Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and persist for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals inattention symptoms often result in poor school performance.

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Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases is unknown. It affects about 6–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more in boys than in girls. About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood…

…continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.
ADHD management usually involves some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, and medications. Medications are only recommended as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and may be considered for those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling. Long-term effects of medications are not clear and they are not recommended in preschool-aged children. Adolescents and adults tend to develop coping skills which make up for some or all of their impairments.
ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s. The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents, and the media. Topics include ADHD's causes, and the use of stimulant medications in its treatment. Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder with debate in the scientific community mainly around how it is diagnosed and treated.

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      Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a substituted phenethylamine and…
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      Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a substituted phenethylamine and psychostimulant drug used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate has been studied and researched for over 50 years and has a very good efficacy and safety record for the treatment of ADHD. The…

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      Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a substituted phenethylamine and psychostimulant drug used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate has been studied and researched for over 50 years and has a very good efficacy and safety record for the treatment of ADHD. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.
      ADHD and other similar conditions are believed to be linked to sub-performance of the dopamine and norepinephrine functions in the brain, primarily in the prefrontal cortex, responsible for self-regulatory function (e.g., inhibition, motivation, and memory) and executive function (e.g., reasoning, organizing, problem solving, and planning). Methylphenidate's mechanism of action involves the inhibition of catecholamine reuptake, primarily as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts by blocking the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter, leading to increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine within the synaptic cleft. This effect in turn leads to increased neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Methylphenidate

    • Tom Cruise has referred to the medications Ritalin and Adderall as "street drugs". from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Beginning in the 1960s, it was used to treat children with ADHD or ADD, known at the time as hyperactivity or minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). from Methylphenidate

    • Methylphenidate is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Methylphenidate

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    • Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. from Methylphenidate

    • The TCAs were used in the past in the clinical treatment of ADHD, though they are not typically used anymore on account of being replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin, Attentin) and stimulants like methylphenidate(Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta), and amphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine, Vyvanse). from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

    • In addition, atomoxetine has found use in the treatment of ADHD as a non-addictive alternative to Ritalin. from Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • The lawsuits alleged that the makers of methylphenidate (brand name Ritalin) and the American Psychiatric Association had conspired to invent and promote the disorder ADHD to create a highly profitable market for the drug. from Ritalin class action lawsuits

    • Medications used to treat attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and Adderall effectively increase norepinehprine and dopamine levels, thereby increasing vasoconstriction and blood pressure. from Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    • In February 2006, the FDA's Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee voted to include boxed warnings on methylphenidate formulations used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as Ritalin (methylphenidate), due to possible cardiovascular side-effects. from Boxed warning

    • Research shows that after melatonin is administered to ADHD patients on methylphenidate, the time needed to fall asleep is significantly reduced. from Melatonin

    • The group campaigned against the use of Ritalin for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disorder which the organization dismisses as nonexistent. from Citizens Commission on Human Rights

    • Trace aminergic hypo-function is particularly relevant to ADHD, since the two most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD, amphetamine and methylphenidate, increase phenethylamine biosynthesis in treatment-responsive individuals with ADHD. from Trace amine

    • CCHR has conducted campaigns against Prozac, against electroconvulsive therapy, against Ritalin (and the existence of ADHD) and against various health legislations. from Scientology and psychiatry

    • use of ritalin to calm children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Sedative

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      Learning disability Learning disability is a classification including several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty…
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      Learning disability is a classification including several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.…

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      Learning disability is a classification including several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
      While learning disability, learning disorder and learning difficulty are often used interchangeably, they differ in many ways. disability refers to significant learning problems in an academic area. These problems, however, are not enough to warrant an official diagnosis. Learning disorder, on the other hand, is an official clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual meets certain criteria, as determined by a professional (psychologist, pediatrician, etc.) The difference is in degree, frequency, and intensity of reported symptoms and problems, and thus the two should not be confused. When the term "learning disabilities" is used, it describes a group of disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills. Types of learning disabilities include reading disability (dyslexia), mathematics disability (dyscalculia) and writing disability (dysgraphia).
      The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as quickly or in the same way as someone who is not affected by a learning disability. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways.
      Individuals with learning disabilities can face unique challenges that are often pervasive throughout the lifespan. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions and current technologies may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are intricate and complex. Current technologies may require student training to be effective classroom supports. Teachers, parents and schools can create plans together that tailor intervention and accommodations to aid the individual in successfully becoming independent learners. School psychologists and other qualified professionals quite often help design the intervention and coordinate the execution of the intervention with teachers and parents. Social support may improve the learning for students with learning disabilities.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Learning disability

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    • Some practitioners use the WISC as part of an assessment to diagnose attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities, for example. from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

    • A person struggling with his or her behavioral health may face stress, depression, anxiety, relationship problems, grief, addiction, ADHD or learning disabilities, mood disorders, or other psychological concerns. from Mental health

    • Neurotherapists use EEG biofeedback when treating addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, anxiety disorders (including worry, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, migraine, and generalized seizures. from Biofeedback

    • Cluttering can often be confused with language delay, language disorder, learning disabilities, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Cluttering

    • Founded in 1985 with a first-of-its-kind program for dyslexics by Charles Drake, the school is one of only two in the United States (the other being Beacon College, in Leesburg, Florida) designed exclusively for students with learning disabilities such as dyslexia and developmental disorders such as attention-deficit disorder and autism spectrum disorders. from Landmark College

    • The learning disabilities among the gifted and very gifted student population include: nonverbal learning differences, organizational challenges, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, audio and visual processing problems, and dysgraphia. from Bridges Academy

    • Associated conditions include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD or ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), learning disabilities and sleep disorders. from Treatment of Tourette syndrome

    • The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, dyslexia, and speech disorder. from Educational psychology

    • Beacon College is a small private college in Leesburg, Florida exclusively for students with dyslexia, ADHD, or other specific learning disabilities. from Beacon College

    • Finally, research has been done with many different types of learners, including students with learning disabilities, behavior disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which show that PMI may be effective for a wide range of students (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2005; Flood, Wilder, Flood & Masuda, 2002). from Peer-mediated instruction

    • Alternative therapies for developmental and learning disabilities include a range of practices used in the treatment of dyslexia, ADHD, Asperger syndrome, autism, Down syndrome and other developmental and learning disabilities. from Alternative therapies for developmental and learning disabilities

    • Eagle Hill School is a private co-educational college preparatory boarding school for students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder in Hardwick, Massachusetts, established in 1967. from Eagle Hill School

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      Obsessive–compulsive disorder Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce…
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      Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear or worry, repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety, or a combination of such obsessions and compulsions. Symptoms of the disorder include excessive washing or cleaning, repeated checking, extreme hoarding, preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts, relationship-related…

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      Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear or worry, repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety, or a combination of such obsessions and compulsions. Symptoms of the disorder include excessive washing or cleaning, repeated checking, extreme hoarding, preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts, relationship-related obsessions, aversion to particular numbers and nervous rituals such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room. These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and often cause severe emotional and financial distress. The acts of those who have OCD may appear paranoid and potentially psychotic. However, OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational and may become further distressed by this realization.
      Obsessive–compulsive disorder affects children and adolescents, as well as adults. Roughly one third to one half of adults with OCD report a childhood onset of the disorder, suggesting the continuum of anxiety disorders across the lifespan.
      The phrase obsessive–compulsive has become part of the English lexicon, and is often used in an informal or caricatured manner to describe someone who is excessively meticulous, perfectionistic, absorbed, or otherwise fixated. Although these signs are present in OCD, a person who exhibits them does not necessarily have OCD, but may instead have obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), an autism spectrum disorder, or disorders where perseveration (hyperfocus) is a feature in ADHD, PTSD, bodily disorders, or just a habit problem.
      Despite the irrational behaviour, OCD is sometimes associated with above-average intelligence. Its sufferers commonly share personality traits such as high attention to detail, avoidance of risk, careful planning, exaggerated sense of responsibility and a tendency to take time in making decisions. Multiple psychological and biological factors may be involved in causing obsessive–compulsive syndromes. Standardized rating scales such as Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale can be used to assess the severity of OCD symptoms.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can co-occur with ADHD and shares many of its characteristics. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Behaviors that present as (or seem to be) obsessive or compulsive can also be found in a number of other conditions as well, including obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), autism spectrum disorders, disorders where perseveration is a possible feature (ADHD, PTSD, bodily disorders or habit problems), or sub-clinically. from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    • People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania (hair pulling). from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

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    • Although these signs are present in OCD, a person who exhibits them does not necessarily have OCD, but may instead have obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), an autism spectrum disorder, or disorders where perseveration (hyperfocus) is a feature in ADHD, PTSD, bodily disorders, or just a habit problem. from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    • Among patients whose symptoms are severe enough to warrant referral to clinics, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often associated with Tourette's. from Tourette syndrome

    • Comorbid conditions (co-occurring diagnoses other than Tourette's) such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present in many patients seen in tertiary specialty clinics. from Tourette syndrome

    • Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep disorders. from Antidepressant

    • They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia. from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • They are sometimes also used to treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and for the relief of menopausal symptoms. from Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

    • Ziprasidone is also used off-label for depression, bipolar maintenance, mood disorders, anxiety, aggression, dementia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, and post-traumatic stress disorder. from Ziprasidone

    • The neurodiversity concept was initially embraced by individuals on the autism spectrum, but subsequent groups have applied the concept to conditions unrelated (or non- ) to autism such as bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, sociopathy, circadian rhythm disorders, developmental speech disorders, Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, dyscalculia, dysnomia, OCD, and Tourette syndrome. from Neurodiversity

    • When they are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and sometimes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the thoughts may become paralyzing, anxiety-provoking, or persistent. from Intrusive thoughts

    • These circuits are involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Frontostriatal circuit

    • Neurotherapists use EEG biofeedback when treating addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, anxiety disorders (including worry, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, migraine, and generalized seizures. from Biofeedback

    • Associated conditions include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD or ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), learning disabilities and sleep disorders. from Treatment of Tourette syndrome

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      Dopamine Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and…
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      Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA.…

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      Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA.
      In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine systems, one of which plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior. Most types of reward increase the level of dopamine in the brain, and a variety of addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity. Other brain dopamine systems are involved in motor control and in controlling the release of several other important hormones.
      Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, has been related to the loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain area called the substantia nigra. There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, and the antipsychotic drugs that are frequently used to treat it have a primary effect of attenuating dopamine activity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are also believed to be associated with decreased dopamine activity.
      Outside the nervous system, dopamine functions in several parts of the body as a local chemical messenger. In the blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator; in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes. With the exception of the blood vessels, dopamine in each of these peripheral systems has a "paracrine" function: it is synthesized locally and exerts its effects on cells that are located near the cells that release it.
      A variety of important drugs work by altering the way the body makes or uses dopamine. Dopamine itself is available for intravenous injection: although it cannot reach the brain from the bloodstream, its peripheral effects make it useful in the treatment of heart failure or shock, especially in newborn babies. L-DOPA, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, does reach the brain and is the most widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease. Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD. Conversely, many antipsychotic drugs act by suppressing the effects of dopamine. Drugs that act against dopamine by a different mechanism are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Dopamine

