was called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army…

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      The Red Workers' and Peasants' Army (Russian: Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, often shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army), was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which after 1922 was called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution (Red October or Bolshevik Revolution); in which the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations (especially the combined groups summarized under the preamble White Army) of their adversaries, during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name "The Soviet Army" (Russian: Советская Армия (СА)/Sovetskaya Armija), until its dissolution in December 1991.
      The Red Army is credited as being the decisive land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II. During operations on the Eastern Front, it defeated 75%–80% of the German land forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) deployed in the war.

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    • The anti-Nazi Great Patriotic War, was conflated with the Patriotic War of 1812 against Napoleon, and historical Russian military heroes, such as Alexander Nevski and Mikhail Kutuzov, appeared; repression of the Russian Orthodox Church temporarily ceased, and priests revived the tradition of blessing arms before battle. from Red Army

    • The Axis deployed on the Eastern Front had 181 divisions and 18 brigades (5.5 million soldiers). from Red Army

    • During operations on the Eastern Front, it defeated 75%–80% of the German land forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) deployed in the war. from Red Army

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    • As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers, the Soviet Stavka (the high command), turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Soviet Union offered support to the partisans in many Wehrmacht-occupied countries in Central Europe, notably those in Slovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In addition the Polish Armed Forces in the East, particularly the First and Second Polish armies, were armed and trained, and would eventually fight alongside the Red Army. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The war ended on 9 May 1945, when Germany's armed forces surrendered unconditionally following the Battle of Berlin (also known as the Berlin Offensive), a strategic operation executed by the Red Army. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II. from Vistula–Oder Offensive

    • Ivan Stepanovich Konev ( ;  – 21 May 1973), was a Soviet military commander, who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin. from Ivan Konev

    • The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or Kharkiv ) between 19 February and 15 March 1943. from Third Battle of Kharkov

    • The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). from East Prussian Offensive

    • Panzer Group 1 served on the southern sector of the Eastern Front against the Red Army and was involved the Battle of Brody which involved as many as 1,000 Red Army tanks. from 1st Panzer Army

    • Established during the German-Soviet War by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 29, 1942, it was created to reward senior officers of the Red Army for skilful avoidance of enemy attacks and successful counter attacks. from Order of Kutuzov

    • In total, during World War II, the Romanian Army has lost 475,070 people on the Eastern Front, of which 245,388 were killed in action, disappeared, or died in hospitals or non-battle circumstances, and 229,682 (according to Soviet archival documents) were taken prisoners of war by the Red Army. from Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

    • Operation Saturn, revised as Operation Little Saturn, was a Red Army operation on the Eastern Front of World War II that led to battles in the northern Caucasus and Donets Basin regions of the Soviet Union from December 1942 to February 1943. from Operation Little Saturn

    • The East Pomeranian Strategic Offensive operation ( ) was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. from East Pomeranian Offensive

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      Battle of France In the Second World War, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the successful German invasion…
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      In the Second World War, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the successful German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armoured units pushed through…

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      In the Second World War, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the successful German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes and then along the Somme valley to cut off and surround the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium. When British and adjacent French forces were pushed back to the sea by the highly mobile and well-organized German operation, the British government decided to evacuate the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) as well as several French divisions at Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo.
      After the withdrawal of the BEF, Germany launched a second operation, Fall Rot (Case Red), which was commenced on 5 June 1940. While the depleted French forces put up stiff initial resistance, German air superiority and armoured mobility overwhelmed the remaining French forces. German armour outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France with German forces arriving in an undefended Paris on 14 June. This caused a chaotic period of flight for the French government and effectively ended organized French military resistance. German commanders finally met with French officials on June 18 with the goal of the new French government being an armistice with Germany. Chief among the new government leaders was Marshal Philippe Pétain, newly appointed prime minister and one of the supporters of seeking an armistice.
      On 22 June, an armistice was signed between France and Germany, which resulted in a division of France whereby Germany would occupy the north and west, Italy would control a small Italian occupation zone in the southeast, and an unoccupied zone, the zone libre, would be governed by the newly formed Vichy government led by Marshal Pétain. France remained under Axis occupation until the liberation of the country after the Allied landings in 1944.

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    Connects To Battle of France

    • For nearly two years the border was quiet while Germany conquered Denmark, Norway, France, The Low Countries, and the Balkans. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Panzer III was used in the campaigns against Poland, France, the Soviet Union and in North Africa. from Panzer III

    • Its units played a part in the invasion of France, and then on the Eastern Front. from 4th Panzer Army

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    • It participated in the Battle of France, the invasion of the Soviet Union, the occupation of Vichy France, and the defensive battles on the Eastern Front till the end of the war. from 7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • He fought in France, but is most noted for his later exploits as a panzer commander on the Eastern Front. from Hermann Hoth

    • The group had been involved in the Battle of France and the Eastern Front campaigns as I./JG 3, and had 421 kills to its name by September 1941. from Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War II)

    • They were employed in the Battle of France, in the North Africa Campaign and on the Eastern Front. from Panzerjäger I

    • The Panzer II was the most numerous tank in the German Panzer divisions beginning with the invasion of France, and was used in the German campaigns in Poland, France, the Low Countries, Denmark, Norway, North Africa and the Eastern Front. from Tanks in the German Army

    • The majority of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with one clamed during the Invasion of Poland and eight during the Battle of France and Britain. from Karl-Gottfried Nordmann

    • He claimed 8 aerial victories during the Battle of France, 89 on the Eastern Front, and 51 victories against the Western Allies, including 17 four-engined bombers. from Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller

    • The division fought in the Second World War in both the Battle of France and on the Eastern Front. from 93rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Early in World War II the Germans frequently employed this tactic and encircled huge numbers of the enemy during the Blitzkrieg attacks on both the Western Front during the Battle of France and during Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front. from Envelopment

    • He was awarded the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd class for bravery during the Battle of France, then transferred to the Totenkopf on the Eastern Front in 1941. from Karl Ullrich

    • Events in Western Europe and on the Eastern Front rapidly demonstrated that the M2 was obsolete, and it was never used overseas in combat; it was used for training purposes throughout the war. from Tanks in the United States

    • Borchers was officially credited with shooting down 132 enemy aircraft in more than 800 combat missions, the majority were claimed on the Eastern Front and five were claimed in the Battle of France and Battle of Britain together. from Adolf Borchers

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      Battle of Kursk The Battle of Kursk was a World War II engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk…
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      The Battle of Kursk was a World War II engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (450 kilometres or 280 miles southwest of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943. The German offensive was code-named Operation Citadel (German: Unternehmen Zitadelle) and led to one of the largest…

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      The Battle of Kursk was a World War II engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (450 kilometres or 280 miles southwest of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943. The German offensive was code-named Operation Citadel (German: Unternehmen Zitadelle) and led to one of the largest armoured clashes in history, the Battle of Prokhorovka. The German offensive was countered by two Soviet counter offensives, Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev (Russian: Полководец Румянцев) and Operation Kutuzov (Russian: Кутузов). For the Germans, the battle represented the final strategic offensive they were able to mount in the east. For the Soviets, the decisive victory gave the Red Army the strategic initiative for the rest of the war.
      The Germans hoped to weaken the Soviet offensive potential for the summer of 1943 by cutting off a large number of forces that they anticipated would be in the Kursk salient assembling for an offensive. By eliminating the Kursk salient they would also shorten their lines of defence, taking the strain off of their overstretched forces. The plan envisioned an envelopment by a pair of pincers breaking through the northern and southern flanks of the salient. Hitler thought that a victory here would reassert Germany's strength and improve his prestige with allies who were considering withdrawing from the war. It was also hoped that large numbers of Soviet prisoners would be captured to be used as slave labour in Germany's armaments industry.
      The Soviets had intelligence of the German intentions, provided in part by British intelligence service and Tunny intercepts. Aware that the attack would fall on the neck of the Kursk salient months in advance, the Soviets built a defence in depth designed to wear down the German panzer spearheads. The Germans delayed the start date of the offensive while they tried to build up their forces and waited for new weapons, mainly the new Panther tank but also larger numbers of the Tiger heavy tank. This gave the Red Army time to construct a series of deep defensive lines. The defensive preparations included minefields, fortifications, pre-sighted artillery fire zones and anti-tank strong points, which extended approximately 300 km (190 mi) in depth. In addition, Soviet mobile formations were moved out of the salient and a large reserve force was formed for strategic counteroffensives.
      The Battle of Kursk was the first time a German strategic offensive had been halted before it could break through enemy defences and penetrate to its strategic depths. Though the Soviet Army had succeeded in winter offensives previously, their counter-offensives following the German attack were their first successful strategic summer offensives of the war.

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    • The Battle of Kursk was a World War II engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk ( southwest of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943. from Battle of Kursk

    • But the Soviets could absorb the attack, and the German strategic advance in Operation Citadel had been halted. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • It served during the invasion of France and took part in several major battles on the Eastern Front (particularly in the Battle of Prokhorovka against the 5th Guards Tank Army at the titanic Battle of Kursk). from 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich

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    • The Battle of Prokhorovka was fought near Prokhorovka, southeast of Kursk, on the Eastern Front during the Second World War as part of the Battle of Kursk in the Soviet Union. from Battle of Prokhorovka

    • By the end of the Battle of Kursk in July 1943, Germany had lost all hope of regaining the initiative on the Eastern Front. from Battle of Smolensk (1943)

    • It returned to the Russian Front at the end of the year and participated in the failed attempt to relieve the Sixth Army at Battle of Stalingrad. Thereafter it fought in the battles of Kharkov and Kursk and the defensive battles back across the Ukraine and White Russia afterward. from 6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In July 1943, he participated in the Battle of Kursk as commander of the 'Army Detachment Kempf' on the Eastern Front. from Werner Kempf

    • The failure of Operation Citadel doomed the Germans to the permanent loss of the strategic initiative on the Eastern Front without any hope of regaining it, although Hitler refused to acknowledge it. from Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation

    • The defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and Battle of Kursk ensured the gradual decline of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. from Luftwaffe

    • His most notable command during the German-Soviet War was that of 1st Guards Tank Army which he commanded during the Battle of Kursk, Operation Bagration, the Vistula Oder Operation, and the Battle of Berlin. from Mikhail Katukov

    • During the second half of the Eastern Front, the 3rd Army took part in the Battle of Kursk, where numerically superior Soviet forces, using good anti-tank defenses, defeated the German forces, thus stopping Operation Zitadelle and robbing the German Army of all hopes of victory on the Eastern Front. from 3rd Army (Soviet Union)

    • In the summer of 1943, Prokhorovka was the site of the Battle of Prokhorovka, a major armored confrontation during the Battle of Kursk of World War II. from Prokhorovka, Belgorod Oblast

    • In October 1942 the division was reorganized as the 332nd Infantry Division (with improved mobility and offensive capabilities), and in the spring of 1943 it was transferred to the Russian Front where it fought in the Battle of Kursk under Army Group South in July. from 332nd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • It fought the rest of the war on the Russian Front, notably at the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943, and surrendered to the Soviets in the Courland Pocket at the end of the war in Europe. from 12th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Following the subsequent failure of the 1943 summer offensive to regain the territories lost to the Soviets earlier that year the Wehrmacht was no longer able to mount an effective large-scale counter-attack on the Eastern Front. from New Order (Nazism)

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      Western Front (World War II) The Western Front of the European Theatre of World War II encompassed Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the…
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      The Western Front of the European Theatre of World War II encompassed Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, and Western Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first…

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      The Western Front of the European Theatre of World War II encompassed Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, and Western Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat, which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
      Although the majority of German military deaths occurred on the Eastern Front, German losses on the Western Front were almost irreplaceable, because most of Germany's resources were being allocated to the Eastern Front. This meant that, while losses there could be replaced to some extent, very few replacements or reinforcements were being sent to the west to stop the advance of the Western Allies. The Normandy landings were a psychological blow to the German military and its leaders, who had feared a repetition of the two-front war of World War I.

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    Connects To Western Front (World War II)

    • All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • However, if one last great blitzkrieg offensive could be mounted, just maybe the Soviets would ease off and attention could then be turned to the Allied threat to the Western Front. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • While the unconditional surrender of the German armed forces represented a resounding success for the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, the path to this outcome was influenced by the strategic decisions of both sides. from Western Front (World War II)

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    • As had so often happened on the Eastern Front Hitler refused to allow a strategic withdrawal until it was too late. from Western Front (World War II)

    • It was a turning point in the European theatre of World War II–the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses. from Battle of Stalingrad

    • This created a situation where by 1942 the OKW was the de facto command of Western Theatre forces while the Army High Command (OKH) served Hitler as his personal command Staff on the Eastern Front. from German Army (1935–45)

    • He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west. from Walter Model

    • During World War II, Keitel was one of the primary planners of the Wehrmacht campaigns and operations on the Western and the Eastern fronts. from Wilhelm Keitel

    • The II SS Panzer Corps was a German Waffen-SS armoured corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World War II. from II SS Panzer Corps

    • Major actions in the Balkans Campaign, Crete, Italy, and on both the Eastern Front and later the Western Front would follow. from Fallschirmjäger

    • The majority of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with 29 claims over the Western Front. from Hans Philipp

    • He served on both the Eastern and Western Fronts. from Hermann Graf

    • It saw service in small numbers from late 1944 to the end of the war on both the Western and Eastern Front. from Jagdtiger

    • The Allied forces fought the Axis powers on two fronts (the Eastern Front and Western Front) as well as in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre. from European theatre of World War II

    • The I SS Panzer Corps Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler or I SS Panzer Corps ( ) was a German Waffen-SS panzer corps which saw action on both the Western and Eastern Fronts during World War II. from I SS Panzer Corps

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      Wehrmacht The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] ( ) (Defence Force)—from German: wehren, to defend and Macht…
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      The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] ( ) (Defence Force)—from German: wehren, to defend and Macht, power, force, cognate to English might) was the unified armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1946. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe (air force). The designation Wehrmacht for Nazi Germany's military replaced…

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      The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] ( ) (Defence Force)—from German: wehren, to defend and Macht, power, force, cognate to English might) was the unified armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1946. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe (air force). The designation Wehrmacht for Nazi Germany's military replaced the previously used term, Reichswehr and constituted the Third Reich’s efforts to rearm their nation to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles permitted.
      Following Germany’s defeat in the First World War, they were relegated by the treaty to a limited army. One of Hitler’s most overt and audacious moves was the establishment of a mighty fighting force (the Wehrmacht), an army designed for imperial conquest. Fulfilling the Nazi regime’s long term goals (unknown to their neighbors) of global conquest required massive investment and spending in the German armaments industry and conscription to properly man the Führer’s military machine. In December, 1941, Hitler named himself commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht.
      Along with the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe, the Wehrmacht formed the heart of Germany’s politico-military apparatus. Hitler's generals successfully employed the Wehrmacht using innovative combined arms tactics (close cover air-support, mechanized armor, and infantry) to devastating effect in a method of war called Blitzkrieg (lightning war). The Wehrmacht and the Nazi military juggernaut incorporated a new military structure, unique combat techniques, new-found weapons, and an unprecedented speed and brutality against their opponents.
      At the height of their success in 1942, the Nazis dominated upwards of 3,898,000 sq. km. of territory, an accomplishment made possible by the combined German forces with the Wehmacht firmly securing conquered territory. Working hand-in-hand at times with the SS, soldiers on the front (especially during the Eastern campaign) participated in various war atrocities, despite claims otherwise. By the time the war in Europe ended in May, 1945, the Wehrmacht had lost approximately 11,300,000 men. Only a few members of the Wehrmacht’s upper leadership were tried for war crimes after WW2, notwithstanding the evidence which made many more culpable. More or less deconstructed by September of 1945, the Wehrmacht was officially dissolved by ACC Law 34 (20 August 1946).