    • Altered dopamine neurotransmission is implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a condition associated with impaired ability to regulate attention, behavior, and/or impulses. from Dopamine

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are also believed to be associated with decreased dopamine activity. from Dopamine

    • Typically a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    • Like dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, the trace amines have been implicated in a vast array of human disorders of affect and cognition, such as ADHD, depression and schizophrenia, among others. from Trace amine

    • Drugs used in the treatment of Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (e.g. Ritalin) might improve cognition or daytime sleepiness, however drugs for both Parkinson's disease and ADHD increase levels of the chemical dopamine in the brain and so increase the risk of hallucinations with those classes of pharmaceuticals. from Dementia with Lewy bodies

    • Abnormal levels of dopamine activity have been implicated in a number of disorders (e.g., reduced in ADHD, increased in schizophrenia), thought to be part of the complex encoding of the importance of events in the external world. from Causes of mental disorders

    • Interestingly, Parkinson's disease & Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to have some connection to one another, as both nervous system disorders involve lower than normal levels of the brain chemical dopamine in different areas of the brain: the Substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease & the Frontal lobe in ADHD. from Central nervous system disease

    • Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been linked to abnormalities in dopamine levels in the brain as well as to noticeable impairments in time perception. from Time perception

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      Bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder, manic-depressive illness, or affective psychosis, is a…
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      Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder, manic-depressive illness, or affective psychosis, is a mental illness characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression. The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania depending on the severity. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable.…

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      Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder, manic-depressive illness, or affective psychosis, is a mental illness characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression. The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania depending on the severity. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable. They often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced. During periods of depression there may be crying, poor eye contact with others, and a negative outlook on life. The risk of suicide among those with the disorder is high at greater than 6% over 20 years, while self harm occurs in 30–40%. Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorder and drug misuse are commonly associated.
      The cause is not clearly understood, but both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Typically many genes are involved. Environmental factors include long term stress and a history of childhood abuse. It is divided into bipolar I disorder if there is at least one manic episode and bipolar II disorder if there are at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. In those with less severe symptoms of a prolonged duration the condition cyclothymic disorder may be present. If due to drugs or medical problems it is classified separately. Other conditions that may present in a similar manner include: drug misuse, personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia as well as a number of medical conditions.
      Treatment commonly includes psychotherapy and medications such as mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Examples of mood stabilizers that are commonly used include: lithium and anticonvulsants. Treatment in hospital against a person's wishes may be required at times as people may be at risk to themselves or others yet refuse treatment. Severe behavioural problems may be managed with short term benzodiazepines or antipsychotics. In periods of mania it is recommended that antidepressants be stopped. If antidepressants are used for periods of depression they should be used with a mood stabilizer. Electroconvulsive therapy may be helpful in those who do not respond to other treatments. If treatments is stopped it is recommended that this be done slowly. Most people have social, financial or work related problem due to the disorder. These difficulties occur a quarter to a third of the time on average. The risk of death from natural causes such as heart disease is twice that of the general population. This is due to poor lifestyle choices and the side effects from medications.
      About 3% of people in the United States have bipolar disorder at some point in their life. Lower rates of around 1% are found in other countries. The most common age at which symptoms begin is 25. Rates appear to be similar in males as females. The economic costs of the disorder has been estimated at $45 billion for the United States in 1991. A large proportion of this was related to a higher number of missed work days estimated at 50 per year. People with bipolar disorder often face problems with social stigma.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Bipolar disorder

    • These disorders include schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. from Bipolar disorder

    • There are several common childhood precursors seen in children who later receive a diagnosis of bipolar disorder; these disorders include mood abnormalities, full major depressive episodes, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Bipolar disorder

    • Other conditions that may present in a similar manner include: drug misuse, personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia as well as a number of medical conditions. from Bipolar disorder

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    • Symptoms of ADHD such as low mood and poor self-image, mood swings, and irritability can be confused with dysthymia, cyclothymia or bipolar disorder as well as with borderline personality disorder. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Mood disorders (especially bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder). from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania (hair pulling). from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    • Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia. from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    • In February 2013 a study found common genetic links between five major psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. from Mental disorder

    • Emerging evidence suggests a possible role for CBT in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); hypochondriasis; coping with the impact of multiple sclerosis; sleep disturbances related to aging; dysmenorrhea; and bipolar disorder, but more study is needed and results should be interpreted with caution. from Cognitive behavioral therapy

    • Many disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and ADHD, have been related to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, and thus this area of the brain offers the potential for new treatments of these conditions. from Prefrontal cortex

    • There is research indicating that social anxiety disorder is often correlated with bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Social anxiety disorder

    • DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and alcoholism. from Dopamine transporter

    • Impulsivity is both a facet of personality as well as a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. from Impulsivity

    • The neurodiversity concept was initially embraced by individuals on the autism spectrum, but subsequent groups have applied the concept to conditions unrelated (or non- ) to autism such as bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, sociopathy, circadian rhythm disorders, developmental speech disorders, Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, dyscalculia, dysnomia, OCD, and Tourette syndrome. from Neurodiversity

    • In February 2013 a study found common genetic links between five major psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. from Causes of mental disorders

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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI), also called attention deficit…
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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is one of the two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The term was formally changed in 1994 in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), to "ADHD predominantly inattentive" (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I) -though the term…

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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is one of the two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The term was formally changed in 1994 in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), to "ADHD predominantly inattentive" (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I) -though the term attention deficit disorder is still widely used. 'Predominantly Inattentive' is similar to the other subtypes of ADHD except that it is characterized primarily by inattentive concentration or a deficit of sustained attention, such as procrastination, hesitation, and forgetfulness; it differs in having fewer or no typical symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsiveness. Lethargy/fatigue is sometimes reported but ADHD-PI is a separate condition from Sluggish cognitive tempo.
      The three most popular ADHD medications in order are Amphetamine mixed salts for dopamine and norepinephrine basically balanced, Methylphenidate for a dopamine emphasis, and Atomoxetine for a norepinephrine emphasis.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive

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    • It is also approved for ADHD by the US Food and Drug Administration. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is one of the two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive

    • Beginning in the 1960s, it was used to treat children with ADHD or ADD, known at the time as hyperactivity or minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). from Methylphenidate

    • Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADD/ADHD. from Stimulant

    • Attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are psychiatric disorders that are marked by significant levels of hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness. from Developmental disorder

    • Medications used to treat attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and Adderall effectively increase norepinehprine and dopamine levels, thereby increasing vasoconstriction and blood pressure. from Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    • Hyperactivity is now classified as attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Benjamin Feingold

    • Edward M. Hallowell is a child and adult psychiatrist who specialises in ADD and ADHD. from Edward Hallowell (psychiatrist)

    • He is a child mental health expert on Videojug, where he has addressed ADD and ADHD as well as other child mental health issues. from Charles Sophy

    • Stephanie Moulton Sarkis is a specialist in the treatment of ADD/ADHD and the author of four books on adult ADHD. from Stephanie Moulton Sarkis

    • Hill Top has a wide variety of students, many of whom have learning disabilities and disorder of neural developments such as ADHD, ADD, Asperger Syndrome, Autism, and Epilepsy. from Hill Top Preparatory School

    • The SEN Department at Pathways acts as a full fledged support system, catering to the needs of students who are slow learners or suffer from learning disabilities, ADD/ ADHD and Aspergers Syndrome. from Pathways Schools

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    1. 7
      Stimulant Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in…
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      Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to their rendering a characteristic "up" feeling, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants or "downers",…

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      Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to their rendering a characteristic "up" feeling, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as "uppers". Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental and/or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and without prescription both as legal substances and illicit substances of recreational use or abuse.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Stimulant

    • The increase coincided with the League's 2006 ban on stimulants, which has raised concern that some players are mimicking or falsifying the symptoms or history of ADHD to get around the ban on the use of stimulants in sport. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Stimulant medications are the pharmaceutical treatment of choice and improve symptoms, at least in the short term. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Methamphetamine (contracted from ) is a neurotoxin and potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. from Stimulant

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    • Amphetamine (contracted from ) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. from Stimulant

    • Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADD/ADHD. from Stimulant

    • Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. from Methylphenidate

    • Dextroamphetamine (USAN), Dexamphetamine (AAN) and Dexamfetamine (INN and BAN) is a potent psychostimulant and amphetamine stereoisomer prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults as well as for a sleep disorder known as narcolepsy. from Dextroamphetamine

    • DRIs are frequently used in the treatment of conditions like ADHD and narcolepsy on account of their psychostimulant effects and in the treatment of obesity due to their appetite suppressant properties. from Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • Adderall (also known as amphetamine mixed salts or variants thereof) is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. from Adderall

    • Dopamine releasing agents (DRAs) such as amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phenmetrazine, pemoline, 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR), and benzylpiperazine, among many others, which, like DRIs, are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

    • Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

    • The TCAs were used in the past in the clinical treatment of ADHD, though they are not typically used anymore on account of being replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin, Attentin) and stimulants like methylphenidate(Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta), and amphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine, Vyvanse). from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • NRIs are commonly used in the treatment of conditions like ADHD and narcolepsy due to their psychostimulant effects and in obesity due to their appetite suppressant effects. from Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

    • Sertraline is often used in combination with stimulant medication for the treatment of co-morbid depression and/or anxiety in ADHD Sertraline reduces amphetamine metabolism as a result of CYP2D6 inhibition. from Sertraline

    • Many psychostimulants used either as anorectics or in the treatment of ADHD also behave as MRIs. from Monoamine reuptake inhibitor

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    1. 8
      Tourette syndrome Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS or…
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      Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS or, more commonly, simply Tourette's or TS) is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. These tics characteristically wax and wane, can be suppressed temporarily, and are…

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      Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS or, more commonly, simply Tourette's or TS) is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. These tics characteristically wax and wane, can be suppressed temporarily, and are preceded by a premonitory urge. Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional, transient and persistent (chronic) tics.
      Tourette's was once considered a rare and bizarre syndrome, most often associated with the exclamation of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks (coprolalia), but this symptom is present in only a small minority of people with Tourette's. Tourette's is no longer considered a rare condition, but it is not always correctly identified because most cases are mild and the severity of tics decreases for most children as they pass through adolescence. Between 0.4% and 3.8% of children ages 5 to 18 may have Tourette's; the prevalence of other tic disorders in school-age children is higher, with the more common tics of eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. Extreme Tourette's in adulthood is a rarity, and Tourette's does not adversely affect intelligence or life expectancy.
      Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of Tourette's, but the exact causes are unknown. In most cases, medication is unnecessary. There is no effective treatment for every case of tics, but certain medications and therapies can help when their use is warranted. Education is an important part of any treatment plan, and explanation and reassurance alone are often sufficient treatment. Comorbid conditions (co-occurring diagnoses other than Tourette's) such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present in many patients seen in tertiary specialty clinics. These other conditions often cause more functional impairment to the individual than the tics that are the hallmark of Tourette's, hence it is important to correctly identify comorbid conditions and treat them.
      The eponym was bestowed by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Tourette syndrome