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To Wehrmacht

    • The war ended on 9 May 1945, when Germany's armed forces surrendered unconditionally following the Battle of Berlin (also known as the Berlin Offensive), a strategic operation executed by the Red Army. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Among German historians, the view that the Wehrmacht had participated in war time atrocities, particularly on the Eastern Front, grew in the late 1970s and the 1980s. from Wehrmacht

    • Operation Barbarossa Campaign, also known as the Eastern Front, was the largest and most lethal campaign that the Wehrmacht Heer fought in during World War II. from Wehrmacht

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    • Notable actions include the bloody Monte Cassino, the last-ditch defence of Tunisia and numerous key battles on the eastern front. from Wehrmacht

    • Only 40% to 60% of all units in the Eastern Front were motorized, baggage trains often relied on horse-drawn trailers due to poor roads and weather conditions in the Soviet Union, and for the same reasons many soldiers marched on foot or used bicycles (Radfahrtruppen). from Wehrmacht

    • During operations on the Eastern Front, it defeated 75%–80% of the German land forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) deployed in the war. from Red Army

    • Because the Wehrmacht was lacking manpower to stop the Soviet advance, men in jobs not deemed necessary or previously deemed unfit for military service were now called under arms. from Volkssturm

    • The Blue Division ( , , officially designated as División Española de Voluntarios by the Spanish Army and 250. Infanterie-Division in the German Army) was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served in the German Army on the Eastern Front of the Second World War. from Blue Division

    • The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). from East Prussian Offensive

    • While the principal perpetrators of the Holocaust amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German 'political' armies (the SS-Totenkopfverbände and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the regular armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht committed war crimes of their own, particularly on the Eastern Front in the war against the Soviet Union. from War crimes of the Wehrmacht

    • The Heiligenbeil Pocket or Heiligenbeil Cauldron ( ) was the site of a major encirclement battle on the Eastern Front during the closing weeks of World War II, in which the Wehrmacht's 4th Army was almost entirely destroyed during the Soviet Braunsberg Offensive Operation (13 March 1945 - 22 March 1945). from Heiligenbeil Pocket

    • On the approach of the Eastern Front, local units of the Home Army were to harass the German Wehrmacht in the rear and co-operate with incoming Soviet units as much as possible. from Warsaw Uprising

    • According to the plan, the Uprising was to be ordered by the Polish Commander-in-Chief in exile when the defeat of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front became apparent. from Operation Tempest

    • The objective of the Hunger Plan was to inflict deliberate mass starvation on the Slavic civilian populations under German occupation by directing all food supplies to the German home population and the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. from Wannsee Conference

    • The Silesian Offensives were two 1945 offensives conducted by the Soviet Red Army against the Nazi German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front in World War II. from Silesian Offensives

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      Invasion of Poland The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa or…
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      The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku) in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the…

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      The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War (Polish: Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku) in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Russian and Japanese hostilities (Nomonhan incident) in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.
      The morning after the Gleiwitz incident, German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west. As the Germans advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces then withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. Those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, though in the end their aid to Poland in the September campaign was very limited.
      The Soviet Red Army's invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, rendered the Polish plan of defence obsolete. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered an emergency evacuation of all troops to neutral Romania. On 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock, German and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland. The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, though Poland never formally surrendered.
      On 8 October, after an initial period of military administration, Germany directly annexed western Poland and the former Free City of Danzig and placed the remaining block of territory under the administration of the newly established General Government. The Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance organizations formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the military exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West, an armed force loyal to the Polish government in exile.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To Invasion of Poland

    • The two powers invaded and partitioned Poland in 1939. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Together with earlier damage suffered in the 1939 invasion of Poland and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, over 85% of the city was destroyed by January 1945, when the course of the events in the Eastern Front forced the Germans to abandon the city. from Warsaw Uprising

    • The Panzer III was used in the campaigns against Poland, France, the Soviet Union and in North Africa. from Panzer III

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    • The Panzer II was the most numerous tank in the German Panzer divisions beginning with the invasion of France, and was used in the German campaigns in Poland, France, the Low Countries, Denmark, Norway, North Africa and the Eastern Front. from Tanks in the German Army

    • The majority of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with one clamed during the Invasion of Poland and eight during the Battle of France and Britain. from Karl-Gottfried Nordmann

    • It was used in every campaign fought by the Germans in World War II, notably the Invasion of Poland, the Battle of France, the Balkans Campaign, the Eastern Front, the North African Campaign, the Battle of Normandy and the Italian Campaign. from Sd.Kfz. 8

    • It participated in the Invasion of Poland, the Battle of France, the Balkans Campaign and fought on both the Western Front and the Eastern Front, in North Africa and in Italy. from Sd.Kfz. 10

    • It participated in the Invasion of Poland, the Battle of France, the Balkans Campaign and fought on both the Western Front and the Eastern Front, in North Africa and in Italy. from Sd.Kfz. 11

    • These vehicles first saw combat with the campaign against Poland and in the Battle of France. Later they saw use in both the USSR and North Africa. from Schwerer Panzerspähwagen

    • During World War II he fought in the Invasion of Poland, Battle of France, Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Norway, Battle of Britain, Battle of Crete, siege of Malta, Mediterranean theatre of operations, over the Eastern Front and in Defense of the Reich. from Hermann Hogeback

    • Fullriede fought in the German invasion of Poland and on the Eastern Front. from Fritz Fullriede

    • After Hitler Youth and Reich Labour Service, Müller joined the Wehrmacht in 1939, fighting in the campaigns in Poland, France, and on the Russian Front. from Siegfried Müller (mercenary)

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      Army Group Centre Army Group Centre (German: Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that…
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      Army Group Centre (German: Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II. The first Army Group Centre was created on 22 June 1941, as one of three German Army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). On…

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      Army Group Centre (German: Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II. The first Army Group Centre was created on 22 June 1941, as one of three German Army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). On 25 January 1945, after it was encircled in the Königsberg pocket, Army Group Centre was renamed Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord), and Army Group A (Heeresgruppe A) became Army Group Centre. The latter formation retained its name until the end of the war in Europe.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To Army Group Centre

    • After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the OKH (Army General Staff), General Franz Halder and the heads of three Army groups and armies, decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better, as argued by the head of Army Group Center, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Army Group Centre's two panzer groups (2nd and 3rd), advanced to the north and south of Brest-Litovsk and converged east of Minsk, followed by the 2nd, 4th, and 9th Armies. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Army Group Centre ( ) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II. from Army Group Centre

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    • After the rapid progress of Army Group Center through the central sector of the Eastern front, a huge salient developed around its junction with Army Group South by late July 1941. from Battle of Kiev (1941)

    • In 1942, as part of Army Group Center's 3rd Panzer Army, the LVI Panzer Corps was used to fight Soviet partisans on the Eastern Front. from LVI Panzer Corps

    • It remained on the Eastern Front, mainly under Army Group Centre, until it was trapped on the coast at Courland in the summer of 1944. from 4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • This occurred most notably on the Eastern Front, particularly in the rear areas of Army Group Centre, where they acted with extreme brutality. from Security Division (Wehrmacht)

    • As Germany was cut in two, Kesselring's command was enlarged to include Army Groups Centre, South and South-East on the Eastern Front, and Army Group C in Italy, as well as his own Army Group G and Army Group Upper Rhine. from Albert Kesselring

    • The division was transferred to the Eastern Front in June 1941 to serve under Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte). from 26th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Dietrich remained in command of the Leibstandarte throughout the campaigns in Greece and Yugoslavia before being promoted to command of the 1st SS Panzer Corps, attached to Army Group Center, on the Eastern Front. from Josef Dietrich

    • After taking part in the Invasion of France in 1940, it spent the remainder of its existence on the Eastern Front, mostly with Army Group Centre. from 56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • It spent most of its subsequent existence with Army Group Centre, on the Eastern Front. from 292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • The division had barely completed training when it was assigned to Army Group Centre on the Eastern Front, where it participated in the Battle of Velikiye Luki. from 6th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

    • It was then sent to the Russian Front, where it served with Army Group Center in the "little Stalingrad" at Velikiye Luki over the winter of 1942-1943. from 205th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • The division fought on the Eastern Front, for much of its existence it was part of the Ninth Army assigned to Army Group Centre. from 102nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

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      Army Group South Army Group South (German: Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of a number of German Army Groups during World War II.
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      Army Group South (German: Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of a number of German Army Groups during World War II.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To Army Group South

    • Both wings would converge on the area east of Kursk, and by that means restore the lines of Army Group South to the exact points that it held over the winter of 1941–1942. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Army Group South, with the 1st Panzer Group, the 6th, 11th and 17th Armies, was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or Kharkiv ) between 19 February and 15 March 1943. from Third Battle of Kharkov

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    • In 1942, Army Group South was in southern Russia on the Eastern Front. from Army Group A

    • After the rapid progress of Army Group Center through the central sector of the Eastern front, a huge salient developed around its junction with Army Group South by late July 1941. from Battle of Kiev (1941)

    • The Battle of Uman (15 July – 8 August 1941) was the German and allied encirclement of the 6th (General Lieutenant I.N. Muzyrchenko) and 12th (General Major P.G. Ponedelin) Soviet armies south of the city of Uman during the initial offensive operations of German Army Group South, commanded by Generalfeldmarshall Gerd von Rundstedt, as part of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front during World War II. from Battle of Uman

    • In Early February 1943 Totenkopf was moved back to the Eastern Front as part of Erich von Manstein's Army Group South. from 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf

    • The division was then sent to the Russian Front where it was part of XXXXVIII Corps (mot.) under the command of General Kempf (1 Pz.Gr., Army Group South). from 11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • The Battle of Rostov (1941) was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought around Rostov-on-Don between the German Army Group South, commanded by General Gerd von Rundstedt and the Soviet Southern Front commanded by General Yakov Timofeyevich Cherevichenko. from Battle of Rostov (1941)

    • As Germany was cut in two, Kesselring's command was enlarged to include Army Groups Centre, South and South-East on the Eastern Front, and Army Group C in Italy, as well as his own Army Group G and Army Group Upper Rhine. from Albert Kesselring

    • In October 1942 the division was reorganized as the 332nd Infantry Division (with improved mobility and offensive capabilities), and in the spring of 1943 it was transferred to the Russian Front where it fought in the Battle of Kursk under Army Group South in July. from 332nd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In World War II he first served in Poland and on the Eastern Front as quartermaster of the 6th Army and in 1943 for Army Group South. from Eberhard Finckh

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      Battle of Moscow The Battle of Moscow (Russian: Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of…
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      The Battle of Moscow (Russian: Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km (370 mi) sector of the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place between October 1941 and January 1942. The Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler's attack on Moscow,…

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      The Battle of Moscow (Russian: Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km (370 mi) sector of the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place between October 1941 and January 1942. The Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler's attack on Moscow, capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the largest Soviet city. Moscow was one of the primary military and political objectives for Axis forces in their invasion of the Soviet Union.
      The German strategic offensive named Operation Typhoon was planned to conduct two pincer offensives, one to the north of Moscow against the Kalinin Front by the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies, simultaneously severing the Moscow–Leningrad railway, and another to the south of Moscow Oblast against the Western Front south of Tula, by the 2nd Panzer Army, while the 4th Army advanced directly towards Moscow from the west. A separate operational German plan, codenamed Operation Wotan, was included in the final phase of the German offensive.
      Initially, the Soviet forces conducted a strategic defence of the Moscow Oblast by constructing three defensive belts, deploying newly raised reserve armies, and bringing troops from the Siberian and Far Eastern Military Districts. Subsequently, as the German offensives were halted, a Soviet strategic counter-offensive and smaller-scale offensive operations were executed to force the German armies back to the positions around the cities of Oryol, Vyazma and Vitebsk, nearly surrounding three German armies in the process.

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    Connects To Battle of Moscow

    • Operation Typhoon, which was set in motion on 30 September, saw the 2nd Panzer Army rush along the paved road from Oryol (captured 5 October) to the Oka River at Plavsk, while the 4th Panzer Army (transferred from Army Group North to Centre) and 3rd Panzer armies surrounded the Soviet forces in two huge pockets at Vyazma and Bryansk. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • This decision, Hitler's "summer pause", is believed to have had a severe impact on the Battle of Moscow's outcome, by giving up speed in the advance on Moscow in favor of encircling large numbers of Soviet troops around Kiev. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Battle of Moscow (Russian: Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II. from Battle of Moscow

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    • During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, Vyazma became a battlefield between the Red Army and the Wehrmacht during the Battle of Moscow. from Vyazma

    • On the Eastern Front the German army used the tactic successfully during the Soviet winter advances, notably in the Battle of Moscow in 1941, in the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive in November 1942, and in the battle around Orel during Operation Saturn in February 1943. from Hedgehog defence

    • The Panfilov Division's Twenty-Eight Guardsmen (Russian: Двадцать восемь гвардейцев дивизии Панфилова trans. Dvadtsat Vosem Gvardeytsev Divizii Panfilova), commonly referred to simply as Panfilov's Men (Панфиловцы, Panfilovtsy), were a group of soldiers from the Red Army's 316th Rifle Division that took part in the defense of Moscow during the Great Patriotic War. from Panfilov's Twenty-Eight Guardsmen

    • Zemlyanka was the name of an Eastern Front (World War II) song written by A. Surkov-Listov in 1941 during the Battle of Moscow. from Zemlyanka

    • The Battle at Borodino Field was a part of the Battle of Moscow, on the Eastern Front of World War II. from Battle at Borodino Field

    • Peter Edgerly Firchow and Peter Davison consider that in real life, with events in Animal Farm mirroring those in the Soviet Union, the Battle of the Windmill represents the Great Patriotic War (World War II), especially the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Moscow. from Animal Farm

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      Army Group North Army Group North (German: Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of…
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      Army Group North (German: Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II. The army group was subordinated to the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH), the German army high command, and coordinated the operations of attached separate army corps, reserve formations, rear services and logistics.

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    • The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade ( , transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military operation undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. from Siege of Leningrad

    • Army Group Courland ( ) was a German Army Group on the Eastern Front which was created from remnants of the Army Group North, isolated in the Courland Peninsula by the advancing Soviet Army forces during the 1944 Baltic Offensive of the Second World War. from Army Group Courland

    • It took place on the Eastern Front during World War II between the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front and parts of the German Army Group North. from Tartu Offensive

    • The Soviet breakthrough in Belorussia made the German Army Group North withdraw a large portion of their troops from Narva to the central part of the Eastern Front and to Finland. from Narva Offensive (July 1944)

    • For the next four years, it fought on the Eastern Front, largely as part of Army Group North, assigned to Eighteenth Army. from 21st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In 1945 he became Commander in Chief of Army Group North on the Eastern Front. from Walter Weiß

    • It was then transferred to the Eastern Front, where it served as a reserve for Army Group North near Leningrad. from 3rd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In November 1941 it was transferred to the Eastern Front where it joined Army Group North near Leningrad and along the Volkhov Front. from 212th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In November 1941, the legion was ordered to the Eastern front near Leningrad, under the overall command of Army Group North. from Anton Mussert

    • In November, it returned to Germany for rehabilitation, and in April 1942 it was deployed to the Eastern Front, where it joined Army Group North on the Volkhov Front. from 5th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

    • After training in Hamburg and East Prussia, in November 1941 it was ordered to the Eastern Front near Leningrad, under the overall command of Army Group North. from Hendrik Seyffardt

    • In December 1941 the 227th Division was transferred to Army Group North on the Eastern Front. from Alfred Becker

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      Axis powers The Axis powers (German: Achsenmächte, Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the…
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      The Axis powers (German: Achsenmächte, Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces. The Axis powers were united by their opposition to several Western powers and the Soviet Union. They described their goals as breaking the hegemony of plutocratic-capitalist Western powers and defending civilization from communism.…

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      The Axis powers (German: Achsenmächte, Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces. The Axis powers were united by their opposition to several Western powers and the Soviet Union. They described their goals as breaking the hegemony of plutocratic-capitalist Western powers and defending civilization from communism.
      The Axis grew out of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty signed by Germany and Japan in 1936. Italy joined the Pact in 1937. The "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the Pact of Steel, with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany and its two treaty-bound allies.
      At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia. The war ended in 1945 with the defeat of the Axis powers and the dissolution of their alliance. As in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, with some nations switching sides or changing their degree of military involvement over the course of the war.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To Axis powers

    • Over 500,000 soldiers served on the Eastern Front. from Axis powers

    • The states that provided forces and other resources for the German war effort included the Axis Powers – primarily Romania, Hungary, Italy, pro-Nazi Slovakia, and Croatia. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The conflict began on 22 June 1941 with the Operation Barbarossa offensive, when Axis forces crossed the borders described in the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact, thereby invading the Soviet Union. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Allied forces fought the Axis powers on two fronts (the Eastern Front and Western Front) as well as in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre. from European theatre of World War II

    • Ivan Stepanovich Konev ( ;  – 21 May 1973), was a Soviet military commander, who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin. from Ivan Konev

    • During Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent German–Soviet War, millions of Red Army prisoners of war were taken. from German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war

    • The troops of the Hungarian First Army, like all Hungarian troops, were part of the one-million-plus non-German Axis troops on the Eastern Front. from First Army (Hungary)

    • In April, Pătrășcanu was contacted by Ionel Mocsony Stârcea, baron de Foen, marshal of King Michael I's court between 1942 and 1944, who mediated an agreement between the monarch and the Communists regarding a pro-Allied move to overthrow Antonescu and withdraw Romania, which was fighting the Soviets on the Eastern Front, from the Axis. from Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu

    • The Crimea Campaign was an eight-month long campaign by Axis forces to conquer the Crimea peninsula, and was the scene of some of the bloodiest battles on the Eastern Front during World War II. from Crimean Campaign

    • After the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Ante Pavelić, the leader of the newly created Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), offered Adolf Hitler volunteers to serve on the Eastern Front. from 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • It was recaptured by Romania during 1941–1944 in the course of the Axis attack on the Soviet Union in World War II, and became part of the Dorohoi County of Bukovina Governorate until the Red Army captured it again in 1944. from Hertza region

    • The Soviet Union saw the war as part of its struggle against Nazi Germany and its allies, on the Eastern Front of World War II. from Continuation War

    • After the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Ante Pavelić, the leader of the newly created Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), offered Adolf Hitler volunteers to serve on the Eastern Front. from 392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Little is known about Roller's activity in early 1944, when the change of fortunes on the Eastern Front signaled a Soviet victory over the Axis Powers. from Mihail Roller

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      Operation Bagration Operation Bagration (/bʌɡrʌtiˈɒn/; Russian: Oперация Багратион, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the…
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      Operation Bagration (/bʌɡrʌtiˈɒn/; Russian: Oперация Багратион, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation during World War II, which cleared German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland between 22 June and 19 August 1944. The operation was named after 18th–19th century Georgian Prince Pyotr Bagration, general of the Imperial Russian Army who was mortally wounded at the Battle of Borodino.…

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      Operation Bagration (/bʌɡrʌtiˈɒn/; Russian: Oперация Багратион, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation during World War II, which cleared German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland between 22 June and 19 August 1944. The operation was named after 18th–19th century Georgian Prince Pyotr Bagration, general of the Imperial Russian Army who was mortally wounded at the Battle of Borodino.
      The operation resulted in the almost complete destruction of an entire German army group, with the loss of Army Group Centre's Fourth Army, Third Panzer Army and Ninth Army. It is considered the most calamitous defeat experienced by the German armed forces during the Second World War. By the end of the operation most of the western Soviet Union had been liberated and the Red Army had achieved footholds in Romania and Poland. German losses eventually numbered well over half a million men killed or wounded, even higher than the toll at Verdun in 1916.
      The Soviet armies directly involved in Operation Bagration were the 1st Baltic Front under Army General Ivan Bagramyan, the 1st Belorussian Front commanded by Army General Konstantin Rokossovsky, the 2nd Belorussian Front commanded by Colonel-General G. F. Zakharov, and the 3rd Belorussian Front commanded by Colonel-General Ivan Chernyakhovsky.
      The objectives of the operation were complicated. The Red Army practiced the concept of Soviet deep battle and maskirovka. One American author suggests that these Soviet innovations were enabled, in part, by the provision of over 220,000 trucks by the United States to motorize the Soviet infantry. It has been suggested the primary target of the Soviet offensive was the bridgehead on the Vistula river in central Poland, and that Operation Bagration was to create a crisis in Belorussia to divert German mobile reserves to the central sectors as a part of maskirovka, removing them from the Lublin-Brest, Lvov–Sandomierz area where the Soviets intended to undertake the Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive and Lublin–Brest Offensive. This allowed the Red Army to reach the Vistula river and Warsaw, which in turn put Soviet forces within striking distance of Berlin, conforming to the concept of Soviet deep operations — striking deep into the enemy's strategic depths.

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    Connects To Operation Bagration

    • The Oberkommando des Heeres expected the Soviets to launch a major Eastern Front offensive in the summer of 1944. from Operation Bagration

    • The Belorussian Offensive (codenamed Operation Bagration), which began on 22 June 1944, was a massive Soviet attack, consisting of four Soviet army groups totaling over 120 divisions that smashed into a thinly held German line. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Soviet breakthrough in Belorussia forced the Army Group North to withdraw a large portion of their troops from Narva to the central part of the Eastern Front and to Finland. from Battle of Narva (1944)

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    • Operation Doppelkopf ( ) and the following Operation Cäsar were German counter-offensives on the Eastern Front late in 1944 in the aftermath of the major Soviet advance in Operation Bagration. from Operation Doppelkopf

    • The Soviet breakthrough in Belorussia made the German Army Group North withdraw a large portion of their troops from Narva to the central part of the Eastern Front and to Finland. from Narva Offensive (July 1944)

    • Most of the units spent much of their existence on the Eastern Front: Luftwaffe Field Divisions were present at actions such as the "Little Stalingrad of the North", the attempt to relieve Velikiye Luki; the attempted defence of Vitebsk during Operation Bagration, and the fighting in the Courland Pocket, though they also fought in other theatres. from Luftwaffe Field Division

    • They were used with great success during World War II on the Eastern Front, in such victories as the Battle of Stalingrad and Operation Bagration. from Mikhail Tukhachevsky

    • His most notable command during the German-Soviet War was that of 1st Guards Tank Army which he commanded during the Battle of Kursk, Operation Bagration, the Vistula Oder Operation, and the Battle of Berlin. from Mikhail Katukov

    • On the Eastern Front the Soviets' Operation Bagration during the summer had destroyed much of Germany's Army Group Center (Heeresgruppe Mitte). from Battle of the Bulge

    • The films are a dramatized account of the liberation of the Soviet Union's territory and the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War, focusing on five major Eastern Front campaigns: the Battle of Kursk, the Lower Dnieper Offensive, Operation Bagration, the Vistula-Oder Offensive, and the Battle of Berlin. from Liberation (film series)

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      Battle of Berlin The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major…
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      The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II.…

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      The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II.
      Starting on 12 January 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and advanced westward as much as 40 kilometres (25 miles) a day through East Prussia, Lower Silesia, East Pomerania, and Upper Silesia, temporarily halting on a line 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin along the Oder River. When the offensive resumed, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Battle in Berlin lasted from 20 April until the morning of 2 May.
      The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, when the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici, correctly anticipated that the main Soviet thrust would be made over the Oder River. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Soviets managed to encircle the city as a result of their success in the battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. During 20 April 1945, the 1st Belorussian Front led by Marshal Georgy Zhukov started shelling Berlin's city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front had pushed from the south through the last formations of Army Group Centre. The German defences were mainly led by Helmuth Weidling and consisted of several depleted, badly equipped, and disorganised Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, the latter of which included many SS foreign volunteers, as well as poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Within the next few days, the Soviets rapidly advanced through the city and reached the city centre where close-quarters combat raged.
      Before the battle was over, German Führer Adolf Hitler and a number of his followers committed suicide. The city's defenders finally surrendered on 2 May; however, fighting continued to the north-west, west, and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May (9 May in the Soviet Union) as German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets.

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    Connects To Battle of Berlin

    • By 24 April, elements of the 1BF and 1UF had completed the encirclement of the German capital and the Battle of Berlin entered its final stages. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The war ended on 9 May 1945, when Germany's armed forces surrendered unconditionally following the Battle of Berlin (also known as the Berlin Offensive), a strategic operation executed by the Red Army. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • On April 16 the Red Army jumped off from lines on the Oder and Neisse Rivers, the opening phase of the Battle of Berlin, which proved to be the culminating offensive of the war on the Eastern Front. from Vistula–Oder Offensive

    • After defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. from Joseph Stalin

    • His most notable command during the German-Soviet War was that of 1st Guards Tank Army which he commanded during the Battle of Kursk, Operation Bagration, the Vistula Oder Operation, and the Battle of Berlin. from Mikhail Katukov

    • In late April, when the Eastern Front drew closer (Battle of Berlin), women, children and elderly men were forced to dig a -long anti-tank ditch east of the town. from Mass suicide in Demmin

    • In the 2000 novel "The End of War" by, David L. Robbins two of the characters, Ilya and Misha are former officers demoted to the penal battalions who fight in several battles on the Eastern Front culminating in the Battle of Berlin. from Shtrafbat

    • The films are a dramatized account of the liberation of the Soviet Union's territory and the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War, focusing on five major Eastern Front campaigns: the Battle of Kursk, the Lower Dnieper Offensive, Operation Bagration, the Vistula-Oder Offensive, and the Battle of Berlin. from Liberation (film series)

    • The plot revolves around the history of the Great Patriotic War and the Battle of Berlin, focusing on the role that Joseph Stalin played in the events. from List of films set in Berlin

    • Alexander Belyakov was appointed head of the Ryazan Supreme School of Navigators of the Soviet Air Force in the 1940s and took part in the fighting against Nazi Germany as the 16th Air Army's chief navigator during the Battle of Berlin. Promoted to lieutenant-general during the war, he continued to serve in the Air Force and became a professor at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology upon his retirement from the service in 1960. from Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov

    • Wiesenthal variously reported that Kohlrautz was killed on the Soviet Front in 1944 or in the Battle of Berlin on 19 April 1945. from Simon Wiesenthal

    • He became a junior officer of the Red Army and fought in the Battle of Stalingrad as well as in the successful campaigns to retake Ukraine and Belarus from the German army. Varennikov finished the German-Soviet War in the Battle of Berlin as one of the commanders of the Soviet soldiers who captured the Reichstag. from Valentin Varennikov

    • Many of the units which spearheaded the Soviet offensives on the Eastern Front from the Battle of Stalingrad to the Battle of Berlin were Shock Armies. from Shock troops

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      Luftwaffe The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II. After the German Empire's…
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      The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II. After the German Empire's World War I-era army air force, the Luftstreitkräfte, and the Kaiserliche Marine naval air units had been disbanded by May 1920 under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the Luftwaffe was reformed on 26 February…

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      The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II. After the German Empire's World War I-era army air force, the Luftstreitkräfte, and the Kaiserliche Marine naval air units had been disbanded by May 1920 under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the Luftwaffe was reformed on 26 February 1935 and grew to become one of the strongest, most doctrinally advanced, and most battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II started in Europe in September 1939. After the defeat of the Third Reich, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946.
      Luftwaffe is also the generic term in German speaking countries for any national military aviation service, and the names of air forces in other countries are usually translated into German as "Luftwaffe" (e.g. Royal Air Force is often translated as "britische Luftwaffe"). However, Luftstreitkräfte, or "air armed force", is also sometimes used as a translation of "air force" for post-World War I air arms, as it was used as the first word of the official German name of the former East German Air Force, disbanded the day before German reunification was achieved in October 1990. Since "Luft" translates into English as "air", and "Waffe" may be translated into English as either "weapon" or "arm", "Air Arm" may be considered the most literal English translation of Luftwaffe (cf. Fleet Air Arm).
      One of the forerunners of the Luftwaffe, the Imperial German Army Air Service, was founded in 1910. After the defeat of Germany in WW I, the service was dissolved in 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles. During the interwar period, German pilots trained in violation of the treaty in secret. By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had nine Jagdgeschwader (fighter wings) mostly equipped with the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, four 'Zerstörergeschwader (destroyer wings) equipped with the Messerschmitt Bf 110 heavy fighter, 11 Kampfgeschwader (bomber wings) equipped with mainly the Heinkel He 111 and the Dornier Do 17Z and four Sturzkampfgeschwader (dive bomber wings). The Luftwaffe's Condor Legion experimented with new doctrine and aircraft during the Spanish Civil War. Throughout the history of the Third Reich, the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief. The first was Hermann Göring, with the second and last being Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim.
      When the Second World War began, the Luftwaffe was one of the most technologically advanced air forces in the world. In the summer of 1940, the Luftwaffe contributed to the unexpected success in the Battle of France. During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe, despite causing severe damage to the Royal Air Force's infrastructure and British cities during the subsequent Blitz, did not achieve air superiority. The Defence of the Reich campaign gradually destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for bomber destroyer duties, it was overwhelmed by Allied numbers and a lack of trained pilots and fuel. A last-ditch attempt, known as Operation Bodenplatte, to win air superiority in January 1945 failed. After the Bodenplatte effort, the Luftwaffe had ceased to be an effective fighting force.

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    Connects To Luftwaffe

    • Freezing/hypothermia experiments were conducted for the Nazi high command to simulate the conditions the armies suffered on the Eastern Front, as the German forces were ill-prepared for the cold weather they encountered. from Luftwaffe

    • The defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and Battle of Kursk ensured the gradual decline of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. from Luftwaffe

    • To establish air supremacy, the Luftwaffe began immediate attacks on Soviet airfields, destroying much of the forward-deployed Soviet Air Force airfield fleets consisting of largely obsolescent types before their pilots had a chance to leave the ground. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • During the middle part of 1941, some of the ZNDH's man-power capacity (one fighter squadron and one medium bomber squadron) was sent to the Eastern Front as part of the Luftwaffe, the Croatian Air Force Legion ( , HZL; ). from Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia

    • In the summer of 1942, an air brigade was attached to the Luftwaffe's VIII. Fliegerkorps on the Eastern Front. from Hungarian Air Force

    • The Croatian Air Force Legion ( ), or HZL, also known as the Croatian Legion, was a foreign volunteer unit of the Luftwaffe raised from volunteers drawn from the Independent State of Croatia which fought on the Eastern Front between 1941-1943 in the Second World War. from Croatian Air Force Legion

    • In World War II, reports of ramming by lone VVS pilots against the Luftwaffe became widespread, especially in the early days of the hostilities in the war's Eastern Front. from Aerial ramming

    • The Croatian Air Force Legion ( ), or HZL, was a military unit of the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia which fought alongside the Luftwaffe on the Eastern Front from 1941 to 1943 and then back on Croatian soil. from Independent State of Croatia

    • Four P.108Cs and five P.108Ts were handed over to the Luftwaffe and used on the Eastern Front, notably during the 1944 evacuation of Axis troops from the Crimea following the fall of Sevastopol. from Piaggio P.108

    • Luftlande-Sturm-Regiment 1 (also known as Versuchsabteilung Friedrichshafen or Sturmabteilung Koch) was a Nazi German Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger Regiment which captured the Belgian Fort Eben-Emael during the Battle of Belgium, assaulted Crete, and fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. from Luftlande-Sturm-Regiment

    • About 3,500 members of the LTDF were by force drafted into other Nazi formations: several infantry battalions under Colonel Birontas were sent to the Eastern Front, some became guards at Luftwaffe installations outside Lithuania, others were sent to Germany as forced laborers. from Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force

    • Luftwaffen-Legion Lettland was a unit of the German Luftwaffe that served in the Eastern Front in 1944. from Luftwaffen-Legion Lettland

    • During World War II on the Eastern Front, he shot down a large number of Luftwaffe fighter planes in aerial battles and was credited for helping the Soviet Air Force win air supremacy over the skies of Stalingrad and Kursk. from Red Guardian

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      6th Army (Wehrmacht) The 6th Army was a designation for a German field army that saw action in World War II. The 6th Army is best known…
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      The 6th Army was a designation for a German field army that saw action in World War II. The 6th Army is best known for fighting in the Battle of Stalingrad, during which it became the first entire German field army to be destroyed. After the battle of Stalingrad, approximately 107,800 soldiers of the 6th Army entered Soviet captivity; of which only about 6,000 survived the captivity.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To 6th Army (Wehrmacht)

    • Army Group South, with the 1st Panzer Group, the 6th, 11th and 17th Armies, was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • It returned to the Russian Front at the end of the year and participated in the failed attempt to relieve the Sixth Army at Battle of Stalingrad. Thereafter it fought in the battles of Kharkov and Kursk and the defensive battles back across the Ukraine and White Russia afterward. from 6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • The Severity Order was the name given to an order promulgated within the German Sixth Army on the Eastern Front during World War II by Field Marshal Walther von Reichenau on 10 October 1941. from Severity Order

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    • Thereafter it was committed back to the Russian Front, where it served under the Sixth Army and was lost at Stalingrad in early 1943. from 71st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In World War II he first served in Poland and on the Eastern Front as quartermaster of the 6th Army and in 1943 for Army Group South. from Eberhard Finckh

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      Volgograd Volgograd (Russian: Волгогра́д; IPA: [vəlɡɐˈɡrat] ( )), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian:  Цари́цын​ ), 1589–1925, and…
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      Volgograd (Russian: Волгогра́д; IPA: [vəlɡɐˈɡrat] ( )), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian:  Цари́цын​ ), 1589–1925, and Stalingrad (Russian:  Сталингра́д​ ), 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometers (50 mi) long, north to south. It is situated on the western bank of the Volga River. The population is 1,021,215 (2010 Census); 1,011,417 (2002 Census); 1,022,578 (1989 Census).…

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      Volgograd (Russian: Волгогра́д; IPA: [vəlɡɐˈɡrat] ( )), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian:  Цари́цын​ ), 1589–1925, and Stalingrad (Russian:  Сталингра́д​ ), 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometers (50 mi) long, north to south. It is situated on the western bank of the Volga River. The population is 1,021,215 (2010 Census); 1,011,417 (2002 Census); 1,022,578 (1989 Census).
      The city became famous for its resistance — and the extensive physical damage and death toll it suffered — during the Battle of Stalingrad against the German Army in World War II. Beginning in 2013, for nine days every year, the city may be officially referred to as "Stalingrad". Some residents have suggested that the city be permanently renamed "Stalingrad"; president Vladimir Putin has expressed that such a move should be preceded by a local referendum.