    • Among patients whose symptoms are severe enough to warrant referral to clinics, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often associated with Tourette's. from Tourette syndrome

    • Comorbid conditions (co-occurring diagnoses other than Tourette's) such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present in many patients seen in tertiary specialty clinics. from Tourette syndrome

    • Tourette syndrome has been found to occur more commonly in the ADHD population. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    • People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania (hair pulling). from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    • Although the DSM-IV rules out concurrent diagnosis of many other conditions along with autism, the full criteria for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome, and other of these conditions are often present and these comorbid diagnoses are increasingly accepted. from Autism

    • They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia. from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • These external symptoms include ADHD, Tourette Syndrome, and criminal behavior. from High-functioning autism

    • It has been used for addiction, ADHD, aggression, anxiety, autism, depression, epilepsy, headaches, insomnia, Tourette syndrome, and brain damage from stroke, TBI, apathy and other causes. from Neurofeedback

    • The neurodiversity concept was initially embraced by individuals on the autism spectrum, but subsequent groups have applied the concept to conditions unrelated (or non- ) to autism such as bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, sociopathy, circadian rhythm disorders, developmental speech disorders, Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, dyscalculia, dysnomia, OCD, and Tourette syndrome. from Neurodiversity

    • Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNS has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including social phobia, Tourette's syndrome, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and drug and alcohol dependence. from Dopamine receptor

    • These conditions include ADHD, depression, drug abuse, Parkinson's disease, Schizophrenia, and Tourette's syndrome. from Monoamine transporter

    • Memantine is also being tested for generalized anxiety disorder, epilepsy, opioid dependence, systemic lupus erythematosus, depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette Syndrome, problem gambling, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), glaucoma, tinnitus, neuropathic pain including Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, pervasive developmental disorders, HIV associated dementia, nystagmus, multiple sclerosis, autism, migraine, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Down syndrome and for protection of cognitive function during whole brain radiation. from Memantine

    • Such disorders include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, brain tumors, depression, Down Syndrome, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington's Disease, multiple sclerosis, neurological AIDS, neurological trauma, pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, stroke, Tourette Syndrome, among many others. from Clinical neuroscience

    • Some of the commonly encountered conditions treated by neurologists include headaches, radiculopathy, neuropathy, stroke, dementia, seizures and epilepsy, Alzheimer's Disease, Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's Disease, Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, head trauma, sleep disorders, neuromuscular diseases, and various infections and tumors of the nervous system. from Neurology

    • Although the DSM-IV rules out concurrent diagnosis of many other conditions along with autism, the full criteria for ADHD, Tourette syndrome, and other of these conditions are often present and these comorbid diagnoses are increasingly accepted. from Epidemiology of autism

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      Oppositional defiant disorder Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as a pattern of angry/irritable behavior, or…
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      Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as a pattern of angry/irritable behavior, or vindictiveness lasting at least 6 months, and is exhibited during interaction with at least one individual that is not a sibling. Individuals must display four symptoms from one of the following categories: angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness. Unlike…

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      Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as a pattern of angry/irritable behavior, or vindictiveness lasting at least 6 months, and is exhibited during interaction with at least one individual that is not a sibling. Individuals must display four symptoms from one of the following categories: angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness. Unlike children with conduct disorder (CD), children with oppositional defiant disorder are not aggressive towards people or animals (even though this directly contradicts the "signs and symptoms"), do not destroy property, and do not show a pattern of theft or deceit. A diagnosis of ODD cannot be given if the child presents with conduct disorder.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Oppositional defiant disorder

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    • Effects of ODD can be greatly amplified by other disorders in comorbidity such as ADHD. from Oppositional defiant disorder

    • During a PBS interview he stated, "Representing such things as depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities as diseases absent any scientific proof, is to deceive the public. from Fred Baughman

    • PMT has been used as an adjunct therapy in autism spectrum disorder, conduct disorder, Down syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). from Parent management training

    • Oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder are examples of child psychopathology. from Child psychopathology

    • Such individuals may be misdiagnosed with primary mental health disorders such as ADHD or oppositional defiance disorder without appreciation that brain damage is the underlying cause of these disorders, which requires a different treatment paradigm than typical mental health disorders. from Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    • Along with ordinary parenting styles, such strategies are frequently used by default for treating those with FAS, as the diagnoses Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder, Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), etc. often overlap with FAS (along with ADHD), and these are sometimes thought to benefit from behavioral interventions. from Fetal alcohol syndrome

    • A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed, for example autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood. from Mental disorder

    • Additional alterations of psychopathology with behavioral manifestations that have been observed in LFS include: psychotic behavior, schizophrenia, hyperactivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, extreme shyness, learning disability, cognitive impairment, short-term memory deficit, low frustration tolerance, social dysfunction, lack of impulse control, eating disorder and associated malnutrition, attributed to psychogenic loss of appetite; and pyromania. from Lujan–Fryns syndrome

    • In reality, the children were actors, depicting behaviors present in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or standard behavior. from Halo effect

    • neurodevelopmental delays such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder), ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and CD (Conduct Disorder). from Trigonocephaly

    • Mount Bachelor Academy (known as MBA) was a private co-educational therapeutic boarding school providing help to families of adolescents experiencing emotional and behavioral disorders including, minor Depressive Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Substance abuse, and ADHD as well as help for teenagers and families struggling with adoption issues. from Mount Bachelor Academy

    • RTCs for adolescents provide treatment for issues and disorders such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Depression, Bipolar disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), educational issues, some personality disorders, and phase-of-life issues, as well as drug and alcohol abuse. from Residential treatment center

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      Conduct disorder Conduct disorder (CD) is a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself…
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      Conduct disorder (CD) is a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. These behaviors are often referred to as "antisocial behaviors." It is often seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder, which is not diagnosed until the individual is 18 years old.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Conduct disorder

    • Additionally it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), which occur with ADHD in about 50% and 20% of cases respectively. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • ADHD is the condition most commonly associated with conduct disorders, with approximately 25-30% of boys and 50-55% of girls with conduct disorder having a comorbid ADHD diagnosis. from Conduct disorder

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    • Many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, paraphilias, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. from Impulse control disorder

    • This includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder. from Emotional and behavioral disorders

    • PMT has been used as an adjunct therapy in autism spectrum disorder, conduct disorder, Down syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). from Parent management training

    • During a PBS interview he stated, "Representing such things as depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities as diseases absent any scientific proof, is to deceive the public. from Fred Baughman

    • Along with ordinary parenting styles, such strategies are frequently used by default for treating those with FAS, as the diagnoses Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder, Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), etc. often overlap with FAS (along with ADHD), and these are sometimes thought to benefit from behavioral interventions. from Fetal alcohol syndrome

    • A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed, for example autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood. from Mental disorder

    • neurodevelopmental delays such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder), ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and CD (Conduct Disorder). from Trigonocephaly

    • RTCs for adolescents provide treatment for issues and disorders such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Depression, Bipolar disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), educational issues, some personality disorders, and phase-of-life issues, as well as drug and alcohol abuse. from Residential treatment center

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be highly comorbid with conduct disorder (a theorized precursor to ASPD), and may also co-occur with psychopathic tendencies. from Psychopathy

    • Disabilities which pupils may have include: acute stress disorder, addiction, affective spectrum, agoraphobia, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD), Asperger syndrome, autism spectrum/high functioning autism, avoidant personality disorder, bipolar disorder, bulimia nervosa, conduct disorder, developmental delay, clinical depression, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, epilepsy, exhibitionism, gender identity disorder, genetic disorders, hysteria, nervous breakdown, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), oppositional defiant disorder, (ODD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), impulse control disorder (kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, pathological gambling, trichotillomania), emotional or behavioural difficulties, pathological demand avoidance (PDA), panic attacks, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), self-harm (SH), separation anxiety disorder/school refusal, selective mutism, semantic pragmatic disorder, social anxiety (social phobia), Tourette syndrome and other various mental health problems. from The New School at West Heath

    • Children from lower income families are associated with greater externalizing issues (such as conduct disorders and hyperactivity) and academic problems, while children from middle class and upper class income families are no different to their supervised peers. from Latchkey kid

    • Victims may withdraw from school and social activities and exhibit various learning and behavioural problems including cruelty to animals, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). from Child sexual abuse

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      Anxiety disorder Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a…
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      Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a racing heart and shakiness. There are various forms of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorder, and panic disorder. While each has its own characteristics and symptoms, they all include symptoms of anxiety.…

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      Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a racing heart and shakiness. There are various forms of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorder, and panic disorder. While each has its own characteristics and symptoms, they all include symptoms of anxiety.
      Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use including alcohol and caffeine, as well as withdrawal from certain drugs. They often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, certain personality disorders, and eating disorders. The term anxiety covers four aspects of experiences that an individual may have: mental apprehension, physical tension, physical symptoms and dissociative anxiety. The emotions present in anxiety disorders range from simple nervousness to bouts of terror. There are other psychiatric and medical problems that may mimic the symptoms of an anxiety disorder, such as hyperthyroidism.
      Common treatment options include lifestyle changes, therapy, and medications. Medications are typically recommended only if other measures are not effective. Anxiety disorders occur about twice as often in females as males, and generally begin during childhood. As many as 18% of Americans and 14% of Europeans may be affected by one or more anxiety disorders.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Anxiety disorder

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    • Borderline personality disorder is seen in association with mood and anxiety disorders and with impulse control disorders, eating disorders, ADHD, or a substance use disorder. from Personality disorder

    • Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia. from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    • Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep disorders. from Antidepressant

    • They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia. from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • They are sometimes also used to treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and for the relief of menopausal symptoms. from Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

    • Cognitive restructuring has been used to help individuals experiencing a variety of psychiatric conditions, including depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders collectively, bulimia, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and gambling, just to name a few. from Cognitive restructuring

    • The HPA axis is involved in the neurobiology of mood disorders and functional illnesses, including anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, burnout, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and alcoholism. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • While racing thoughts are most commonly described in people with bipolar disorder, they are also common with anxiety disorders, such as OCD and psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Racing thoughts

    • Such disorders include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, brain tumors, depression, Down Syndrome, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington's Disease, multiple sclerosis, neurological AIDS, neurological trauma, pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, stroke, Tourette Syndrome, among many others. from Clinical neuroscience

    • Other psychiatrists and mental health professionals in the field of psychiatry may also specialize in psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, psychiatric genetics, neuroimaging, dementia-related disorders/ sicknesses as Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sleep medicine, pain medicine, palliative medicine, eating disorders, sexual disorders, women's health, Global Mental Health, early psychosis intervention, mood disorders and anxiety disorders (including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder). from Psychiatrist