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    Connects To Volgograd

    • Meanwhile, the 6th Army was driving towards Stalingrad, for a long period unsupported by 4th Panzer Army, which had been diverted to help 1st Panzer Army cross the Don. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • In November 1942, the Division was sent to the southern sector of the Eastern Front where it participated in the failed attempt to relieve the surrounded troops at Stalingrad. from 17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • In June 1942 von Einsiedel was transferred to Jagdgeschwader 3 on the Russian Front for the forthcoming offensive against Stalingrad. from Heinrich Graf von Einsiedel

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    • The Volga–Don Canal, together with the Tsimlyansky water-engineering system (chief architect Leonid Polyakov), form part of an architectural ensemble dedicated to the battles for Tsaritsyn during the Russian Civil War and for Stalingrad during the German-Soviet War. from Volga–Don Canal

    • From 1940–1942 he was Chief of Staff of XXXXI Corps and was then appointed the Chief of Staff of the 4th Panzer Army on the Eastern Front, serving at Stalingrad. from Hans Röttiger

    • It was formed during the German-Soviet War as part of the 62nd Army and assigned to the defense of Stalingrad, officially arriving in the theater in August 1942. from 39th Guards Motor Rifle Division

    • Serving all over the Eastern Front, he participated in the defense of Kiev, Stalingrad and Leningrad, in the liberation of Warsaw and in the capture of Berlin. from Naum Shusterman

    • Sounds a lot like Eastern Front World War II up through Stalingrad". from H. Irving Hancock

    • During World War II on the Eastern Front, he shot down a large number of Luftwaffe fighter planes in aerial battles and was credited for helping the Soviet Air Force win air supremacy over the skies of Stalingrad and Kursk. from Red Guardian

    • The Jabos reached the Eastern Front in time to bomb Russian positions in Stalingrad. from Fighter-bomber

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      Soviet partisans The Soviet partisans were members of a resistance movement which fought a guerrilla war against the Axis occupation…
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      The Soviet partisans were members of a resistance movement which fought a guerrilla war against the Axis occupation of the Soviet Union during World War II.…

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      The Soviet partisans were members of a resistance movement which fought a guerrilla war against the Axis occupation of the Soviet Union during World War II.
      The movement was coordinated and controlled by the Soviet government and modeled on that of the Red Army. The primary objective of the guerrilla warfare waged by the Soviet partisan units was the disruption of the Eastern Front's German rear, especially road and rail communications. There were also regular military formations, also called partisans, that were used to conduct long-range reconnaissance patrol missions behind enemy lines from bases within Soviet-held territory.

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    Connects To Soviet partisans

    • Military losses of 10.6 million include six million killed or missing in action and 3.6 million POW dead, plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Nature of partisan resistance activities Although the Eastern Front was notorious for the cruelty towards prisoners of war and the enemy in general, partisan activities are thought to have intensified this. from Soviet partisans

    • The primary objective of the guerrilla warfare waged by the Soviet partisan units was the disruption of the Eastern Front's German rear, especially road and rail communications. from Soviet partisans

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    • Alexander Nikolayevich Saburov ( ; (1 August 1908 - 15 April 1974), one of the leaders of Soviet partisan movement in Ukraine and western Russia during the German-Soviet War. from Alexander Saburov

    • Estimated total Soviet military war dead from 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million. from World War II casualties

    • The police battalions were mostly engaged in the Eastern Front, occasionally fighting against Soviet partisans. from Estonian Auxiliary Police

    • Oleksiy Fedorovych Fedorov (Ukrainian: , , Aleksey Fyodorovich Fyodorov; March 30, 1901 - September 9, 1989), one of the leaders of Soviet partisan movement during the World War II. from Oleksiy Fedorov

    • The Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was awarded to: all military and civilian personnel of the Armed Forces of the USSR who took part in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, to partisans of the Great Patriotic War, to the personnel of the Armed Forces of the USSR, as well as any other persons who were awarded the Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945". from Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945\

    • The Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was awarded to: all military and civilian personnel of the Armed Forces of the USSR who took part in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945, to partisans of the Great Patriotic War, to the personnel of the Armed Forces of the USSR, as well as any other persons who were awarded the Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", the Medal "For the Victory over Japan" or the Medal "For Valiant Labour in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945". from Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945\

    • Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of December 19, 1969 added as recipients: partisans and guerrillas of the Civil War and of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945. from Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR\

    • Oleg Vasilyevich Koshevoy ( , translit. Oleh Vasyl'ovych Koshovyi; ) (June 8, 1926 – February 9, 1943) was a Ukrainian Soviet partisan and one of the founders of the clandestine organization Young Guard, which fought the Nazi forces in Krasnodon during World War II between 1941 and 1945. from Oleg Koshevoy

    • The Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was awarded to officers, warrant officers, sergeants, petty officers, sailors and soldiers, enlisted in the service and on active duty on February 23, 1978 in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces of organs of the State Security, in the Council of Ministers of the USSR; to former Red Guards, soldiers who took part in the fighting to protect the Soviet homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, to partisans of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945; persons discharged from active military service in the reserve or retired, who served in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces and organs of the State Security Council of Ministers of the USSR for 20 years or more or that were awarded during their active duty, military orders of the USSR or the medals "For courage", Ushakov, "For Military Merit", "For Distinction in Protection of State Border of the USSR", Nakhimov, "For Distinction in Military Service”. from Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR\

    • It was then sent to the Eastern front, as part of the Italian Army in Russia to act as a reserve, behind the front on "line of communications", rear area security and anti-partisan duties. from 156th Infantry Division Vicenza

    • Police Battalions carried out guard duties, raids against Soviet partisans and fought on the Eastern Front. from Latvian Police Battalions

    • Because of its publication outside of its original context of the Kotovsky Suite, it was now taken as a reference to the then-contemporary Soviet partisans of the Great Patriotic War (WWII). from Smuglyanka

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      Erich von Manstein Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was one of the most prominent commanders of the Wehrmacht, Nazi…
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      Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was one of the most prominent commanders of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during World War II. Attaining the rank of field marshal, he was held in high esteem by both the Axis powers and the Allies as one of Germany's best military strategists and field commanders.…

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      Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was one of the most prominent commanders of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during World War II. Attaining the rank of field marshal, he was held in high esteem by both the Axis powers and the Allies as one of Germany's best military strategists and field commanders.
      Born into an aristocratic Prussian family with a long history of military service, Manstein joined the army at a young age and saw service on several fronts during World War I. He rose to the rank of captain by the end of the war and was active in the inter-war period helping Germany rebuild her armed forces. During the invasion of Poland at the outbreak of World War II, he was serving as Chief of Staff to Gerd von Rundstedt's Army Group South. Hitler chose Manstein's strategy for the invasion of France, a plan later refined by Franz Halder and other members of the OKH. Anticipating a firm Allied reaction should the main thrust of the invasion take place through the Netherlands, Manstein devised an innovative tactic—later known as the Sichelschnitt ("sickle cut")—that called for an attack through the woods of the Ardennes and a rapid drive to the English Channel, thus cutting off the French and Allied armies in Belgium and Flanders. Attaining the rank of general at the end of the campaign, he was active in the invasion of the Soviet Union and the Siege of Sevastopol, and was promoted to field marshal on 1 July 1942. He also participated in the Siege of Leningrad. Germany's fortunes in the war began to take an unfavourable turn after the disastrous Battle of Stalingrad, where Manstein commanded a failed relief effort in late 1943. Later known as the "backhand blow", Manstein's counteroffensive in the Third Battle of Kharkov regained substantial territory and resulted in the destruction of three Soviet armies and the retreat of three others. He was one of the primary commanders at the Battle of Kursk, one of the last major battles of the war and one of the largest battles in history. His ongoing disagreements with Adolf Hitler over the conduct of the war led to his dismissal in March 1944. He never obtained another command and was taken prisoner by the British in August 1945, several months after Germany's defeat. Manstein gave testimony at the main Nuremberg Trials of war criminals in August 1946, and prepared a paper that, along with his later memoirs, helped contribute to the myth of a "clean Wehrmacht"—the myth that the German armed forces were not culpable for the atrocities of the Holocaust. In 1949 he was tried in Hamburg for war crimes and was convicted on nine of seventeen counts, including the poor treatment of prisoners of war and failing to protect civilian lives in his sphere of operations. His sentence of eighteen years in prison was later reduced to twelve, and he served only four years before being released in 1953. As a military advisor to the West German government in the mid-1950s, he helped re-establish the armed forces. His successful memoir, Verlorene Siege (1955), translated into English as Lost Victories, was highly critical of Hitler's leadership, and focused strictly on the military aspects of the war while ignoring its political and ethical contexts. Manstein died in Munich in 1973.

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    • At the end of the day both sides had fought each other to a standstill, but regardless of the standstill in the north Erich von Manstein intended to continue the attack with the 4th Panzer Army. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Manstein's counteroffensive, strengthened by a specially trained SS Panzer Corps equipped with Tiger tanks, opened on 20 February 1943 and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March, when the spring thaw intervened. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • In Early February 1943 Totenkopf was moved back to the Eastern Front as part of Erich von Manstein's Army Group South. from 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf

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    • Between 1940 and 1942 he served as the Chief of Operations to General (later Field Marshal) Erich von Manstein in the 11th Army on the Eastern Front. from Theodor Busse

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      T-34 The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank which had a profound and permanent effect on the fields of tank tactics and…
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      The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank which had a profound and permanent effect on the fields of tank tactics and design. First deployed in 1940, it has often been described as the most effective, efficient, and influential tank design of World War II. At its introduction, the T-34 possessed the best balance of firepower,…

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      The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank which had a profound and permanent effect on the fields of tank tactics and design. First deployed in 1940, it has often been described as the most effective, efficient, and influential tank design of World War II. At its introduction, the T-34 possessed the best balance of firepower, mobility, protection, and ruggedness of any tank (though its initial battlefield effectiveness suffered due to a variety of factors). Its 76.2 mm (3 in) high-velocity gun was the best tank gun in the world at that time; its heavy sloped armour was impenetrable by standard anti-tank weapons, and furthermore it was very agile. Though its armour and armament were surpassed later in the war, when they first encountered it in battle in 1941 German tank generals von Kleist and Guderian called it "the deadliest tank in the world."
      The T-34 was the mainstay of Soviet armoured forces throughout World War II. The design and construction of the tank were continuously refined during the war to enhance effectiveness and decrease costs, allowing steadily greater numbers of T-34s to be fielded despite heavy losses. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series. By the end of the war in 1945 the T-34 had replaced many light and heavy tanks in Red Army service. It accounted for the majority of Soviet tank production, and following the war it was widely exported. Its evolutionary development led directly to the T-54/55 series of tanks, built until 1981 and still operational as of 2013 and which itself led to the T-62, T-72, and T-90 tanks which, along with several Chinese tanks based on the T-55, form the backbone of many armies even today. In 1996, T-34 variants were still in service in at least 27 countries.

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    Connects To T-34

    • On 5 December 1941, these reinforcements attacked the German lines around the Soviet capital, supported by new T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • BK-37 equipped ground attack aircraft were developed for use in the anti-tank role on the Eastern Front in a somewhat desperate effort to blunt the massive numerical superiority of the Soviet T-34 as the war turned against Germany. from BK 37

    • The Semovente 90/53 was primarily developed in response to demands by Italian forces on the Eastern Front for a vehicle-mounted anti-tank weapon that could take on Soviet T-34 and KV tanks. from Semovente 90/53

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    • During the German-Soviet War of 1941-1945, the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory produced T-34 medium tanks. from Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. 112

    • In 1941 the enterprise passes to the issue of defensive types of products, including armor plating for the tank T-34, production of which it was mastered at the plant before Great Patriotic war. from Illich Steel and Iron Works

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      4th Panzer Army The 4th Panzer Army (German: 4. Panzerarmee) was, before being designated a full army, the Panzer Group 4…
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      The 4th Panzer Army (German: 4. Panzerarmee) was, before being designated a full army, the Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4), a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. Its units played a part in the invasion of France, and then on the Eastern Front.

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    Connects To 4th Panzer Army

    • The southern offensive, spearheaded by 4th Panzer Army, led by Gen. Col. Hoth, with three Tank Corps made more headway. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Its units played a part in the invasion of France, and then on the Eastern Front. from 4th Panzer Army

    • After North Africa, Nehring was posted to the Eastern Front where he commanded first the XXIV Panzer Corps, and then from July to August 1944 the Fourth Panzer Army. from Walther Nehring

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    • In October 1943, the division was transferred to the Eastern Front and was attached to the 4th Panzer Army,(Army Group North Ukraine). from 25th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • The 1st Panzer-Division was subordinated to Panzergruppe 4 (4th Panzer Group) under the command of Generaloberst (Colonel General) Erich Hoepner operating on the northern sector of the Eastern Font. from Wend von Wietersheim

    • From 1940–1942 he was Chief of Staff of XXXXI Corps and was then appointed the Chief of Staff of the 4th Panzer Army on the Eastern Front, serving at Stalingrad. from Hans Röttiger

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      Case Blue Case Blue (German: Fall Blau), later renamed Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name…
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      Case Blue (German: Fall Blau), later renamed Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942.…

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      Case Blue (German: Fall Blau), later renamed Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942.
      The operation was a continuation of the previous year's Operation Barbarossa intended to finally knock the Soviet Union out of the war, and involved a two-pronged attack against the rich oilfields of Baku as well as an advance in the direction of Stalingrad along the Volga River, to cover the flanks of the advance towards Baku. For this part of the operation, Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) of the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) was divided into Army Groups A and B (Heeresgruppe A and B). Army Group A was tasked with crossing the Caucasus mountains to reach the Baku oil fields, while Army Group B protected its flanks along the Volga.
      Initially, the German offensive saw spectacular gains with a rapid advance into the Caucasus capturing vast areas of land and several oil fields. However, the Red Army decisively defeated the Germans at Stalingrad, following Operations Uranus and Little Saturn. This defeat forced the Axis to retreat from the Caucasus in fear of becoming trapped. Only the city of Kursk and the Kuban region remained tentatively occupied by Axis troops.

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    Connects To Case Blue

    • Nevertheless, despite the destruction of Sixth Army, the Soviets only caused the Heer to retreat from their advance towards the Caucasus, further delaying the final decision on the Eastern Front. from Case Blue

    • The Battle of Voronezh was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the strategically important city of Voronezh on the Don river, south of Moscow, from 28 June-24 July 1942, as opening move of the German summer offensive in 1942. from Battle of Voronezh (1942)

    • The Slovak military played a prominent role throughout the War on the Eastern Front, participating in Operation Barbarossa, Case Blue, and other key operations. from Slovak Republic (1939–45)

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    • On 28 June 1942 during the campaign on the Eastern Front of World War II on the Russian front during Case Blue, it formed part of the 6th Army Corps, itself part of the German First Panzer Army. from 2nd Infantry Division (Romania)

    • The Soviets repulsed the important German strategic southern campaign and, although there were 2.5 million Soviet casualties in that effort, it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front. from Joseph Stalin

    • The Soviets repulsed the German strategic southern campaign and, although 2.5 million Soviet casualties were suffered in that effort, it permitted to Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front. from Nazi–Soviet economic relations (1934–41)

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      Panzer Panzer /ˈpænzər/ (German pronunciation: [ˈpantsɐ] ( )) is a German language word that means either tank (the…
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      Panzer /ˈpænzər/ (German pronunciation: [ˈpantsɐ] ( )) is a German language word that means either tank (the military vehicle) or armour. It is occasionally used in English and some other languages as a loanword in the contexts of German military.…

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      Panzer /ˈpænzər/ (German pronunciation: [ˈpantsɐ] ( )) is a German language word that means either tank (the military vehicle) or armour. It is occasionally used in English and some other languages as a loanword in the contexts of German military.
      It is commonly used in proper names of military divisions (Panzerdivision, ‘panzer division’, 4th Panzer Army, etc.), in proper names of tanks, such as Panzer IV, etc..
      The dated German term is Panzerkampfwagen, ‘tank’ or literally ‘armoured combat vehicle’ (the modern synonym is Kampfpanzer, or just Panzer).
      The German word Panzer refers to any kind of body armour, as in Plattenpanzer, ‘plate armour’, Kettenpanzer, ‘mail’, or generally gepanzert, ‘armoured’. The word also refers to an animal's protective shell or thick hide, as in Schildkrötenpanzer, ‘turtle shell'. It derives through the French pancier, ‘breastplate’, from Latin pantex, ‘belly, paunch’, and is possibly related to panus, ‘swelling’.

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    Connects To Panzer

    • For a month the offensive conducted on three axes was completely unstoppable as the panzer forces encircled hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in huge pockets that were then reduced by slower-moving infantry armies while the panzers continued the offensive, following the Blitzkrieg doctrine. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • He fought in France, but is most noted for his later exploits as a panzer commander on the Eastern Front. from Hermann Hoth

    • The 11th Panzer Division was a German Panzer formation which saw action on the Eastern and Western Fronts during the Second World War. from 11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

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    • The XXXIX Panzer Corps ( , also previously designated the XXXIX.Armeekorps (mot)) was a German panzer corps which saw action on the Western and Eastern Fronts during World War II. from XXXIX Panzer Corps

    • The I SS Panzer Corps Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler or I SS Panzer Corps ( ) was a German Waffen-SS panzer corps which saw action on both the Western and Eastern Fronts during World War II. from I SS Panzer Corps

    • Rudolf Schmidt (12 May 1886 – 7 April 1957) was a Panzer General in the German army during World War II who served as the Commander of the 2nd Panzer Army on the Eastern Front. from Rudolf Schmidt

    • Panzer-Division Müncheberg was a German panzer division which saw action on the Eastern Front around Berlin during World War II. from Panzer Division Müncheberg

    • Three panzer divisions were moved to Greece – one from France, and two from the Eastern Front. from Operation Mincemeat

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      Oberkommando des Heeres The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the Supreme High Command of the German Army. It was founded in 1935 as a part…
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      The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the Supreme High Command of the German Army. It was founded in 1935 as a part of Adolf Hitler's re-militarisation of the Third Reich. Its commander held the title Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres, Supreme High Commander of the Heer. From 1938 OKH was together with OKL Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Supreme…

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      The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the Supreme High Command of the German Army. It was founded in 1935 as a part of Adolf Hitler's re-militarisation of the Third Reich. Its commander held the title Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres, Supreme High Commander of the Heer. From 1938 OKH was together with OKL Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Supreme High Command of the Air Force and OKM Oberkommando der Marine, Supreme High Command of the Navy, formally subordinated to the OKW Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Supreme High Command of all Armed Forces (with exception of the Waffen-SS). During the war OKH had the responsibility of strategic planning of Armies and Army Groups, while the General Staff of the OKH managed operational matters. Each German Army also had an Armeeoberkommando, Army Command, or AOK. Until the German defeat at Moscow in December 1941, OKH and its staff was de facto the most importaint unit within the German war planning. Later OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Supreme High Command of the Armed Forces) took over this position.

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    Connects To Oberkommando des Heeres

    • After the failure of the attempt to capture Stalingrad, Hitler had delegated planning authority for the upcoming campaign season to the German Army High Command and reinstated Heinz Guderian to a prominent role, this time as Inspector of Panzer Troops. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the OKH (Army General Staff), General Franz Halder and the heads of three Army groups and armies, decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better, as argued by the head of Army Group Center, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock, for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Oberkommando des Heeres expected the Soviets to launch a major Eastern Front offensive in the summer of 1944. from Operation Bagration

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    • It overran the OKH command post at Zossen, headquarters for German Eastern Front operations, on April 21, 1945. from 3rd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

    • After the slackening of the Soviet effort at the end of February, the OKH, the headquarters for the Eastern Front believed any further offensive effort in that sector unlikely. from Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive

    • During World War II Goldap was planned by the German staff as one of the strongholds guarding the rest of East Prussia from the Red Army on the Eastern Front. from Gołdap

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      Schutzstaffel The Schutzstaffel (German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsˌʃtafəl] ( ), translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps…
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      The Schutzstaffel (German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsˌʃtafəl] ( ), translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps, abbreviated SS—or with stylized "Armanen" sig runes) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP). It began at the end of 1920 as a small, permanent guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection) made up…

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      The Schutzstaffel (German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsˌʃtafəl] ( ), translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps, abbreviated SS—or with stylized "Armanen" sig runes) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP). It began at the end of 1920 as a small, permanent guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich. Later, in 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and renamed the "Schutz-Staffel". Under Himmler's leadership (1929–45), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful organizations in the Third Reich. Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS under Himmler's command was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity during World War II (1939–45). The SS, along with the Nazi Party, was declared a criminal organization by the International Military Tribunal, and banned in Germany after 1945.

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    Connects To Schutzstaffel

    • Frustration at Hitler's leadership of the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of 1944, but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Nazi party members to prosecute the war. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • SS-Brigadeführer Emil Otto Rasch (7 December 1891 — 1 November 1948) was a high-ranking Nazi official in the occupied Eastern territories, commanding Einsatzgruppe C (northern and central Ukraine) until October 1941. from Otto Rasch

    • The novel is the story of World War II and the Eastern Front, through the fictional memories of an articulate SS officer named Maximilien Aue. from Jonathan Littell

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    • The X SS Corps (German: Generalkommando X. SS-Armeekorps or Gruppe Krappe) was a short-lived SS corps-level headquarters employed on the Eastern Front in 1945 during World War II. from X SS Corps

    • The Holocaust: SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann opens "blood for goods" negotiations with Joel Brand to offer the release of thousands of Jews from eastern Europe to the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee in exchange for supplies for the German Eastern Front. from 1944

    • Since 1942 some inhabitants of Kruševlje (less than 50 men) joined the SS-troops and went to the Russian front. from Kruševlje

    • However, due to demands from the Ural Mountains front, most German troops are eventually removed from Western Europe, and the garrisoning of Britain is largely carried out by local volunteers to the German army and the SS. from It Happened Here

    • In 1943, Ole, the older of his two sons who had joined the SS, died in Barvinkove (Barwenkowo), a small town on the Eastern Front in Russia. from Oluf Høst

    • As a young soldier in the Second World War, Jauss spent two winters on the Russian Front in the SS (SS-Nr. 401.359) and the Waffen-SS. from Hans Robert Jauss

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      Siege of Leningrad The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Russian: блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada…
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      The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Russian: блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military operation undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the last road…

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      The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Russian: блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military operation undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the last road to the city was severed. Although the Soviets managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, the siege was finally lifted on 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began. It was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history and overwhelmingly the most costly in terms of casualties.

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    Connects To Siege of Leningrad

    • The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade ( , transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military operation undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. from Siege of Leningrad

    • The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1.2 million citizens dead during the Siege of Leningrad. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • This began the 900-day Siege of Leningrad. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • It served across the Eastern Front in engagements such as the Sieges of Sevastopol and the Leningrad, finally being destroyed in the Courland Pocket in 1945. from 24th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Akhromeyev was a Naval Infantry junior officer during the German-Soviet War, serving with distinction on the Leningrad front. from Sergey Akhromeyev

    • During the Siege of Leningrad, the Red Army operated a hospital in the premises, and after the Great Patriotic War it housed the Institute of Semiconductor Physics. from Embassy of Germany, Saint Petersburg

    • During the Great Patriotic War and Blockade of Leningrad Timkov was among defenders of Leningrad. from Nikolai Timkov

    • At the end of the platform is a mosaic by V.A. Voronetskiy and A.K. Sokolov dedicated to the theme of the Leningrad Blockade during the second world war. from Avtovo (Saint Petersburg Metro)

    • Soviet civilian populations in the occupied areas were also heavily persecuted (in addition to the barbarity of the Eastern Front front-line warfare manifesting itself in episodes such as the siege of Leningrad in which more than 1.2 million civilians died). from Holocaust victims

    • During the German-Soviet War he participated in the defence of Leningrad. from Vsevolod Vishnevsky

    • Similarly, there are approximately 4 million missing Russian service personnel scattered across the former Eastern Front, from Leningrad down to Stalingrad, though around 300 volunteer groups make periodic searches of old battlefields to recover human remains for identification and reburial. from Missing in action

    • Before his death he was part way through planning a film on the Siege of Leningrad, set in the Eastern Front during World War II. from Sergio Leone

    • After brief service on the Eastern Front, including the Siege of Leningrad, he returned to Germany in 1942 to work as a trainer and advisor at the Ministry of Aviation. from Helmut Schmidt

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      Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков; IPA: [ˈʐukəf]; 1 December [O.S. 19…
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      Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков; IPA: [ˈʐukəf]; 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1896 – 18 June 1974), was a Soviet career officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played the most pivotal role in leading the Red Army drive through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the…

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      Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков; IPA: [ˈʐukəf]; 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1896 – 18 June 1974), was a Soviet career officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played the most pivotal role in leading the Red Army drive through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and other nations from the occupation of the Axis Powers and, ultimately, to conquer Berlin. He is the most decorated general officer in the history of the Soviet Union and Russia.
      Amongst many notable generals in World War II, Zhukov was placed at the top due to the number and scale of victories, and his talent in operational and strategic command was recognized by many people. Many famous military leaders in the world such as Bernard Montgomery and Dwight D. Eisenhower recognized Zhukov's great contributions in many important victories in the Second World War. His combat achievements became valuable heritages in humanity's military knowledge, exerting great influence on both the Soviet and the whole world's military theory.

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    Connects To Georgy Zhukov

    • Zhukov demonstrated and tested the techniques later used against the Germans in the Eastern Front of the Second World War. from Georgy Zhukov

    • After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army (though not as brutally as in the 1930s): many successful officers were demoted to unimportant positions (including Zhukov, Malinovsky and Koniev). from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • General Georgy Zhukov concentrated his 1st Belorussian Front (1BF), which had been deployed along the Oder river from Frankfurt in the south to the Baltic, into an area in front of the Seelow Heights. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • As in the Sino-Soviet conflict on the Chinese Eastern Railway or Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, Soviet troops on the western border received a directive, signed by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and General of the Army Georgy Zhukov, that ordered (as demanded by Stalin): "do not answer to any provocations" and "do not undertake any (offensive) actions without specific orders" – which meant that Soviet troops could open fire only on their soil and forbade counter-attack on German soil. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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      Balkan Campaign (World War II) The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early…
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      The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early months of 1941, Italy's offensive had been stalled and a Greek counter-offensive pushed into Albania. Germany sought, by deploying troops to Romania and Bulgaria, to aid Italy by attacking Greece from the east; while…

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      The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early months of 1941, Italy's offensive had been stalled and a Greek counter-offensive pushed into Albania. Germany sought, by deploying troops to Romania and Bulgaria, to aid Italy by attacking Greece from the east; while the British landed troops and aircraft to shore up Greek defences. A coup d'état in Yugoslavia on 27 March caused Hitler to order the conquest of that country.
      The invasion of Yugoslavia by Germany and Italy began on 6 April, simultaneously with the new Battle of Greece. On 11 April, Hungary joined the invasion. By 17 April the Yugoslavs had signed an armistice and by 30 April all of mainland Greece was under German or Italian control. On 20 May Germany invaded Crete by air and by 1 June all remaining Greek and British forces on the island had surrendered. Although it had not participated in the attacks in April, Bulgaria occupied parts of both Yugoslavia and Greece shortly thereafter for the remainder of the war in the Balkans.

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    Connects To Balkan Campaign (World War II)

    • For nearly two years the border was quiet while Germany conquered Denmark, Norway, France, The Low Countries, and the Balkans. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Stuka operated with further success after the Battle of Britain, and its potency as a precision ground-attack aircraft became valuable to German forces in the Balkans Campaign, the African and Mediterranean theaters and the early stages of the Eastern Front campaigns where Soviet fighter resistance was disorganised and in short supply. from Junkers Ju 87

    • In 1941 it saw service in the Balkans Campaign, and on the Eastern Front. from Sturzkampfgeschwader 2

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    • During the Balkans Campaign, North African Campaign and on the Eastern Front, it rendered valuable ground support to the German Army as a potent fighter-bomber (Jagdbomber or Jabo). from Messerschmitt Bf 110

    • Major actions in the Balkans Campaign, Crete, Italy, and on both the Eastern Front and later the Western Front would follow. from Fallschirmjäger

    • Major actions in the Balkans Campaign, Crete, Italy, and on both the Eastern Front and later the Western Front would follow. from Fallschirmjäger (World War II)

    • During World War II, the Alpini fought alongside the Axis forces, mainly across the Eastern Front and in the Balkans Campaigns. from Alpini

    • In German service, the tank saw action in the Balkans Campaign and the Eastern Front, initially during Operation Barbarossa, the flamethrower version from 1942 onwards. from Char B1

    • It participated in the Invasion of Poland, the Battle of France, the Balkans Campaign and fought on both the Western Front and the Eastern Front, in North Africa and in Italy. from Sd.Kfz. 11

    • With the brigade he fought in the Balkan Campaign and in the early phase of the Eastern Front in Operation Barbarossa. from Dietrich von Saucken

    • It was used in every campaign fought by the Germans in World War II, notably the Invasion of Poland, the Battle of France, the Balkans Campaign, the Eastern Front, the North African Campaign, the Battle of Normandy and the Italian Campaign. from Sd.Kfz. 8

    • After the Balkans Campaign in 1941, in 1942 Gnocchi left for the Russian front, after being in the Alpine Brigade Tridentina, where he participated as a chaplain in the Battle of Nikolayevka. from Carlo Gnocchi

    • It participated in the Invasion of Poland, the Battle of France, the Balkans Campaign and fought on both the Western Front and the Eastern Front, in North Africa and in Italy. from Sd.Kfz. 10

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      Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluˑɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( ); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was…
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      Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluˑɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( ); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler later appointed him Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army and General Plenipotentiary for…

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      Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluˑɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( ); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler later appointed him Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army and General Plenipotentiary for the administration of the entire Third Reich (Generalbevollmächtigter für die Verwaltung). Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and one of the persons most directly responsible for the Holocaust.
      As a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service. He studied agronomy in college, and joined the Nazi Party in 1923 and the SS in 1925. In 1929, he was appointed Reichsführer-SS by Hitler. Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere 290-man battalion into a powerful group with its own military, and, following Hitler's orders, set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps. He was known to have good organisational skills and for selecting highly competent subordinates, such as Reinhard Heydrich in 1931. From 1943 forward, he was both Chief of German Police and Minister of the Interior, overseeing all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo (Secret State Police).
      On Hitler's behalf, Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps. As facilitator and overseer of the concentration camps, Himmler directed the killing of some six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Romani people, and other victims; the total number of civilians killed by the regime is estimated at eleven to fourteen million people. Most of them were Polish and Soviet citizens.
      Late in World War II, Hitler charged Himmler with the command of the Army Group Upper Rhine and the Army Group Vistula; he failed to achieve his assigned objectives and Hitler replaced him in these posts. Shortly before the end of the war, realising that the war was lost, he attempted to open peace talks with the western Allies without Hitler's knowledge. Hearing of this, Hitler dismissed him from all his posts in April 1945 and ordered his arrest. Himmler attempted to go into hiding, but was detained and then arrested by British forces once his identity became known. While in British custody, he committed suicide on 23 May 1945.