    • In a pre-sentencing evaluation performed on May 10, 2011, Minkow was diagnosed by a Dr. Michael Brannon as having antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, opioid dependence, anabolic steroid abuse, and migraine headaches. from Barry Minkow

    • Examples include, schizophrenia, ADHD, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and autism. from Health

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      Developmental coordination disorder Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) also known as developmental dyspraxia is a chronic neurological disorder…
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      Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) also known as developmental dyspraxia is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood that can affect planning of movements and co-ordination as a result of brain messages not being accurately transmitted to the body. It may be diagnosed in the absence of other motor or sensory impairments like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Developmental coordination disorder

    • There is an association with persistent bed wetting, language delay, and developmental coordination disorder (DCD), with about half of people with DCD having ADHD. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsive behaviour). from Developmental coordination disorder

    • The American Academy of Pediatrics, for example, advises against a diagnosis of SPD unless it is a symptom due to autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorder, or childhood anxiety disorder. from Sensory processing disorder

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    • The DAMP concept as used in more recent publications, refers to Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in combination with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). from Christopher Gillberg

    • The term neurodiversity has since been applied to other conditions and has taken on a more general meaning; for example, the Developmental Adult Neurodiversity Association (DANDA) in the UK encompasses developmental coordination disorder, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome and related conditions. from Neurodiversity

    • The neurodiversity concept was initially embraced by individuals on the autism spectrum, but subsequent groups have applied the concept to conditions unrelated (or non- ) to autism such as bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, sociopathy, circadian rhythm disorders, developmental speech disorders, Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, dyscalculia, dysnomia, OCD, and Tourette syndrome. from Neurodiversity

    • There are numerous applications of working memory in the field, such as using working memory capacity to explain intelligence, success at emotion regulation, and other cognitive abilities, furthering the understanding of autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, developmental coordination disorder, and improving teaching methods, educational attainment, and creating artificial intelligence based on the human brain. from Working memory

    • However, the term eventually became used for anyone who does not have atypical neurology: in other words, anyone who does not have autism, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, bipolar disorder, ADD/ADHD, or other similar conditions. from Neurotypical

    • This includes children with moderate or severe learning difficulties and physical, neurological or sensory disabilities (such as hearing, motor and visual disabilities) as well as needs such as dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, autism, Asperger syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Special education in England

    • Disabilities which pupils may have include: acute stress disorder, addiction, affective spectrum, agoraphobia, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD), Asperger syndrome, autism spectrum/high functioning autism, avoidant personality disorder, bipolar disorder, bulimia nervosa, conduct disorder, developmental delay, clinical depression, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, epilepsy, exhibitionism, gender identity disorder, genetic disorders, hysteria, nervous breakdown, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), oppositional defiant disorder, (ODD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), impulse control disorder (kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, pathological gambling, trichotillomania), emotional or behavioural difficulties, pathological demand avoidance (PDA), panic attacks, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), self-harm (SH), separation anxiety disorder/school refusal, selective mutism, semantic pragmatic disorder, social anxiety (social phobia), Tourette syndrome and other various mental health problems. from The New School at West Heath

    • A class action lawsuit is currently underway in the United Kingdom regarding the claim that the drug used in pregnancy caused a range of problems in children, including autism, learning and social difficulties, ADHD, spinal stenosis, facial abnormalities, vision defects, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, and delayed speech and motor development. from Sodium valproate

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    1. 13
      Prefrontal cortex In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the thick outer layer (cerebral cortex) of the…
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      In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the thick outer layer (cerebral cortex) of the prefrontal lobe (the front portion of the frontal lobe). The PFC contains Brodmann areas 9, 10, 11, 12, 46, and 47.…

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      In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the thick outer layer (cerebral cortex) of the prefrontal lobe (the front portion of the frontal lobe). The PFC contains Brodmann areas 9, 10, 11, 12, 46, and 47.
      Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's personality and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals. Destruction of the anterior two-thirds results in deficits in concentration, orientation, abstracting ability, judgment, and problem solving ability; destruction of the orbital (frontal) lobe results in inappropriate social behavior.
      The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function. Executive function relates to abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts, determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social "control" (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially unacceptable outcomes).
      Frontal cortex supports concrete rule learning. More anterior regions along the rostro-caudal axis of frontal cortex support rule learning at higher levels of abstraction.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Prefrontal cortex

    • In children with ADHD there is a general reduction of brain volume, with a proportionally greater decrease in the volume in the left-sided prefrontal cortex. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Many disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and ADHD, have been related to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, and thus this area of the brain offers the potential for new treatments of these conditions. from Prefrontal cortex

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      Major depressive disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or…
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      Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable…

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      Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. This cluster of symptoms (syndrome) was named, described and classified as one of the mood disorders in the 1980 edition of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual. The term "depression" is used in a number of different ways. It is often used to mean this syndrome but may refer to other mood disorders or simple to a low mood. Major depressive disorder is a disabling condition that adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, around 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of people who commit suicide had depression or another mood disorder.
      The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives or friends, and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians generally request tests for physical conditions that may cause similar symptoms. The most common time of onset is between the ages of 20 and 30 years, with a later peak between 30 and 40 years.
      Typically, people are treated with antidepressant medication and, in many cases, also receive counseling, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Medication appears to be effective, but the effect may only be significant in the most severely depressed. Hospitalization may be necessary in cases with associated self-neglect or a significant risk of harm to self or others. A minority are treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The course of the disorder varies widely, from one episode lasting weeks to a lifelong disorder with recurrent major depressive episodes. Depressed individuals have shorter life expectancies than those without depression, in part because of greater susceptibility to medical illnesses and suicide. It is unclear whether or not medications affect the risk of suicide. Current and former patients may be stigmatized.
      The understanding of the nature and causes of depression has evolved over the centuries, though this understanding is incomplete and has left many aspects of depression as the subject of discussion and research. Proposed causes include psychological, psycho-social, hereditary, evolutionary and biological factors. Long-term substance abuse may cause or worsen depressive symptoms. Psychological treatments are based on theories of personality, interpersonal communication, and learning. Most biological theories focus on the monoamine chemicals serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which are naturally present in the brain and assist communication between nerve cells.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Major depressive disorder

    • There are increased rates of alcohol and drug abuse and particularly dependence, and around a third of individuals diagnosed with ADHD develop comorbid depression. from Major depressive disorder

    • Depression may also coexist with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), complicating the diagnosis and treatment of both. from Major depressive disorder

    • Additionally, more than half of people with high IQ and ADHD experience major depressive disorder or oppositional defiant disorder at some point in their lives. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    • The most important factor in reducing later psychological problems, such as major depression, criminality, school failure, and substance use disorders is formation of friendships with people who are not involved in delinquent activities. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Mood disorders (especially bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder). from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • These disorders include schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. from Bipolar disorder

    • People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania (hair pulling). from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

    • Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep disorders. from Antidepressant

    • Children who have an anxiety disorder are likely to have other disorders such as depression, eating disorders, attention deficit disorders both hyperactive and inattentive. from Anxiety disorder

    • In February 2013 a study found common genetic links between five major psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. from Mental disorder

    • Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia. from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    • "The involvement of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the pathophysiology and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse, neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)) and clinical depression has long been recognized. from Norepinephrine transporter

    • Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors are used for Clinical depression, ADD, ADHD, Narcolepsy, and as antiparkinson agents. from Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and alcoholism. from Dopamine transporter

    • Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

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    1. 15
      Adderall Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention…
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      Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Adderall is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. The medication is a mixture of amphetamine stereoisomer salts and inactive ingredients. By salt content, the…

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      Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Adderall is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. The medication is a mixture of amphetamine stereoisomer salts and inactive ingredients. By salt content, the active ingredients are 75% dextroamphetamine salts (the dextrorotary or "right-handed" enantiomer) and 25% levoamphetamine salts (the levorotary or "left-handed" enantiomer).
      Adderall works by increasing activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, namely norepinephrine and dopamine, which results from its interactions with trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Adderall shares many chemical and pharmacological properties with the human trace amine neurotransmitters, especially phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, the latter being an isomer of amphetamine that is produced within the human body.
      Adderall is generally well-tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD. The most common side effects are cardiovascular, such as irregular heartbeat (usually as a fast heartbeat), and psychological, such as euphoria or anxiety. Much larger doses of Adderall are likely to impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Substance dependence (i.e., addiction) is a serious risk of Adderall abuse, but only rarely arises from medical use. Very high doses can result in a psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use. Recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses, and carry a far greater risk of serious side effects.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Adderall

    • Tom Cruise has referred to the medications Ritalin and Adderall as "street drugs". from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • In the United States, Adderall is used primarily for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. from Adderall

    • Adderall (also known as amphetamine mixed salts or variants thereof) is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. from Adderall

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    • Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADD/ADHD. from Stimulant

    • Medications used to treat attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and Adderall effectively increase norepinehprine and dopamine levels, thereby increasing vasoconstriction and blood pressure. from Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    • Adderall, a collection of amphetamine salts, is one of the most prescribed pharmaceuticals in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Psychiatric medication

    • It is largely accepted that mind-enhancing drugs are acceptable for use with patients facing cognitive disorders, as in a case of prescribing Adderall to children and adults with ADHD. from Neurolaw

    • Clonidine has also been successfully used in indications that exceed what would be expected from a simple blood-pressure lowering drug: it has recently shown positive results in children with ADHD who suffer from tics resulting from the treatment with a CNS stimulant drug, such as Adderall XR or methylphenidate; clonidine also helps alleviate symptoms of opioid withdrawal. from Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

    • She suffers from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and takes Adderall. from Roxy Olin

    • The show alludes to him having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder through references to his Adderall use, which lends to his fidgeting gestures and frequent flailing. from List of Teen Wolf characters

    • Kinney took responsibility for the suspension but explained that the amphetamine in question was contained in Adderall, a drug he has been taking since 2005 to treat his attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and was taken for medical reasons, not to boost his on-field performance. from Matt Kinney

    • In 2011, Schwarz moved from the Times sports department to its National Desk and began writing controversial pieces on young people abusing Adderall and other stimulant medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Alan Schwarz

    • Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD medication Adderall, a stimulant and a form of amphetamine. from Oussama Mellouli

    • On the same show, she revealed taking Adderall for ADHD since childhood. from Paris Hilton

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    1. 16
      Mood disorder Mood disorder is a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR)…
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      Mood disorder is a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as mood (affective) disorders in ICD 10.…

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      Mood disorder is a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classification system where a disturbance in the person's mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. The classification is known as mood (affective) disorders in ICD 10.
      English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state, whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others.
      Two groups of mood disorders are broadly recognized; the division is based on whether a manic or hypomanic episode has ever been present. Thus, there are depressive disorders, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) commonly called clinical depression or major depression, and bipolar disorder (BD), formerly known as manic depression and characterized by intermittent episodes of mania or hypomania, usually interlaced with depressive episodes. However, there are also psychiatric syndromes featuring less severe depression known as dysthymic disorder (similar to but milder than MDD) and cyclothymic disorder (similar to but milder than BD). Mood disorders may also be substance-induced or occur in response to a medical condition.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Mood disorder

    • Mood disorders (especially bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder). from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Borderline personality disorder is seen in association with mood and anxiety disorders and with impulse control disorders, eating disorders, ADHD, or a substance use disorder. from Personality disorder

    • Many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, paraphilias, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. from Impulse control disorder

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    • In humans, prolonged maternal stress during gestation is associated with mild impairment of intellectual activity and language development in their children, and with behaviour disorders such as attention deficits, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression; self-reported maternal stress is associated with a higher irritability, emotional and attentional problems. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • The HPA axis is involved in the neurobiology of mood disorders and functional illnesses, including anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, burnout, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and alcoholism. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • A person struggling with his or her behavioral health may face stress, depression, anxiety, relationship problems, grief, addiction, ADHD or learning disabilities, mood disorders, or other psychological concerns. from Mental health

    • She is examining how brain damage from infections, immune system dysfunction, neurotoxins, and other chemical or psychosocial stress factors, or host responses to these environmental agents, can lead to neurodevelopmental and other central nervous system disorders, thereby contributing to autism, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorders, and mood disorders. from Mady Hornig

    • Other psychiatrists and mental health professionals in the field of psychiatry may also specialize in psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, psychiatric genetics, neuroimaging, dementia-related disorders/ sicknesses as Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sleep medicine, pain medicine, palliative medicine, eating disorders, sexual disorders, women's health, Global Mental Health, early psychosis intervention, mood disorders and anxiety disorders (including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder). from Psychiatrist

    • This assessment has been utilized for a number of different clinical populations including those with: frontal-lobe lesions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disabilities, mood disorders (e.g., bipolar disorder), autism spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, genetic disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis) and spina bifida. from Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System

    • Children with SMS are often given psychiatric diagnoses such as autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit disorder (ADD) and/or mood disorders. from Smith–Magenis syndrome

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    1. 17
      Amphetamine Amphetamine (pronunciation: /æmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from alpha‑methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous…
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      Amphetamine (pronunciation: /æmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from alpha‑methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to the racemic free base, or equal…

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      Amphetamine (pronunciation: /æmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from alpha‑methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to the racemic free base, or equal parts of the enantiomers levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine in their pure amine forms. Nonetheless, the term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion, depression, and obesity. Amphetamine is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription medication in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine is often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with uncontrolled or heavy use. Amphetamine is illegally synthesized by clandestine chemists, trafficked, and sold. Based upon the quantity of seized and confiscated drugs and drug precursors worldwide, illicit amphetamine production and trafficking is much less prevalent than that of methamphetamine; in parts of Europe, amphetamine is more prevalent than methamphetamine.
      The first pharmaceutical amphetamine was Benzedrine, a brand of inhalers used to treat a variety of conditions. Presently, it is typically prescribed as Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor, increases biogenic amine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. At therapeutic doses, this causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in libido, increased arousal, and improved cognitive control. It induces physical effects such as decreased reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength.
      Much larger doses of amphetamine are likely to impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Substance dependence (i.e., addiction) is a serious risk of amphetamine abuse, but only rarely arises from medical use. Very high doses can result in a psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use. Recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses, and carry a far greater risk of serious side effects.
      Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA (ecstasy), and methamphetamine. Unlike methamphetamine, amphetamine's salts lack sufficient volatility to be smoked. Amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neurotransmitters, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Amphetamine

    • In the 1930s, Benzedrine became the first amphetamine medication approved for use in the United States. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADD/ADHD. from Stimulant

    • Dextroamphetamine (USAN), Dexamphetamine (AAN) and Dexamfetamine (INN and BAN) is a potent psychostimulant and amphetamine stereoisomer prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults as well as for a sleep disorder known as narcolepsy. from Dextroamphetamine

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    • The TCAs were used in the past in the clinical treatment of ADHD, though they are not typically used anymore on account of being replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin, Attentin) and stimulants like methylphenidate(Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta), and amphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine, Vyvanse). from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • Dopamine releasing agents (DRAs) such as amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phenmetrazine, pemoline, 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR), and benzylpiperazine, among many others, which, like DRIs, are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

    • Sertraline is often used in combination with stimulant medication for the treatment of co-morbid depression and/or anxiety in ADHD Sertraline reduces amphetamine metabolism as a result of CYP2D6 inhibition. from Sertraline

    • Trace aminergic hypo-function is particularly relevant to ADHD, since the two most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD, amphetamine and methylphenidate, increase phenethylamine biosynthesis in treatment-responsive individuals with ADHD. from Trace amine

    • Adderall, a collection of amphetamine salts, is one of the most prescribed pharmaceuticals in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Psychiatric medication

    • Amphetaminil (Aponeuron, AN-1) is a stimulant drug derived from amphetamine, which was developed in the 1970s and used for the treatment of obesity, ADHD, and narcolepsy. from Amphetaminil

    • For the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, pemoline. from Norepinephrine releasing agent

    • In clinical practice, this mostly applies to the use of strong opiates for pain management and some amphetamine-like stimulants used for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; both of which are regulated under Schedule 2. from Controlled Drug in United Kingdom

    • Mellouli has since admitted that he took the ADD medication Adderall, a stimulant and a form of amphetamine. from Oussama Mellouli

    • The coroner's report revealed that no traces of illegal substances or alcohol were found in his system at the time of his death, but did find prescribed levels of antidepressant, anxiolytic and ADHD medications in his system, including Clonazepam, Mirtazapine, Atomoxetine and Amphetamine. from Elliott Smith

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    1. 18
      Executive functions Executive functions (also known as cognitive control and supervisory attentional system) is an umbrella term for…
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      Executive functions (also known as cognitive control and supervisory attentional system) is an umbrella term for the management (regulation, control) of cognitive processes, including working memory, reasoning, task flexibility, and problem solving as well as planning, and execution. The executive system is a theorized cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes, such as executive functions. The prefrontal areas of the frontal lobe are necessary but not solely sufficient for carrying out these functions.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Executive functions

    • One theory suggests that the symptoms arise from a difficulty in executive functions. Executive functions refers to a number of mental processes that are required to regulate, control, and manage daily life tasks. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    1. 19
      Borderline personality disorder Borderline personality disorder (BPD) (called emotionally unstable personality disorder, emotional intensity…
    1. 19

      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) (called emotionally unstable personality disorder, emotional intensity disorder, or borderline type in the ICD-10) is a cluster-B personality disorder, the essential feature of which is a pattern of marked impulsivity and instability of affects, interpersonal relationships and self image. The pattern is present by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations and contexts.…

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      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) (called emotionally unstable personality disorder, emotional intensity disorder, or borderline type in the ICD-10) is a cluster-B personality disorder, the essential feature of which is a pattern of marked impulsivity and instability of affects, interpersonal relationships and self image. The pattern is present by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations and contexts.
      Other symptoms usually include intense fears of abandonment and intense anger and irritability, the reason for which others have difficulty understanding. People with BPD often engage in idealization and devaluation of others, alternating between high positive regard and great disappointment. Self-harm and suicidal behavior are common.
      The disorder is recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Because a personality disorder is a pervasive, enduring, and inflexible pattern of maladaptive inner experiences and pathological behavior, there is a general reluctance to diagnose personality disorders before adolescence or early adulthood. However, some emphasize that without early treatment symptoms may worsen.
      There is an ongoing debate about the terminology of this disorder, especially the suitability of the word "borderline". The ICD-10 manual refers to the disorder as Emotionally unstable personality disorder and has similar diagnostic criteria. In the DSM-5 the name of the disorder remains the same as in previous editions.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Borderline personality disorder

    • Symptoms of ADHD such as low mood and poor self-image, mood swings, and irritability can be confused with dysthymia, cyclothymia or bipolar disorder as well as with borderline personality disorder. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • These disorders include schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. from Bipolar disorder

    • Impulsivity is both a facet of personality as well as a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. from Impulsivity

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    • They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia. from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • Many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, paraphilias, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. from Impulse control disorder

    • Off-label uses include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, phantom limb syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. from Carbamazepine

    • Emotional dysregulation may present in people with psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. from Emotional dysregulation

    • Cognitive restructuring has been used to help individuals experiencing a variety of psychiatric conditions, including depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders collectively, bulimia, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and gambling, just to name a few. from Cognitive restructuring

    • The HPA axis is involved in the neurobiology of mood disorders and functional illnesses, including anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, burnout, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and alcoholism. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    • Feelings of emptiness often accompany dysthymia, depression, loneliness, anhedonia, , or other mental/emotional disorders, including schizoid personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizotypal personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. from Emptiness

    • NCCMH has produced guidelines on: Schizophrenia, Eating Disorders, Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Dementia, Substance misuse, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health (e.g. Postpartum depression). from National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health

    • Lower scores of RD were also seen in Obsessional Personality, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) individuals, who exhibit symptoms leading to self-harm due to social detachment and feelings of rejection, whereas higher scores of RD were shown in Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) and Dependent Personality Disorder individuals who exhibit behavioral instability and poor emotional control. from Reward dependence

    • Han has written on topics such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, borderline, burnout, depression, exhaustion, internet, love, pop culture, power, rationality, religion, social media, subjectivity, tiredness, transparency and violence. from Byung-Chul Han

    • In Fatigue Society (original German title: Müdigkeitsgesellschaft), Han characterizes today's society as a pathological landscape of neuronal disorders such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, borderline and burnout. from Byung-Chul Han

    • She was diagnosed with ADHD, learning disorder, borderline personality disorder and narcissistic personality traits. from Ashley Smith inquest

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    1. 20
      Psychosis Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή psyche, "mind/soul", and -ωσις -osis, "abnormal condition or derangement") refers to…
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      Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή psyche, "mind/soul", and -ωσις -osis, "abnormal condition or derangement") refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic.