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    • A limited counter-attack (codenamed Operation Solstice) by the newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, had failed by 24 February, and the Soviets drove on to Pomerania and cleared the right bank of the Oder River. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • On 20 March 1945, Adolf Hitler replaced Heinrich Himmler with Heinrici as Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula on the Eastern Front. from Gotthard Heinrici

    • Though Adolf Hitler is determined to continue the Second World War, Walter Schellenberg convinces Heinrich Himmler to conduct secret negotiations with the Americans, hoping to reach a separate peace deal which would allow the Germans to concentrate all their forces on the Eastern Front. from Seventeen Moments of Spring

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      Heinz Guderian Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (German: [ɡuˈdeʀi̯an]; 17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during World War II…
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      Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (German: [ɡuˈdeʀi̯an]; 17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during World War II, noted for his success as a leader of Panzer units in Poland, France and Russia.…

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      Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (German: [ɡuˈdeʀi̯an]; 17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during World War II, noted for his success as a leader of Panzer units in Poland, France and Russia.
      Guderian had pioneered motorized tactics in the pre-war army, while keeping himself well-informed about tank development in other armies. In particular, he promoted the use of radio communication between tank-crews, and devised shock-tactics that proved highly effective. In 1940, he led the Panzers that broke the French defences at Sedan, leading to the surrender of France. In 1941, his well-planned attack on Moscow was interrupted by orders from Hitler, with whom he disagreed sharply, and he was transferred to the reserve. This marked the end of his ascendancy.
      After the defeat at Stalingrad, Hitler appointed him to a new post, rebuilding the shattered Panzer forces, but he feuded with many other generals, who managed to get his responsibilities re-allocated. He was then appointed Chief of the General Staff of the Army, but this was largely a symbolic post, since Hitler had effectively become his own Chief of Staff. From 1945-48, Guderian was held in U.S. custody, but released without charge. He then advised on the re-establishment of military forces in West Germany.

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    • Guderian, Heinz. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • After the failure of the attempt to capture Stalingrad, Hitler had delegated planning authority for the upcoming campaign season to the German Army High Command and reinstated Heinz Guderian to a prominent role, this time as Inspector of Panzer Troops. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Critically, Guderian's Panzer Group 2 was ordered to move south in a giant pincer maneuver with Army Group South which was advancing into Ukraine. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • From 15 February 1945, at the insistence of General Heinz Guderian, Wenck commanded the German forces involved in Operation Solstice (Unternehmen Sonnenwende) on the Eastern Front. from Walther Wenck

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      Winter War The Winter War (Finnish: talvisota, Swedish: vinterkriget, Russian: Зи́мняя война́, tr. Zimnyaya voyna) was a…
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      The Winter War (Finnish: talvisota, Swedish: vinterkriget, Russian: Зи́мняя война́, tr. Zimnyaya voyna) was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940. It began with the Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939 (three months after the outbreak of World War II), and ended with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the League on 14 December 1939.…

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      The Winter War (Finnish: talvisota, Swedish: vinterkriget, Russian: Зи́мняя война́, tr. Zimnyaya voyna) was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940. It began with the Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939 (three months after the outbreak of World War II), and ended with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the League on 14 December 1939.
      The Soviet Union sought principally to claim parts of Finnish territory, demanding—amongst other concessions—that Finland cede substantial border territories in exchange for land elsewhere, claiming security reasons, primarily the protection of Leningrad, which was only 30 km (19 mi) from the Finnish border. Finland refused and the USSR invaded the country. Some sources assert that the Soviet Union had intended to conquer all of Finland, and use the establishment of the Finnish Communist puppet government in Terijoki as proof of this. Other sources argue that there is no documentary evidence to support this and that there are arguments against the idea of a full Soviet conquest.
      The Soviets possessed more than three times as many soldiers as the Finns, thirty times as many aircraft, and a hundred times as many tanks. The Red Army, however, had been crippled by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937. With more than 30,000 of its officers executed or imprisoned, including most of those of the highest ranks, the Red Army in 1939 had many inexperienced senior and mid-level officers. Because of these factors, and high morale in the Finnish forces, Finland repelled Soviet attacks for several months, much longer than the Soviets expected.
      However, after reorganization and adoption of different tactics, the renewed Soviet offensive overcame Finnish defenses at the borders. Finland then agreed to cede the territory originally demanded by the Soviet Union; the Soviets, having lost far more troops than anticipated, accepted this offer.
      Hostilities ceased in March 1940 with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty. Finland ceded territory representing 11% of its land area and 30% of its economy to the Soviet Union. Soviet losses were heavy, and the country's international reputation suffered. While the Soviet Union did not conquer all Finland, Soviet gains somewhat exceeded their pre-war demands. They gained substantial territory along Lake Ladoga, providing a buffer for Leningrad, and territory in northern Finland. Finland retained its sovereignty and enhanced its international reputation.
      The end of the war cancelled the Franco-British plan to send troops to Finland through northern Scandinavia. Some authors would suggest that the official statement by Sweden, Denmark and Norway of February 1940, declaring they would not allow British troops to use their territories in the way to Finland, was a factor in Finland's decision of commencing the peace-talks with Russia. One of the operation's major goals in the projected Franco-British operation had been to take control of northern Sweden's iron ore and cut its deliveries to Germany. For this reason it was also a major factor in the launching of Operation Weserübung, Nazi Germany's invasion of Denmark and Norway.

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    • The anti-Soviet Finland, which had fought the Winter War against the Soviet Union, also joined the offensive. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • After Finland refused the terms of a Soviet pact of mutual assistance, the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 in what became known as the Winter War – a bitter conflict that resulted in a peace treaty on 13 March 1940, with Finland maintaining its independence but losing parts of eastern Karelia. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The BA-3/6 were used in combat in the Spanish Civil War, against the Japanese in the Battle of Khalkhyn Gol, in the Finnish Winter War, and against the Germans in the early stages of the Eastern Front. from BA-3/6

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    • He was a veteran of the Russo-Japanese War, First World War, Winter War and the German-Soviet War. from Nikolay Burdenko

    • In 1939-1945 Mikhail Tkachev took part in the Red Army in the Winter War (1939–1940) and in the Great Patriotic War. from Mikhail Tkachev

    • In 1939 Vecheslav Zagonek was drafted into the Red Army and took part in the Winter War and as antiaircrafter in the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet people against Nazi Germany and its allies. from Vecheslav Zagonek

    • The modernized gun saw combat in the Winter War and the German-Soviet War. from 122 mm howitzer M1909/37

    • The M-36 was worn by Soviet soldiers in several campaigns of the late 1930s and 1940s, including the Khalkin Gol campaign against the Japanese in 1938 (giving it the nickname "Khalkingolka"), the Finnish Winter War of 1939-1940, the 1939 invasion of Poland, the 1940 invasions of the Baltic states and Bessarabia, and in World War II, or as it is known in Russia, the Great Patriotic War. from Soviet helmets during World War II

    • The Winter War opened the northern flank of the eastern front of World War II. from Arctic naval operations of World War II

    • He took part in the Winter War, and in the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet people against Nazi Germany and its allies. from Dmitry Maevsky

    • Nikulin fought in the Red Army in the Winter War with Finland and the World War II with Germany. from Yuri Nikulin

    • He battled at the fronts of Winter War and German-Soviet War, worked as war correspondent for Pravda newspaper. from Vsevolod Vishnevsky

    • The Soviet Red Army used remotely controlled teletanks during the 1930s in the Winter War against Finland and fielded at least two teletank battalions at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. from Radio control

    • These were used in the Winter War (1939-1940 ) against Finland and at the start of the Eastern Front after Germany invaded the USSR in 1941. from Unmanned ground vehicle

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      Western Allies The Western Allies were a political and geographic grouping among the Allied Powers of the First World War and…
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      The Western Allies were a political and geographic grouping among the Allied Powers of the First World War and Second World War. It generally includes the British Empire, the United States, France and various other European and Latin American countries, but excludes China, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, and the Kingdom of Serbia…

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      The Western Allies were a political and geographic grouping among the Allied Powers of the First World War and Second World War. It generally includes the British Empire, the United States, France and various other European and Latin American countries, but excludes China, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, and the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Montenegro and their successor state, Yugoslavia due to different economic, geographic and political circumstances, some of which arose after the wars. Similarly, Poland and Czechoslovakia are often excluded from the term, because of their post-war forced inclusion in the Eastern Bloc, even though Polish and Czechoslovak armed forces fought alongside Western Allies (Poland fought against Germany before any of the Western Allies joined the war). Most African and Asian allies not part of the British Commonwealth or France are often excluded from the term, though irregular Arabian and Ethiopian forces fought along the Western Allies. France is also often counted among the Western Allies, because although the Vichy Regime collaborated with the Axis powers and fought the Allies, the Free French military forces played a major role against the Axis Powers throughout the war, similarly to many nations that endured military occupation and collaboration.
      After the Second World War, some of the territory of the defeated Axis powers came under occupation by the Western Allies. Germany and Austria were divided among American, British, French and Soviet control. In 1949 the American, British and French sectors in Germany became the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, while the Soviet sector became the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany. All four of the Austrian occupation sectors became the Republic of Austria, or Second Austrian Republic. Austria became a neutral state but Italy, West Germany and a mix of wartime Western Allies and some formerly neutral states taking in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Iceland, Portugal, Spain and Greece became the Western Bloc. Canada, the United States, and the European countries among this group formed a military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, to oppose the Eastern Bloc and their military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, which was composed of the wartime Allies Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union, the ex-Axis powers of Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary and Romania as well as Albania. The conflict between the Eastern and Western Blocs became known as the Cold War. Though initially politically close to the Soviet Union, Albania, China, and Yugoslavia became nonaligned over the course of the Cold War. Cuba, another one of the Allies during World War II, became aligned with the Eastern Bloc after 1959 as did Ethiopia after 1974.

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    • By its end, large numbers of Soviet POWs, forced laborers and Nazi collaborators (including those who were forcefully repatriated by the Western Allies) went to special NKVD "filtration" camps. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone of occupation, the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Although Spanish dictator Field Marshal (Generalísimo) Francisco Franco did not enter World war II on the side of Nazi Germany, he permitted volunteers to join the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) on the clear and guaranteed condition they would fight exclusively against Bolshevism (Soviet Communism) on the Eastern Front, and not against the Western Allies or any Western European occupied populations. from Blue Division

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    • Peiper fought on both the Eastern Front against the Red Army and the Western Front against the Western Allies, and he won the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords for extreme battlefield bravery and outstanding military leadership. from Joachim Peiper

    • Anglo-American bombers first attacked Bucharest on 4 April 1944, aiming mainly to interrupt military transports from Romania to the Eastern Front. from Bombing of Romania in World War II

    • He scored 48 of his victories against the Western Allies and three victories over the Eastern Front in over 450 combat missions whilst flying the Messerschmitt Bf 109. from Otto Schulz

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    1. 34
      Colonel general Colonel general is a specific rank of the senior rank of general. North Korea and Russia are two countries which…
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      Colonel general is a specific rank of the senior rank of general. North Korea and Russia are two countries which have used the rank extensively throughout their histories. The rank is also closely associated with Germany, where Generaloberst has been a rank above the full General and a rank below Generalfeldmarschall.

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    Connects To Colonel general

    • In March, 20 German divisions of Generaloberst Hans-Valentin Hube's 1st Panzer Army were encircled in what was to be known as Hube's Pocket near Kamenets-Podolskiy. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Dietl subsequently commanded German forces in Norway and northern Finland and in Eastern Europe and rose to the rank of Generaloberst (equivalent to a Commonwealth General or a US four-star general), commanding the 20th Mountain Army on the northern Eastern Front, where the results of the German Arctic campaign were disappointing. from Eduard Dietl

    • The 1st Panzer-Division was subordinated to Panzergruppe 4 (4th Panzer Group) under the command of Generaloberst (Colonel General) Erich Hoepner operating on the northern sector of the Eastern Font. from Wend von Wietersheim

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    • During the German-Soviet War, Shcherbakov served as the head of the political directorate of the Red Army (with the rank of colonel general) in Moscow, and at the same time was director of the Soviet Information Bureau. from Alexander Shcherbakov

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    1. 35
      Third Battle of Kharkov The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German…
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      The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or Kharkiv) between 19 February and 15 March 1943. Known to the Germans as the Donets Campaign, and to the Soviets…

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      The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or Kharkiv) between 19 February and 15 March 1943. Known to the Germans as the Donets Campaign, and to the Soviets as the Donbas and Kharkov operations, the German counterstrike led to the destruction of approximately 52 Soviet divisions and the recapture of the cities of Kharkov and Belgorod.
      As the German Sixth Army was encircled in Stalingrad, the Red Army undertook a series of wider attacks against the rest of Army Group South. These culminated on 2 January 1943 when the Soviets launched Operation Star and Operation Gallop, which between January and early February broke German defenses and led to the Soviet recapture of Kharkov, Belgorod, Kursk, as well as Voroshilovgrad and Izium. The Soviet victories caused participating Soviet units to over-extend themselves. Freed on 2 February by the surrender of the German Sixth Army the Red Army's Central Front turned its attention west and on 25 February expanded its offensive against both Army Group South and Army Group Center. Months of continuous operations, however, had taken a heavy toll on the Soviets and some divisions were reduced to 1,000–2,000 combat effective soldiers. On 19 February, Field Marshal Erich von Manstein launched his Kharkov counterstrike, using the fresh SS Panzer Corps and two panzer armies.
      The Wehrmacht, while also understrength, flanked, encircled, and defeated the Red Army's armored spearheads south of Kharkov. This enabled von Manstein to renew his offensive against the city of Kharkov proper on 7 March. Despite orders to encircle Kharkov from the north the SS Panzer Corps instead decided to directly engage Kharkov on 11 March. This led to four days of house-to-house fighting before Kharkov was recaptured by the 1st SS Panzer Division on 15 March. The Germans recaptured Belgorod two days later, creating the salient which in July 1943 would lead to the Battle of Kursk. The German offensive cost the Red Army an estimated 90,000 casualties. The house-to-house fighting in Kharkov was also particularly bloody for the German SS Panzer Corps, which had lost approximately 4,300 men by the time operations ended in mid March.

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    • Throughout 1942 German casualties totaled around 1.9 million personnel, and by the start of 1943 the Wehrmacht was around 470,000 men below full strength on the Eastern Front. from Third Battle of Kharkov

    • The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or Kharkiv ) between 19 February and 15 March 1943. from Third Battle of Kharkov

    • Manstein's counteroffensive, strengthened by a specially trained SS Panzer Corps equipped with Tiger tanks, opened on 20 February 1943 and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March, when the spring thaw intervened. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • It returned to the Russian Front at the end of the year and participated in the failed attempt to relieve the Sixth Army at Battle of Stalingrad. Thereafter it fought in the battles of Kharkov and Kursk and the defensive battles back across the Ukraine and White Russia afterward. from 6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

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    1. 36
      Stavka Stavka (Russian: Ставка) is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire…
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      Stavka (Russian: Ставка) is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. It was used in Imperial Russia to refer to the administrative staff, and to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the…

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      Stavka (Russian: Ставка) is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. It was used in Imperial Russia to refer to the administrative staff, and to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the Soviet Union. In western literature it is sometimes incorrectly written in uppercase STAVKA, but the term is not an acronym. The term may be used to refer to its members, as well as to the headquarters location (its original meaning from the old Russian word ставка — Tent).

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    • As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers, the Soviet Stavka (the high command), turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • During the German-Soviet War he initially commanded the Northwestern Front during the Baltic Strategic Defensive Operation until 30 June 1941, but was relieved in early August 1941 (replaced by General Major P.P. Sabennikov), when he was appointed commander of the 21st Army until March 1942) and at a Stavka session on 12 August 1941, was given command of the new 51st Independent Army, later serving as the temporary commander of the Central Front (July–August 1941), Chief of Staff of the 28th Army, Deputy Commander of the Western Front, and commander 61st Army. from Fyodor Kuznetsov

    • During the Great Patriotic War, it was under the command of the Stavka's strategic reserve. from 203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4)

    1. 37
      Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, pronounced [ˈjosʲɪf…
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      Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, pronounced [ˈjosʲɪf vʲɪsɐˈrʲonəvʲɪt͡ɕ ˈstalʲɪn]; born Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jugashvili, Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, pronounced [iɔsɛb bɛsɑriɔnis dzɛ dʒuɣɑʃvili]; 6/18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953), was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.…

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      Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, pronounced [ˈjosʲɪf vʲɪsɐˈrʲonəvʲɪt͡ɕ ˈstalʲɪn]; born Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jugashvili, Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, pronounced [iɔsɛb bɛsɑriɔnis dzɛ dʒuɣɑʃvili]; 6/18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953), was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
      Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed general secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through suppressing Lenin's criticisms (in the postscript of his testament) and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained general secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward.
      Under Stalin's rule, the concept of "socialism in one country" became a central tenet of Soviet society. He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920s with a highly centralised command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power. However, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in correctional labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933, known as the Holodomor in Ukraine. Altogether Stalin's economic and political policies resulted in the deaths of up to 10 million peasants during 1926-1934. Between 1934 and 1939 he organized and led massive purge (known as "Great Purge") of the party, government, armed forces and intelligentsia, in which millions of so-called "enemies of the Soviet people" were imprisoned, exiled or executed, in a period that lasted from 1936 to 1939, Stalin instituted a campaign against alleged enemies within his regime Major figures in the Communist Party, such as the old Bolsheviks, Leon Trotsky, and most of the Red Army generals, were killed after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and Stalin.
      In August 1939, Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany that divided their influence and territory within Eastern Europe, resulting in their invasion of Poland in September of that year, but Germany later violated the agreement and launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow and Stalingrad. After defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States. The Yalta and Potsdam conferences established communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union in the Eastern Bloc countries as buffer states, which Stalin deemed necessary in case of another invasion. He also fostered close relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea.
      Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would later be known as the Cold War. During this period, the USSR became the second country in the world to successfully develop a nuclear weapon, as well as launching the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature in response to another widespread famine and the Great Construction Projects of Communism. In the years following his death, Stalin and his regime have been condemned on numerous occasions, most notably in 1956 when his successor Nikita Khrushchev denounced his legacy and initiated a process of de-Stalinization.He remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant. However, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed.

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    • The Soviets repulsed the important German strategic southern campaign and, although there were 2.5 million Soviet casualties in that effort, it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front. from Joseph Stalin

    • During the early morning of 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front. from Joseph Stalin

    • After defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. from Joseph Stalin

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    • During the autumn, Stalin had been transferring fresh, well-equipped Soviet forces from Siberia and the Far East to Moscow. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Throughout the 1930s, the Soviet Union experienced massive industrialization and economic growth under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union's war against Nazi Germany were originally invoked in the lyrics. from National Anthem of the Soviet Union

    • Hand-picked for the position by Joseph Stalin in 1926, Blokhin led a company of executioners that performed and supervised numerous mass executions during Stalin's reign, mostly during the Great Purge and World War II. from Vasili Blokhin

    • The "Big Three" (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin), together with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, cooperated informally on a plan in which American and British troops concentrated in the West; Soviet troops fought on the Eastern front; and Chinese, British and American troops fought in Asia and the Pacific. from Franklin D. Roosevelt

    • In order to cooperate with the Soviet Union, after the German attack an important war ally of the West, Sikorski negotiated in Moscow with Joseph Stalin and the formation of a Polish army in the Soviet Union was agreed, intended to fight on the Eastern Front alongside the Soviets. from History of Poland (1939–45)

    • The attitudes towards many ethnic minorities changed dramatically in the 1930s-1940s under the leadership of Joseph Stalin (despite his own Georgian ethnic roots) with the advent of a repressive policy featuring abolition of the national institutions, ethnic deportations, national terror, and Russification (mostly towards those with cross-border ethnic ties to foreign nation-states in the 1930s or compromised in the view of Stalin during the Great Patriotic War in the 1940s), although nation-building often continued simultaneously for others. from National delimitation in the Soviet Union

    • This post-war increase had contributed to the USSR's partial demographic recovery from the significant population loss that the USSR had suffered during the Great Patriotic War (the Eastern Front of World War II), and before it, during Stalin's Great Purge of 1936-1938. from Soviet Census (1989)

    • In the period of war, on their way to the Russian front, being enrolled in the German army (as Waffen SS), the men from Bussd wrote on the walls of the train in their home dialect: "Holt Dich, Stalin, un der Grunn, denn de Bussder kunn", "Tremble for your moustache, Stalin, 'couse the people from Bussd are coming!" . from Doștat

    • He was known to be a German patriot and a fierce anti-Communist who favoured the battle on the Eastern Front against Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union. from Clemens August Graf von Galen

    • In World War II, civilian homes were deliberately destroyed on a massive scale, particularly on the Eastern Front following the orders of Soviet premier Joseph Stalin to raze houses, farms and fields to deny their use to the advancing forces of Nazi Germany. from House demolition

    • The plot revolves around the history of the Great Patriotic War and the Battle of Berlin, focusing on the role that Joseph Stalin played in the events. from List of films set in Berlin

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      Russian Civil War The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917 – October…
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      The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, the loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and…

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      The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, the loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies. The Red Army defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in the Crimea and were evacuated in the autumn of 1920.
      Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. A number of them – Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland – were established as sovereign states. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.

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    • Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik (who opposed the mechanization of the army and the production of tanks), but on the other hand purged the older commanders who had held their positions since the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922, and who had experience, but were deemed "politically unreliable". from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The Soviet Union had lost substantial territory in eastern Europe as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where it gave in to German demands and ceded control of Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia and Finland, among others, to the "Central Powers". Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies and these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Russia was in a civil war condition and the Allies did not recognize the Bolshevik government. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of December 19, 1969 added as recipients: partisans and guerrillas of the Civil War and of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945. from Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR\

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    • The Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was awarded to officers, warrant officers, sergeants, petty officers, sailors and soldiers, enlisted in the service and on active duty on February 23, 1978 in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces of organs of the State Security, in the Council of Ministers of the USSR; to former Red Guards, soldiers who took part in the fighting to protect the Soviet homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, to partisans of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945; persons discharged from active military service in the reserve or retired, who served in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces and organs of the State Security Council of Ministers of the USSR for 20 years or more or that were awarded during their active duty, military orders of the USSR or the medals "For courage", Ushakov, "For Military Merit", "For Distinction in Protection of State Border of the USSR", Nakhimov, "For Distinction in Military Service”. from Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR\

    • Major contributors to the population of orphans and otherwise homeless children included World War I, the October Revolution followed by the brutal Russian Civil War, famines of 1921–1922 and of 1932–1933, unprecedented scale of political repression, massive forced migrations, and the Soviet-German War theatre of World War II. from Orphans in the Soviet Union

    • The Volga–Don Canal, together with the Tsimlyansky water-engineering system (chief architect Leonid Polyakov), form part of an architectural ensemble dedicated to the battles for Tsaritsyn during the Russian Civil War and for Stalingrad during the German-Soviet War. from Volga–Don Canal

    • He took part in the Russian Civil War and commanded a corps during the second world war taking part in the defense of Stalingrad, the Liberation of the Crimea and the capture of East Prussia. from Pyotr Koshevoy

    • The 80th Lubanskaya Order of Kutuzov 2nd Class Rifle Division ( ) was a rifle division of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War and the German-Soviet War. from 80th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

    • In World War I, Russian civil war and the Great patriotic war O-class locomotives were widely used as standard armoured locomotives in armoured trains. from Russian locomotive class O

    • The Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" ( ) was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on January 28, 1988 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the seventieth anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Armed Forces. Medal Statute The Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was awarded to officers, warrant officers, sergeants, petty officers, sailors and soldiers, enlisted in the service and on active duty on February 23, 1988 in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces of organs of the State Security, in the Council of Ministers of the USSR; to former Red Guards, soldiers who took part in the fighting to protect the Soviet homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, to partisans of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945.; persons discharged from active military service in the reserve or retired, who served in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces and organs of the State Security Council of Ministers of the USSR for 20 years or more or that were awarded during their active duty, military orders of the USSR or the medals "For courage", Ushakov, "For Military Merit", "For Distinction in Protection of State Border of the USSR", Nakhimov, "For Distinction in Military Service". from Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR\

    • Today there are over 50 monuments in the town dedicated to the remembrance of military valour in past wars, including the Great Patriotic War, the Crimean War and the Russian Civil War. from Balaklava

    • Use of large irregular forces featured heavily in wars such as the American Revolution, the Irish War of Independence, the Franco-Prussian War, the Russian Civil War, the Second Boer War, Vietnam War, and especially the Eastern Front of World War II where hundreds of thousands of partisans fought on both sides. from Irregular military

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      Courland Pocket The Courland Pocket (German: Kurland-Kessel) refers to the Red Army's blockade or encirclement of Axis forces on…
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      The Courland Pocket (German: Kurland-Kessel) refers to the Red Army's blockade or encirclement of Axis forces on the Courland Peninsula during the closing months of World War II. The Soviet commander was General Bagramyan (later Marshal Bagramyan).…

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      The Courland Pocket (German: Kurland-Kessel) refers to the Red Army's blockade or encirclement of Axis forces on the Courland Peninsula during the closing months of World War II. The Soviet commander was General Bagramyan (later Marshal Bagramyan).
      The pocket was created during the Red Army's Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation, when forces of the 1st Baltic Front reached the Baltic Sea near Memel during its lesser Memel Offensive Operation phases. This action isolated the German Army Group North (German: Heeresgruppe Nord) from the rest of the German forces between Tukums and Liepāja in Latvia. Renamed Army Group Courland (German: Heeresgruppe Kurland) on 25 January, the Army Group remained isolated until the end of the war. When they were ordered to surrender to the Soviet command on 8 May, they were in "blackout" and did not get the official order before 10 May, two days after the capitulation of Germany. It was one of the last German groups to surrender in Europe.

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    • Under the pressure of the Soviet Baltic Offensive, the German Army Group North were withdrawn to fight in the sieges of Saaremaa, Courland and Memel. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • It fought the rest of the war on the Russian Front, notably at the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943, and surrendered to the Soviets in the Courland Pocket at the end of the war in Europe. from 12th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Most of the units spent much of their existence on the Eastern Front: Luftwaffe Field Divisions were present at actions such as the "Little Stalingrad of the North", the attempt to relieve Velikiye Luki; the attempted defence of Vitebsk during Operation Bagration, and the fighting in the Courland Pocket, though they also fought in other theatres. from Luftwaffe Field Division

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      1st Panzer Army The 1st Panzer Army (German: 1. Panzerarmee) was a German tank army which was a large armoured formation of the…
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      The 1st Panzer Army (German: 1. Panzerarmee) was a German tank army which was a large armoured formation of the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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    • In March, 20 German divisions of Generaloberst Hans-Valentin Hube's 1st Panzer Army were encircled in what was to be known as Hube's Pocket near Kamenets-Podolskiy. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • During its existence, from October 1941 to May 1945, the First Panzer Army spent its entire time on the Eastern Front. from 1st Panzer Army

    • Panzer Group 1 served on the southern sector of the Eastern Front against the Red Army and was involved the Battle of Brody which involved as many as 1,000 Red Army tanks. from 1st Panzer Army

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    • On 28 June 1942 during the campaign on the Eastern Front of World War II on the Russian front during Case Blue, it formed part of the 6th Army Corps, itself part of the German First Panzer Army. from 2nd Infantry Division (Romania)

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      Tiger I Tiger I  listen  is the common name of a German heavy tank developed in 1942 and used in World War II. The final…
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      Tiger I  listen  is the common name of a German heavy tank developed in 1942 and used in World War II. The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger Ausf.E, often shortened to Tiger. It was an answer to the unexpectedly impressive Soviet armour encountered in the initial months of the Axis invasion of…

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      Tiger I  listen  is the common name of a German heavy tank developed in 1942 and used in World War II. The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger Ausf.E, often shortened to Tiger. It was an answer to the unexpectedly impressive Soviet armour encountered in the initial months of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, particularly the T-34 and the KV-1. The Tiger I gave the Wehrmacht its first tank mounting the 88 mm gun in its first armoured fighting vehicle-dedicated version: the KwK 36. During the course of the war, the Tiger I saw combat on all German battlefronts. It was usually deployed in independent tank battalions, which proved to be formidable.
      While the Tiger I was feared by many of its opponents, it was over-engineered, using expensive materials and labour intensive production methods. Only 1,347 were built between August 1942 and August 1944. The Tiger was prone to certain types of track failures and immobilizations, and limited in range by its high fuel consumption. It was expensive to maintain, but generally mechanically reliable. It was also difficult to transport, and vulnerable to immobilization when mud, ice and snow froze between its overlapping and interleaved road wheels in winter weather conditions, often jamming them solid. In 1944, production was phased out in favour of the Tiger II.
      The tank was given its nickname "Tiger" by Ferdinand Porsche, and the Roman numeral was added after the later Tiger II entered production. The initial official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausführung H (‘Panzer VI version H’, abbreviated PzKpfw VI Ausf. H), with ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 182, but the tank was redesignated as PzKpfw VI Ausf. E in March 1943, with ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 181.
      Today, only a handful of Tigers survive in museums and exhibitions worldwide. The Bovington Tank Museum's Tiger 131 is currently the only one restored to running order.

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    • Although intense battles of movement throughout late July and into August 1943 saw the Tigers blunting Soviet tank attacks on one axis, they were soon outflanked on another line to the west as the Soviets advanced down the Psel, and Kharkov had to be evacuated for the final time on 22 August. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Manstein's counteroffensive, strengthened by a specially trained SS Panzer Corps equipped with Tiger tanks, opened on 20 February 1943 and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March, when the spring thaw intervened. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • During the rainy period that brought on the autumn rasputitsa mud season and onwards into the Russian winter conditions on the Eastern front, the roadwheels of a Schachtellaufwerk-equipped vehicle could also become packed with mud or snow that could then freeze. from Tiger I

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    • The Germans then relied greatly on the otherwise innovative Schachtellaufwerk, an overlapped and interleaved road-wheel system for their military half-track and fully tracked armored fighting vehicles, but this system could not manage the conditions during the rasputitsa and winter seasons on the Eastern Front. from Rasputitsa

    • In April 1943, the Waffen-SS ordered the creation of a series of Heavy Panzer Battalions — equipped with the new Tiger I tanks — for use in offensive actions on the Eastern Front. from 102nd SS Heavy Panzer Battalion

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    1. 42
      Panzer division A panzer division (German: Panzerdivision) was an armored (tank) division in the army branch of the Wehrmacht and…
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      A panzer division (German: Panzerdivision) was an armored (tank) division in the army branch of the Wehrmacht and of Nazi Germany during World War II. The panzer divisions were the key element of German success in the Blitzkrieg operations of the early years of the war. Later the Waffen-SS formed panzer division units, and even the Luftwaffe fielded a panzer division, the Herman Goring Division.…

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      A panzer division (German: Panzerdivision) was an armored (tank) division in the army branch of the Wehrmacht and of Nazi Germany during World War II. The panzer divisions were the key element of German success in the Blitzkrieg operations of the early years of the war. Later the Waffen-SS formed panzer division units, and even the Luftwaffe fielded a panzer division, the Herman Goring Division.
      A panzer division was a combined arms formation, having both tanks (German Panzerkampfwagen, "armored fighting vehicle", usually shortened to "Panzer") and infantry as organic components, along with the usual assets of artillery, anti-aircraft, signals, etc. However, the proportions of the components of a panzer division changed over time.
      The term Panzerdivision is still used in today's Heer of the Bundeswehr (for example 1. Panzerdivision). It is not automatically associated with the old Wehrmacht units in German speaking countries.