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      Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή psyche, "mind/soul", and -ωσις -osis, "abnormal condition or derangement") refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic.
      Psychosis (as a sign of a psychiatric disorder) is a diagnosis of exclusion. That is, a new-onset episode of psychosis is not considered a symptom of a psychiatric disorder until other relevant and known causes of psychosis are properly excluded. Medical and biological laboratory tests should exclude central nervous system diseases and injuries, diseases and injuries of other organs, psychoactive substances, toxins, and prescribed medications as causes of symptoms of psychosis before any psychiatric illness can be diagnosed. In medical training, psychosis as a sign of illness is often compared to fever since both can have multiple causes that are not readily apparent.
      The term "psychosis" is very broad and can mean anything from relatively normal aberrant experiences through to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. In properly diagnosed psychiatric disorders (where other causes have been excluded by extensive medical and biological laboratory tests), psychosis is a descriptive term for the hallucinations, delusions, sometimes violence, and impaired insight that may occur. Psychosis is generally given to noticeable deficits in normal behavior (negative signs) and more commonly to diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs (e.g. grandiosity, delusions of persecution).
      An excess in dopaminergic signalling is hypothesized to be linked to the positive symptoms of psychosis, especially those of schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis has not been definitively supported. The dopaminergic mechanism is thought to involve the aberrant salience of environmental stimuli. Many antipsychotic drugs accordingly target the dopamine system; however, meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials of these drugs show either no significant difference in effects between drug and placebo, or a very small effect size, suggesting that the pathophysiology of psychosis is much more complex than an overactive dopamine system.
      People experiencing psychosis may exhibit some personality changes and thought disorder. Depending on its severity, this may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior, as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out daily life activities.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Psychosis

    • Because psychosis may be precipitated or exacerbated by common classes of psychiatric medications, such as antidepressants, ADHD stimulant medications, and sleep medications, medication-induced psychosis should be ruled out, particularly for first-episode psychosis. from Psychosis

    • Stimulants may result in psychosis or mania; however, this is relatively uncommon. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Examples include depression, psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autistic spectrum disorders, among many others. from Causes of seizures

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    • and orthomolecular psychiatrists have alleged that pyroluria is related to diagnoses of ADHD, alcoholism, autism, depression, down syndrome, manic-depression, schizophrenia, celiac disease, epilepsy, and psychosis. from Orthomolecular psychiatry

    • Additional alterations of psychopathology with behavioral manifestations that have been observed in LFS include: psychotic behavior, schizophrenia, hyperactivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, extreme shyness, learning disability, cognitive impairment, short-term memory deficit, low frustration tolerance, social dysfunction, lack of impulse control, eating disorder and associated malnutrition, attributed to psychogenic loss of appetite; and pyromania. from Lujan–Fryns syndrome

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    1. 21
      Bupropion Bupropion (/bjuːˈproʊpi.ɒn/, bew-PROH-pee-on) is a drug primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation…
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      Bupropion (/bjuːˈproʊpi.ɒn/, bew-PROH-pee-on) is a drug primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. Marketed as Aplenzin, Budeprion, Elontril, Wellbutrin or other trade names, it is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States. Although in many English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, this is an off-label…

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      Bupropion (/bjuːˈproʊpi.ɒn/, bew-PROH-pee-on) is a drug primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. Marketed as Aplenzin, Budeprion, Elontril, Wellbutrin or other trade names, it is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States. Although in many English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, this is an off-label use. Marketed in lower-dose formulations as Prexaton, Voxra, Zyban, or other names, it is also widely used to aid people who are trying to quit smoking. It is taken in the form of tablets, and in the United States and most other countries it is available only with a prescription.
      Clinically, bupropion serves as an atypical antidepressant fundamentally different from most commonly prescribed antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is an effective antidepressant on its own, but is also popular as an add-on medication in cases of incomplete response to first-line SSRI antidepressants. In contrast to many other antidepressants, it does not cause weight gain or sexual dysfunction. The most important side effect is an increase in risk for epileptic seizures, which caused the drug to be withdrawn from the market for some time and then caused the recommended dosage to be reduced.
      Bupropion is known to affect several different biological targets, and its mechanism of action is only partly understood. It has been widely described as a weak norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. However, studies with humans suggest that it does not significantly affect dopamine levels in the brain at clinically-used doses, calling into question the role of its action at the dopamine transporter in its effects. Bupropion also acts as a non-competitive antagonist of several neuronal nACh receptors. Chemically, it belongs to the class of aminoketones and is similar in structure to stimulants such as cathinone and amfepramone, and to phenethylamines in general.
      Bupropion was synthesized by Nariman Mehta and patented by Burroughs Wellcome in 1969, which later became part of what is now GlaxoSmithKline. It was first approved for clinical use in the United States in 1989. It was originally called by the generic name amfebutamone, before being renamed in 2000. Its chemical name is 3-chloro-N-tert-butyl-β-ketoamphetamine. It is a substituted cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine), as well as a substituted amphetamine.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Bupropion

    • There are a number of non-stimulant medications, such as atomoxetine, bupropion, guanfacine and clonidine that may be used as alternatives. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • There have been numerous reports of positive results for bupropion as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), both in minors and adults. from Bupropion

    • Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

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      Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association…
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      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives…

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      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), produced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The DSM is now in its fifth edition, DSM-5, published on May 18, 2013.
      The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a United States Army manual. Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, although also removing those no longer considered to be mental disorders.
      The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), produced by the World Health Organization (WHO), is the other commonly used manual for mental disorders. It is distinguished from the DSM in that it covers health as a whole. It is in fact the official diagnostic system for mental disorders in the US, but is used more widely in Europe and other parts of the world. The coding system used in the DSM is designed to correspond with the codes used in the ICD, although not all codes may match at all times because the two publications are not revised synchronously.
      While the DSM has been praised for standardizing psychiatric diagnostic categories and criteria, it has also generated controversy and criticism. Critics, including the National Institute of Mental Health, argue that the DSM represents an unscientific and subjective system. There are ongoing issues concerning the validity and reliability of the diagnostic categories; the reliance on superficial symptoms; the use of artificial dividing lines between categories and from ‘normality’; possible cultural bias; medicalization of human distress. The publication of the DSM, with tightly guarded copyrights, now makes APA over $5 million a year, historically totaling over $100 million.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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      Mania Mania is the mood of an abnormally elevated arousal energy level. Elevated irritability is common along with…
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      Mania is the mood of an abnormally elevated arousal energy level. Elevated irritability is common along with behavior that seems on the surface to be the opposite of depression. Mania is a necessary symptom for certain psychiatric diagnoses. The word derives from the Greek μανία (mania), "madness, frenzy" and that from the verb μαίνομαι (mainomai), "to be mad, to rage, to be furious".…

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      Mania is the mood of an abnormally elevated arousal energy level. Elevated irritability is common along with behavior that seems on the surface to be the opposite of depression. Mania is a necessary symptom for certain psychiatric diagnoses. The word derives from the Greek μανία (mania), "madness, frenzy" and that from the verb μαίνομαι (mainomai), "to be mad, to rage, to be furious".
      In addition to mood disorders, persons may exhibit manic behavior increased by drug intoxication (notably stimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine), medication side effects (notably SSRIs), and malignancy. But mania is most often associated with bipolar disorder, where episodes of mania may alternate with episodes of major depression. Gelder, Mayou, and Geddes (2005) suggest that it is vital that mania be predicted in the early stages because otherwise the patient becomes reluctant to comply with the treatment. The criteria for bipolar disorder do not include depressive episodes, and the presence of mania in the absence of depressive episodes is sufficient for a diagnosis. Regardless, those who never experience depression also experience cyclical changes in mood. These cycles are often affected by changes in sleep cycle (too much or too little), diurnal rhythms, and environmental stressors.
      Mania varies in intensity, from mild mania (hypomania) to full mania with extreme energy, racing thoughts, and forced speech.Standardized tools such as Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale can be used to measure severity of manic episodes. Because mania and hypomania have also been associated with creativity and artistic talent, it is not always the case that the clearly manic bipolar person needs or wants medical help; such persons often either retain sufficient self-control to function normally or are unaware that they have "gone manic" severely enough to be committed or to commit themselves. Manic persons often can be mistaken for being on drugs or other mind-altering substances.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Mania

    • Stimulants may result in psychosis or mania; however, this is relatively uncommon. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Problem clutterers are more likely to have depression, mania, OCD or ADHD. from Clutterers Anonymous

    • War (with modern weapons, not comparable to earlier warfare), nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear waste, other pollution problems of many different kinds, global warming, ozone depletion, exhaustion of some natural resources, overpopulation and overcrowding, genetic deterioration of humans due to relaxation of natural selection, abnormally high rate of extinction of species, risk of disaster from biotechnological tinkering, possible or probable replacement of humans by intelligent machines, biological engineering of humans (an insult to human dignity), dominance of large organizations and powerlessness of individuals, surveillance technology that makes individuals still more subject to the power of large organizations, propaganda and other manipulative psychological techniques, psychoactive medications, mental problems of modern life, including inter alia, stress, depression, mania, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit disorder, addictive disorders, domestic abuse, and generalized incompetence. from Neo-Luddism

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      Hyperactivity Hyperactivity is a physical state in which a person is abnormally active. The colloquial term hyper is used to…
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      Hyperactivity is a physical state in which a person is abnormally active. The colloquial term hyper is used to describe someone who is in a hyperactive state.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Hyperactivity

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Other studies point to synthetic preservatives and artificial coloring agents aggravating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in those affected. from Hyperactivity

    • This can be mistaken for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Hyperactivity

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    • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multiple component disorder involving inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. from Impulsivity

    • Allura red AC (E129) (FD&C Red #40) — orange / red food dye The study found increased levels of hyperactivity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children consuming the chemicals. from Allura Red AC

    • Additional alterations of psychopathology with behavioral manifestations that have been observed in LFS include: psychotic behavior, schizophrenia, hyperactivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, extreme shyness, learning disability, cognitive impairment, short-term memory deficit, low frustration tolerance, social dysfunction, lack of impulse control, eating disorder and associated malnutrition, attributed to psychogenic loss of appetite; and pyromania. from Lujan–Fryns syndrome

    • ADHD - A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness, poor impulse control or impulsivity, and distractibility. from Index of children's rights articles

    • His nickname Spinner derives from his ADHD hyperactivity, most likely given to him by his mother, when he was off his meds he would "spin" out of control. from Spinner Mason

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    1. 25
      DSM-5 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the American…
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      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool. In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnosis. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance.…

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      The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool. In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnosis. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance.
      The DSM-5 was published on May 18, 2013, superseding the DSM-IV-TR, which was published in 2000. The development of the new edition began with a conference in 1999, and proceeded with the formation of a Task Force in 2007, which developed and field-tested a variety of new classifications. In most respects DSM-5 is not greatly changed from DSM-IV-TR. Notable changes include dropping Asperger syndrome as a distinct classification; loss of subtype classifications for variant forms of schizophrenia; dropping the "bereavement exclusion" for depressive disorders; a revised treatment and naming of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria, and removing the A2 criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because its requirement for specific emotional reactions to trauma did not apply to combat veterans and first responders with PTSD.
      The fifth edition was criticized by various authorities both before and after it was formally published. Critics assert, for example, that many DSM-5 revisions or additions lack empirical support; inter-rater reliability is low for many disorders; several sections contain poorly written, confusing, or contradictory information; and the psychiatric drug industry unduly influenced the manual's content. Various scientists have argued that the DSM-5 forces clinicians to make distinctions that are not supported by solid evidence, distinctions that have major treatment implications, including drug prescriptions and the availability of health insurance coverage. General criticism of the DSM-5 ultimately resulted in a petition signed by 13,000, and sponsored by many mental health organizations, which called for outside review of the document.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To DSM-5

    • In North America, the DSM-IV or DSM-V criteria are often used for diagnosis, while European countries usually use the ICD-10. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • ADHD, the only disorder of attention currently defined by the DSM-V or ICD-10, is subdivided into three types: a predominantly inattentive presentation, a predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation, and a combined presentation. from Sluggish cognitive tempo

    1. 26
      American Psychiatric Association The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee…
    1. 26

      The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Its some 36,000 members are mainly American but some are international. The association publishes various journals and pamphlets, as well as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM codifies psychiatric conditions and is used worldwide as a key guide for diagnosing disorders.…

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      The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world. Its some 36,000 members are mainly American but some are international. The association publishes various journals and pamphlets, as well as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM codifies psychiatric conditions and is used worldwide as a key guide for diagnosing disorders.
      The organization has its headquarters in Arlington County, Virginia.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To American Psychiatric Association

    • In the United States these criteria are defined by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Though the American Psychiatric Association's criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the World Health Organization's criteria for hyperkinetic disorder each list a very similar set of 18 symptoms, the differing rules governing diagnosis mean that hyperkinetic disorder features greater impairment and more impulse-control difficulties than typical ADHD, and it most resembles a severe case of ADHD combined type. from Hyperkinetic disorder

    • The lawsuits alleged that the makers of methylphenidate (brand name Ritalin) and the American Psychiatric Association had conspired to invent and promote the disorder ADHD to create a highly profitable market for the drug. from Ritalin class action lawsuits

    1. 27
      Atomoxetine Atomoxetine (brand name: Strattera) is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of…
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      Atomoxetine (brand name: Strattera) is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Atomoxetine

    • There are a number of non-stimulant medications, such as atomoxetine, bupropion, guanfacine and clonidine that may be used as alternatives. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Atomoxetine (brand name: Strattera) is a drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). from Atomoxetine

    • The TCAs were used in the past in the clinical treatment of ADHD, though they are not typically used anymore on account of being replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin, Attentin) and stimulants like methylphenidate(Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta), and amphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine, Vyvanse). from Tricyclic antidepressant

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    • Several clinical trials, most randomised double-blind trials (and in one buspirone was used as an adjunct to atomoxetine) and one open-label, have been conducted to evaluate the utility of buspirone in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with mostly positive results. from Buspirone

    • In addition, atomoxetine has found use in the treatment of ADHD as a non-addictive alternative to Ritalin. from Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor

    • Strattera (a non-stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). from Eli Lilly and Company

    • The coroner's report revealed that no traces of illegal substances or alcohol were found in his system at the time of his death, but did find prescribed levels of antidepressant, anxiolytic and ADHD medications in his system, including Clonazepam, Mirtazapine, Atomoxetine and Amphetamine. from Elliott Smith

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    1. 28
      Cognitive behavioral therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions…
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      Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures. The name refers to behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive principles and research. Most therapists working with patients…

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      Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures. The name refers to behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive principles and research. Most therapists working with patients dealing with anxiety and depression use a blend of cognitive and behavioral therapy. This technique acknowledges that there may be behaviors that cannot be controlled through rational thought. CBT is "problem focused" (undertaken for specific problems) and "action oriented" (therapist tries to assist the client in selecting specific strategies to help address those problems).
      CBT is thought to be effective for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, tic, and psychotic disorders. Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments.
      CBT was primarily developed through an integration of behavior therapy (the term "behavior modification" appears to have been first used by Edward Thorndike) with cognitive psychology research, first by Donald Meichenbaum and several other authors with the label of cognitive behavior modification in the late 1970s. This tradition thereafter merged with earlier work of a few clinicians, labeled as Cognitive Therapy (CT), developed first by Albert Ellis as Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) and later Aaron Beck. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions have been characterised by a constant reference to experimental research to test hypotheses, both at clinical and basic level. Common features of CBT procedures are the focus on the "here and now", a directive or guidance role of the therapist, a structuring of the psychotherapy sessions and path, and on alleviating both symptoms and patients' vulnerability.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Cognitive behavioral therapy

    • Emerging evidence suggests a possible role for CBT in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); hypochondriasis; coping with the impact of multiple sclerosis; sleep disturbances related to aging; dysmenorrhea; and bipolar disorder, but more study is needed and results should be interpreted with caution. from Cognitive behavioral therapy

    • Psychological therapies used include: psychoeducational input, behavior therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy, family therapy, school-based interventions, social skills training, parent management training, and neurofeedback. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    1. 29
      Impulsivity Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a multifactorial construct that involves a tendency to act on a whim, displaying…
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      Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a multifactorial construct that involves a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. Impulsive actions are typically "poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation that often result in undesirable consequences," which imperil long-term goals…

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      Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a multifactorial construct that involves a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. Impulsive actions are typically "poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation that often result in undesirable consequences," which imperil long-term goals and strategies for success. A functional variety of impulsivity has also been suggested, which involves action without much forethought in appropriate situations that can and does result in desirable consequences. "When such actions have positive outcomes, they tend not to be seen as signs of impulsivity, but as indicators of boldness, quickness, spontaneity, courageousness, or unconventionality" Thus, the construct of impulsivity includes at least the two independent components of, first: acting without an appropriate amount of deliberation, which may or may not be functional; and, second: choosing short-term gains over long-term ones.
      Impulsivity is both a facet of personality as well as a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Impulsiveness may also be a factor in procrastination. Abnormal patterns of impulsivity have also been noted instances of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurobiological findings suggest that there are specific brain regions involved in impulsive behavior, although different brain networks may contribute to different manifestations of impulsivity, and that genetics may play a role.
      Many actions contain both impulsive and compulsive features, but impulsivity and compulsivity are functionally distinct. Impulsivity and compulsivity are interrelated in that each exhibits a tendency to act prematurely or without considered thought and often include negative outcomes. However, compulsivity may be on a continuum with compulsivity on one end and impulsivity on the other, but research has been contradictory on this point. Compulsivity occurs in response to a perceived risk or threat, impulsivity occurs in response to a perceived immediate gain or benefit, and, whereas compulsivity involves repetitive actions, impulsivity involves unplanned reactions.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Impulsivity

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multiple component disorder involving inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. from Impulsivity

    • Impulsivity is both a facet of personality as well as a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. from Impulsivity

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      Generalized anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and…
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      Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry. For diagnosis of this disorder, symptoms must last at least six months. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals suffering GAD typically anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health…

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      Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry. For diagnosis of this disorder, symptoms must last at least six months. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals suffering GAD typically anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health issues, money, death, family problems, friendship problems, interpersonal relationship problems, or work difficulties. Individuals often exhibit a variety of physical symptoms, including fatigue, fidgeting, headaches, nausea, numbness in hands and feet, muscle tension, muscle aches, difficulty swallowing, bouts of difficulty breathing, difficulty concentrating, trembling, twitching, irritability, agitation, sweating, restlessness, insomnia, hot flashes, and rashes and inability to fully control the anxiety (ICD-10). These symptoms must be consistent and ongoing, persisting at least six months, for a formal diagnosis of GAD to be introduced.
      In any given year, approximately 6.8 million American adults and two percent of European adults experience GAD. GAD is seen in women twice as much as men. GAD is also commonly seen in individuals with a history of substance abuse and a family history of the disorder. Once GAD develops, it may become chronic, but can be managed or eliminated with proper treatment.
      Standardized rating scales such as GAD-7 can be used to assess severity of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms. GAD is the most common cause of disability in the workplace in the United States.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Generalized anxiety disorder

    • Generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder and social phobia are also more common. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Further research suggests that about 20 to 40 percent of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have comorbid anxiety disorders, with GAD being the most prevalent. from Generalized anxiety disorder

    • People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania (hair pulling). from Obsessive–compulsive disorder

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    • They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia. from Tricyclic antidepressant

    • Memantine is also being tested for generalized anxiety disorder, epilepsy, opioid dependence, systemic lupus erythematosus, depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette Syndrome, problem gambling, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), glaucoma, tinnitus, neuropathic pain including Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, pervasive developmental disorders, HIV associated dementia, nystagmus, multiple sclerosis, autism, migraine, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Down syndrome and for protection of cognitive function during whole brain radiation. from Memantine

    • Disabilities which pupils may have include: acute stress disorder, addiction, affective spectrum, agoraphobia, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD), Asperger syndrome, autism spectrum/high functioning autism, avoidant personality disorder, bipolar disorder, bulimia nervosa, conduct disorder, developmental delay, clinical depression, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, epilepsy, exhibitionism, gender identity disorder, genetic disorders, hysteria, nervous breakdown, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), oppositional defiant disorder, (ODD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), impulse control disorder (kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, pathological gambling, trichotillomania), emotional or behavioural difficulties, pathological demand avoidance (PDA), panic attacks, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), self-harm (SH), separation anxiety disorder/school refusal, selective mutism, semantic pragmatic disorder, social anxiety (social phobia), Tourette syndrome and other various mental health problems. from The New School at West Heath

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      Dopamine transporter The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps…
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      The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synapse back into cytosol, from which other transporters sequester DA and NE into vesicles for later storage and release. Dopamine reuptake via DAT provides the primary mechanism through which dopamine is cleared from synapses, although there may be an exception in the prefrontal cortex, where evidence points to a possibly larger role of the norepinephrine transporter.…

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      The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synapse back into cytosol, from which other transporters sequester DA and NE into vesicles for later storage and release. Dopamine reuptake via DAT provides the primary mechanism through which dopamine is cleared from synapses, although there may be an exception in the prefrontal cortex, where evidence points to a possibly larger role of the norepinephrine transporter.
      DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and alcoholism. The gene that encodes the DAT protein is located on human chromosome 5, consists of 15 coding exons, and is roughly 64 kbp long. Evidence for the associations between DAT and dopamine related disorders has come from a type of genetic polymorphism, known as a VNTR, in the DAT gene (DAT1), which influences the amount of protein expressed.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Dopamine transporter

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    • DAT is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, clinical depression, and alcoholism. from Dopamine transporter

    • Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. from Dopaminergic

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      Traumatic brain injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically…
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      Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.…

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      Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.
      TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Males sustain traumatic brain injuries more frequently than do females. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those suffering from automobile accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of automobile accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws.
      Brain trauma can occur as a consequence of a focal impact upon the head, by a sudden acceleration/deceleration within the cranium or by a complex combination of both movement and sudden impact. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, brain trauma causes secondary injury, a variety of events that take place in the minutes and days following the injury. These processes, which include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull, contribute substantially to the damage from the initial injury.
      TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. The 20th century saw critical developments in diagnosis and treatment that decreased death rates and improved outcome. Some of the current imaging techniques used for diagnosis and treatment include CT scans computed tomography and MRIs magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, emergency surgery or surgery years later. Physical therapy, speech therapy, recreation therapy, occupational therapy and vision therapy may be employed for rehabilitation.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Traumatic brain injury