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    • At 03:15 on 22 June 1941, 99 of 190 German divisions, including fourteen panzer divisions and ten motorized, were deployed against the Soviet Union from the Baltic to the Black Sea. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • During the course of World War II, the division progressed from a motorised infantry formation to a Panzer division and served on the Eastern Front during World War II. from 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking

    • Despite the slow build-up, largely due to most Wehrmacht reinforcements being directed to the Eastern Front to support Operation Barbarossa (the invasion of the Soviet Union), by September 1941 the 5th Light Division had achieved Panzer Division strength. from 21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

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      Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and…
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      Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.…

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      Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.
      Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the German Workers' Party (precursor of the NSDAP) in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, antisemitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy.
      Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the denunciation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnic Germans, actions which gave him significant popular support.
      Hitler actively sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and their European allies occupied most of Europe and North Africa. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews, and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed racially inferior.

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    • Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to invade the Soviet Union on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt, League of Nations Commissioner by saying, "Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Throughout 1943 and 1944, the Soviet Union steadily forced Hitler's armies into retreat along the Eastern Front. from Adolf Hitler

    • During the early morning of 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front. from Joseph Stalin

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    • Wolf's Lair ( ) was Adolf Hitler's first Eastern Front military headquarters in World War II. from Wolf's Lair

    • On 20 March 1945, Adolf Hitler replaced Heinrich Himmler with Heinrici as Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula on the Eastern Front. from Gotthard Heinrici

    • After the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Ante Pavelić, the leader of the newly created Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), offered Adolf Hitler volunteers to serve on the Eastern Front. from 392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Adolf Hitler and the rest of the Nazi German leadership made many references to them as a strategic objective of the Third Reich, in the event that it decisively won the battle on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union. from Ural Mountains in Nazi planning

    • After the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Ante Pavelić, the leader of the newly created Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), offered Adolf Hitler volunteers to serve on the Eastern Front. from 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

    • Führerhauptquartier Werwolf was the codename used for one of Adolf Hitler's World War II Eastern Front military headquarters located in a pine forest about north of Vinnitsa (now Vinnytsia) in Ukraine that was used between 1942 and 1943. from Werwolf (Wehrmacht HQ)

    • Less than three kilometers away was the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair), German leader Adolf Hitler's first Eastern Front military headquarters in World War II. from Margot Wölk

    • On 7 May 1942 Hitler ordered development of a simple, low-speed, half-track, load-carrying vehicle for use on the Eastern Front. from Schwerer Wehrmachtschlepper

    • For Adolf Hitler and a German military committed to waging a war in the vastness of Russia on the Eastern Front, the war in the desert was a holding action of minor importance. from Western Desert Campaign

    • Following the fall of France in 1940 and Hitler's subsequent overtures to Franco, Varela was a leading opponent of Spanish entry into the war on the Axis side, although he did endorse the volunteer Blue Division's participation on the Eastern Front. from José Enrique Varela

    • In World War II, millions die on the Eastern Front because of Adolf Hitler's theories of living space (Lebensraum). from A History of Warfare

    • However, Operation Tracer was never needed, as Adolf Hitler turned his attention away from Gibraltar and towards the Eastern Front. from Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

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      17th Army (Wehrmacht) The German Seventeenth Army (German: 17. Armee) was a World War II field army.
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      The German Seventeenth Army (German: 17. Armee) was a World War II field army.

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    Connects To 17th Army (Wehrmacht)

    • Army Group South, with the 1st Panzer Group, the 6th, 11th and 17th Armies, was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • At first, only Hungary's "Karpat Group" with its integral "Rapid Corps" (Gyorshadtest) was sent to the Eastern Front, in support of the German 17th Army. from Second Army (Hungary)

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      Operation Uranus Operation Uranus (Russian: Операция «Уран», romanised: Operatsiya "Uran") was the codename of the Soviet 19–23…
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      Operation Uranus (Russian: Операция «Уран», romanised: Operatsiya "Uran") was the codename of the Soviet 19–23 November 1942 strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army, the Third and Fourth Romanian armies, and portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army. The operation formed part of the ongoing Battle…

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      Operation Uranus (Russian: Операция «Уран», romanised: Operatsiya "Uran") was the codename of the Soviet 19–23 November 1942 strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army, the Third and Fourth Romanian armies, and portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army. The operation formed part of the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad, and was aimed at destroying German forces in and around Stalingrad. Planning for Operation Uranus had commenced in September 1942, and was developed simultaneously with plans to envelop and destroy German Army Group Center and German forces in the Caucasus. The Red Army took advantage of the German army's poor preparation for winter, and that its forces in the southern Soviet Union were overstretched near Stalingrad, using weaker Romanian troops to guard their flanks; the offensives' starting points were established along the section of the front directly opposite Romanian forces. These Axis armies lacked heavy equipment to deal with Soviet armor.
      Due to the length of the front created by the German summer offensive, aimed at taking the Caucasus oil fields and the city of Stalingrad, German and other Axis forces were forced to guard sectors beyond the length they were meant to occupy. The situation was exacerbated by the German decision to relocate several mechanized divisions from the Soviet Union to Western Europe. Furthermore, units in the area were depleted after months of fighting, especially those which took part in the fighting in Stalingrad. The Germans could only count on the 48th Panzer Corps, which had the strength of a single panzer division, and the 29th Panzergrenadier Division as reserves to bolster their Romanian allies on the German Sixth Army's flanks. In comparison, the Red Army deployed over one million personnel for the purpose of beginning the offensive in and around Stalingrad. Soviet troop movements were not without problems, due to the difficulties of concealing their build-up, and to Soviet units commonly arriving late due to logistical issues. Operation Uranus was first postponed from 8 to 17 November, then to 19 November.
      At 07:20 Moscow time on 19 November, Soviet forces on the northern flank of the Axis forces at Stalingrad began their offensive; forces in the south began on 20 November. Although Romanian units were able to repel the first attacks, by the end of 20 November the Third and Fourth Romanian armies were in headlong retreat, as the Red Army bypassed several German infantry divisions. German mobile reserves were not strong enough to parry the Soviet mechanized spearheads, while the Sixth Army did not react quickly enough to disengage German armored forces in Stalingrad and reorient them to defeat the impending threat. By late 22 November Soviet forces linked up at the town of Kalach, encircling some 290,000 men east of the Don River. Instead of attempting to break out of the encirclement, German dictator Adolf Hitler decided to keep Axis forces in Stalingrad and resupply them by air. In the meantime, Soviet and German commanders began to plan their next movements.

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    • In Operation Uranus, two Soviet fronts punched through the Romanian lines and converged at Kalach on 23 November, trapping 300,000 Axis troops behind them. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The date of the election coincided with the fourth anniversary of Operation Uranus, the moment when Nazi Germany and Romania suffered a major defeat on the Eastern Front. from Romanian general election, 1946

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      NKVD The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat…
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      The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД  listen ) was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party. It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression during the era of Joseph Stalin.…

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      The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД  listen ) was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party. It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression during the era of Joseph Stalin.
      The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including traffic police, firefighting, border guards and archives. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB. The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations of entire nationalities and Kulaks to unpopulated regions of the country. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy within communist movements in other countries.

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    Connects To NKVD

    • By its end, large numbers of Soviet POWs, forced laborers and Nazi collaborators (including those who were forcefully repatriated by the Western Allies) went to special NKVD "filtration" camps. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and penal companies, and the NKVD's barrier troops would shoot soldiers who fled. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • As part of this, Operation Shamil was executed, a plan whereby a group of Brandenburger commandos dressed up as Soviet NKVD troops to destabilise Maikop's defenses and allow the 1st Panzer Army to enter the oil town with little opposition. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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      Vistula–Oder Offensive The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of…
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      The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II. It took place between 12 January and 2 February 1945. The offensive took Soviet forces from their start lines on the Vistula River almost 300 mi (480 km) to the Oder River; located 70 km (43 mi) from the German capital of Berlin.

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    Connects To Vistula–Oder Offensive

    • Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts, the Red Army began an offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • On April 16 the Red Army jumped off from lines on the Oder and Neisse Rivers, the opening phase of the Battle of Berlin, which proved to be the culminating offensive of the war on the Eastern Front. from Vistula–Oder Offensive

    • The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II. from Vistula–Oder Offensive

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    • He served on the Eastern Front, where he commanded July 1942 until October 1943 XXXXI.Panzerkorps and from September 1944 to January 1945 Army Group A, when he was relieved of his command due to the inability of German forces to stop the Soviet Vistula–Oder Offensive. from Josef Harpe

    • His most notable command during the German-Soviet War was that of 1st Guards Tank Army which he commanded during the Battle of Kursk, Operation Bagration, the Vistula Oder Operation, and the Battle of Berlin. from Mikhail Katukov

    • Subsequently, on the Eastern Front, Warsaw, Budapest, Kolberg, Königsberg, Küstrin, Danzig and Breslau were some of the large cities selected as strongholds whilst on the Western Front locations included the British island of Alderney. from German World War II strongholds

    • On the Eastern Front, the Soviet Red Army (including the Polish Army under Soviet command) had liberated most of Poland and were nearing Berlin. from Western Allied invasion of Germany

    • The films are a dramatized account of the liberation of the Soviet Union's territory and the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War, focusing on five major Eastern Front campaigns: the Battle of Kursk, the Lower Dnieper Offensive, Operation Bagration, the Vistula-Oder Offensive, and the Battle of Berlin. from Liberation (film series)

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      Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war" listen ) is an anglicised term describing a method of warfare whereby an…
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      Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war" listen ) is an anglicised term describing a method of warfare whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations, and heavily backed up by close air support, forces a breakthrough into the enemy's line of defense through a series of short, fast,…

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      Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war" listen ) is an anglicised term describing a method of warfare whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations, and heavily backed up by close air support, forces a breakthrough into the enemy's line of defense through a series of short, fast, powerful attacks; and once in the enemy's territory, proceeds to dislocate them using speed and surprise, and then encircle them. Through the employment of combined arms in maneuver warfare, the blitzkrieg attempts to unbalance the enemy by making it difficult for them to respond effectively to the continuously changing front, and defeat them through a decisive Vernichtungsschlacht (battle of annihilation).
      During the interwar period, aircraft and tank technologies matured and were combined with systematic application of the traditional German tactics of deep penetration and bypassing of enemy strong points to encircle and destroy enemy force in a Kesselschlacht (cauldron battle). When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Western journalists adopted the term blitzkrieg to describe this form of armoured warfare. However, the term had already made an appearance as early as 1935, in a German military periodical Deutsche Wehr (German Defense), in connection to quick or lightning warfare. Blitzkrieg operations were very effective during the campaigns of 1939–1941, and by 1940 the term had gained extensive use in Western media and journalism. The blitzkrieg operations capitalized on surprise penetrations (e.g., the penetration of the Ardennes forest region), general enemy unpreparedness, and an inability to react swiftly enough to the attacker's offensive operations. During the Battle of France, the French, who made attempts to re-form defensive lines along rivers, were constantly frustrated when German forces arrived there first and pressed on.
      Many modern historians have come to the conclusion that blitzkrieg itself was never an official doctrine or concept of the Wehrmacht, and that it is a myth that it was officially adopted. Some senior officers of the Wehrmacht, including Kurt Student, Franz Halder and Johann Adolf von Kielmansegg, disputed the idea that the blitzkrieg was an organized military concept of the Wehrmacht, and instead asserted that what many regarded as the blitzkrieg was nothing more than "ad hoc solutions that simply popped out of the prevailing situation" (Johann Adolf von Kielmansegg) and ideas that "naturally emerged from the existing circumstances" (Kurt Student) as a response to operational challenges. German historian Frieser summarized the blitzkrieg as simply the result of German commanders blending the latest technology in the most beneficial way with the traditional military principles and "[employing] the right units in the right place at the right time" on the operational level of warfare, and that it was in no way a brand-new military doctrine or concept. As such, many modern historians now understand the blitzkrieg as the outcome of the rejuvenation of the traditional German military principles, methods and doctrines of the 19th century with the latest weapon systems of the interwar period.
      However, many modern historians continue to use the term casually to describe the style of maneuver warfare practised by the Axis powers (particularly Germany) of this period, even though it was never a formal doctrine. This is justifiable, since in the context of Guderian's ideas of highly mobile formations in combined arms, the term blitzkrieg is extensively a synonym for maneuver warfare on the operational level.

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    Connects To Blitzkrieg

    • The first year of the Eastern Front offensive can generally be considered to have had the last successful major mobile operation for the German army. from Blitzkrieg

    • The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky, a proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • However, if one last great blitzkrieg offensive could be mounted, just maybe the Soviets would ease off and attention could then be turned to the Allied threat to the Western Front. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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    • For a month the offensive conducted on three axes was completely unstoppable as the panzer forces encircled hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in huge pockets that were then reduced by slower-moving infantry armies while the panzers continued the offensive, following the Blitzkrieg doctrine. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Early in World War II the Germans frequently employed this tactic and encircled huge numbers of the enemy during the Blitzkrieg attacks on both the Western Front during the Battle of France and during Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front. from Envelopment

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      9th Army (Wehrmacht) The 9th Army (German: 9. Armee) was a World War II field army. It was activated on 15 May 1940 with General…
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      The 9th Army (German: 9. Armee) was a World War II field army. It was activated on 15 May 1940 with General Johannes Blaskowitz in command.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To 9th Army (Wehrmacht)

    • In the north, the entire German 9th Army had been redeployed from the Rzhev salient into the Orel salient and was to advance from Maloarkhangelsk to Kursk. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • Army Group Centre's two panzer groups (2nd and 3rd), advanced to the north and south of Brest-Litovsk and converged east of Minsk, followed by the 2nd, 4th, and 9th Armies. from Eastern Front (World War II)

    • The division fought on the Eastern Front, for much of its existence it was part of the Ninth Army assigned to Army Group Centre. from 102nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

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      20 July plot The 20 July plot refers to the attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of the Third Reich, inside his Wolf's…
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      The 20 July plot refers to the attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of the Third Reich, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. The primary purpose of the assassination attempt was to seize political control of Germany and its armed forces from the Nazi Party (including the SS) in order to…

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      The 20 July plot refers to the attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of the Third Reich, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. The primary purpose of the assassination attempt was to seize political control of Germany and its armed forces from the Nazi Party (including the SS) in order to obtain peace with the western Allies as soon as possible. But it was also assumed as "self-evident" that the German forces should continue to occupy Eastern European countries and Allies such as Poland or Czechoslovakia, while continuing to wage war against the Soviet Union. The underlying desire of many of the involved high-ranking Wehrmacht officers was to save Germany from the disastrous war policies by Hitler and to get rid of the cruelties of his dictatorship.
      There were many discussions among the people organizing this final attempt, e.g. in the Kreisau Circle, and also failed assassination initiatives preceding the final one. According to references, there are, however, known conditions for a peace offer to the Allies which included primary demands to accept wide-reaching territorial annexations by Germany in Europe.
      On the other hand, according to contributions of the assassins themselves, humanitarian reasons and the fight against Hitlerism were predominant.
      The plot was the culmination of the efforts of several groups in the German Resistance to overthrow the Nazi-led German government. The failure of both the assassination and the military coup d'état which was planned to follow it, led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the Gestapo. According to records of the Führer Conferences on Naval Affairs, 4,980 of these were executed.

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    How Eastern Front (World War II)
    Connects To 20 July plot

    • Frustration at Hitler's leadership of the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of 1944, but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Nazi party members to prosecute the war. from Eastern Front (World War II)

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