    • At least 30% of children with a traumatic brain injury later develop ADHD and about 5% of cases are due to brain damage. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • It has been used for addiction, ADHD, aggression, anxiety, autism, depression, epilepsy, headaches, insomnia, Tourette syndrome, and brain damage from stroke, TBI, apathy and other causes. from Neurofeedback

    • PBA is most commonly observed in people with neurologic injuries such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, and neurologic diseases such as dementias including Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lyme Disease, PANDAS in children and adults, and Parkinson's disease (PD). from Pseudobulbar affect

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    • This test has proven its sensitivity to reading disabilities, nonverbal learning disabilities, traumatic brain injury, attention-deficit disorder, alzheimer's, and other forms of dementia. from Visual memory

    • All contributions support the cause of brain health and the Center’s many research focus areas-Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI), autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), stroke, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Addiction, BrainHealth Physical, Dementia, Exercise and the Brain, Healthy Brain Aging, and Virtual Brain Training. from Center for BrainHealth

    • The Center provides academic training and houses specialists in, among many others, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI), healthy brain aging, autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), stroke, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). from Center for BrainHealth

    • This assessment has been utilized for a number of different clinical populations including those with: frontal-lobe lesions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disabilities, mood disorders (e.g., bipolar disorder), autism spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, genetic disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis) and spina bifida. from Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System

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    1. 33
      Insomnia Insomnia, or sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as…
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      Insomnia, or sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired. While the term is sometimes used to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic or actigraphic evidence of disturbed sleep, this sleep disorder is often practically defined as a positive response to either of two questions: "Do you experience difficulty sleeping?" or "Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"…

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      Insomnia, or sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired. While the term is sometimes used to describe a disorder demonstrated by polysomnographic or actigraphic evidence of disturbed sleep, this sleep disorder is often practically defined as a positive response to either of two questions: "Do you experience difficulty sleeping?" or "Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"
      Insomnia is most often thought of as both a medical sign and a symptom that can accompany several sleep, medical, and psychiatric disorders characterized by a persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep or sleep of poor quality. Insomnia is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in the elderly. Insomnia can be short term (up to three weeks) or long term (above 3–4 weeks), which can lead to memory problems, depression, irritability and an increased risk of heart disease and automobile related accidents.
      Those who are having trouble sleeping sometimes turn to sleeping pills, which can help when used occasionally but may lead to substance dependency or addiction if used regularly for an extended period.
      Insomnia can be grouped into primary and secondary, or comorbid, insomnia. Primary insomnia is a sleep disorder not attributable to a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause. It is described as a complaint of prolonged sleep onset latency, disturbance of sleep maintenance, or the experience of non-refreshing sleep. A complete diagnosis will differentiate between free-standing primary insomnia, insomnia as secondary to another condition, and primary insomnia co-morbid with one or more conditions.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Insomnia

    • Studies have also shown that children with Autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilities, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other related neurological diseases can benefit from the use of melatonin. from Insomnia

    • In children with ADHD, insomnia is the most common sleep disorder with behavioral therapy the preferred treatment. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia. from Tricyclic antidepressant

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    • It has been used for addiction, ADHD, aggression, anxiety, autism, depression, epilepsy, headaches, insomnia, Tourette syndrome, and brain damage from stroke, TBI, apathy and other causes. from Neurofeedback

    • The HPA axis is involved in the neurobiology of mood disorders and functional illnesses, including anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, ADHD, major depressive disorder, burnout, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and alcoholism. from Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

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    1. 34
      Sleep disorder A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep…
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      A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders.…

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      A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders.
      Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues, from teeth grinding (bruxism) to night terrors. When a person suffers from difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep with no obvious cause, it is referred to as insomnia.
      Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, and other disorders including ones caused by medical or psychological conditions and sleeping sickness. Some common sleep disorders include insomnia (chronic inability to sleep), sleep apnea (abnormally low breathing during sleep), narcolepsy (excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times), cataplexy (sudden and transient loss of muscle tone), and sleeping sickness (disruption of sleep cycle due to infection). In addition, sleep disorders may also cause sufferers to sleep excessively, a condition known as hypersomnia. Other disorders that are being studied include sleepwalking, sleep terror and bed wetting. Management of sleep disturbances that are secondary to mental, medical, or substance abuse disorders should focus on the underlying conditions.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Sleep disorder

    • Sleep disorders and ADHD commonly co-exist. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep disorders. from Antidepressant

    • Associated conditions include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD or ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), learning disabilities and sleep disorders. from Treatment of Tourette syndrome

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    • Such disorders include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, brain tumors, depression, Down Syndrome, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington's Disease, multiple sclerosis, neurological AIDS, neurological trauma, pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, stroke, Tourette Syndrome, among many others. from Clinical neuroscience

    • Some of the commonly encountered conditions treated by neurologists include headaches, radiculopathy, neuropathy, stroke, dementia, seizures and epilepsy, Alzheimer's Disease, Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's Disease, Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, head trauma, sleep disorders, neuromuscular diseases, and various infections and tumors of the nervous system. from Neurology

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      Hyperkinetic disorder Hyperkinetic disorder is a psychiatric syndrome emerging in early childhood that features an enduring pattern of…
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      Hyperkinetic disorder is a psychiatric syndrome emerging in early childhood that features an enduring pattern of severe, developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity across different settings (e.g., home and school) that significantly impair academic, social and work performance.…

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      Hyperkinetic disorder is a psychiatric syndrome emerging in early childhood that features an enduring pattern of severe, developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity across different settings (e.g., home and school) that significantly impair academic, social and work performance.
      Hyperkinetic children display disorganized, poorly controlled and excessive activity; they lack perseverance in tasks involving thought and attention, and tend to move from one activity to the next without completing any. They are frequently accident-prone, reckless and impulsive, and may thoughtlessly (rather than defiantly) break rules. While they are commonly incautious and unreserved with adults, they may be isolated and unpopular with other children. Cognitive impairment and delayed language and motor development are more common in this group than in the general population; and they may experience low self-esteem and engage in dissocial behavior as a consequence of the disorder.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Hyperkinetic disorder

    • In the tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) the signs of ADHD are given the name "hyperkinetic disorders". from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Though the American Psychiatric Association's criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the World Health Organization's criteria for hyperkinetic disorder each list a very similar set of 18 symptoms, the differing rules governing diagnosis mean that hyperkinetic disorder features greater impairment and more impulse-control difficulties than typical ADHD, and it most resembles a severe case of ADHD combined type. from Hyperkinetic disorder

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    • This critique was embodied in works such as Conrad's "The discovery of hyperkinesis: notes on medicalization of deviance", published in 1973 (hyperkinesis was the term then used to describe what we might now call ADHD). from Medicalization

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    1. 36
      Cognition In science, cognition is the set all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge: attention, memory &…
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      In science, cognition is the set all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge: attention, memory & working memory, judgement & evaluation, reasoning & "computation", problem solving & decision making, comprehension & production of language. Cognition is by humans conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive (like knowledge of a language) and conceptual (like a model of a language). Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.…

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      In science, cognition is the set all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge: attention, memory & working memory, judgement & evaluation, reasoning & "computation", problem solving & decision making, comprehension & production of language. Cognition is by humans conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive (like knowledge of a language) and conceptual (like a model of a language). Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.
      These processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, and computer science. Within psychology or philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts such as mind, intelligence. It encompasses the mental functions, mental processes (thoughts), and states of intelligent entities (humans, collaborative groups, human organizations, highly autonomous machines, and artificial intelligences).
      Thus, the term's usage varies across disciplines; for example, in psychology and cognitive science, "cognition" usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions. It is also used in a branch of social psychology called social cognition to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics. In cognitive psychology and cognitive engineering, cognition is typically assumed to be information processing in a participant’s or operator’s mind or brain.
      Cognition can in some specific and abstract sense also be artificial.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Cognition

    • One theory suggests that the symptoms arise from a difficulty in executive functions. Executive functions refers to a number of mental processes that are required to regulate, control, and manage daily life tasks. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Developing brain cells and structures can be malformed or have development interrupted by prenatal alcohol exposure; this can create an array of primary cognitive and functional disabilities (including poor memory, attention deficits, impulsive behavior, and poor cause-effect reasoning) as well as secondary disabilities (for example, predispositions to mental health problems and drug addiction). from Fetal alcohol syndrome

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      Auditory processing disorder Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term…
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      Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information. Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). However, they cannot process the information they…

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      Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information. Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). However, they cannot process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system (i.e., brain).
      APD does not feature in mainstream diagnostic classifications such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). The American Academy of Audiology notes that APD is diagnosed by difficulties in one or more auditory processes known to reflect the function of the central auditory nervous system.
      APD can affect both children and adults, although the actual prevalence is currently unknown. It has been suggested that males are twice as likely to be affected by the disorder as females, but there are no good epidemiological studies.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Auditory processing disorder

    • The language delay in people with ADHD can include problems with auditory processing disorders such as short-term auditory memory weakness, difficulty following instructions, slow speed of processing written and spoken language, difficulties listening in distracting environments e.g. the classroom, and weakness in reading comprehension. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Depending on how it is defined, APD may share common symptoms with ADD/ADHD, Specific language impairment, Asperger syndrome and other forms of autism. from Auditory processing disorder

    • The syndrome can be difficult to diagnose and may be misdiagnosed as autism, pervasive developmental disorder, hearing impairment, learning disability, auditory/verbal processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, intellectual disability, childhood schizophrenia, or emotional/behavioral problems. from Landau–Kleffner syndrome

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    • The Craig School specializes in students limited to dyslexia, auditory processing disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, using a language-based curriculum. from The Craig School

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    1. 38
      Dysthymia Dysthymia (/dɪsˈθaɪmiə/ dis-THY-mee-ə, from Ancient Greek δυσθυμία, "melancholy"), sometimes also called neurotic…
    1. 38

      Dysthymia (/dɪsˈθaɪmiə/ dis-THY-mee-ə, from Ancient Greek δυσθυμία, "melancholy"), sometimes also called neurotic depression, dysthymic disorder, or chronic depression, is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as in depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms. The concept was coined by Dr. Robert Spitzer as a replacement for the term "depressive personality" in the late 1970s.…

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      Dysthymia (/dɪsˈθaɪmiə/ dis-THY-mee-ə, from Ancient Greek δυσθυμία, "melancholy"), sometimes also called neurotic depression, dysthymic disorder, or chronic depression, is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as in depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms. The concept was coined by Dr. Robert Spitzer as a replacement for the term "depressive personality" in the late 1970s.
      According to the diagnosis manual DSM-IV of 1994, dysthymia is a serious state of chronic depression, which persists for at least two years (1 year for children and adolescents); it is less acute and severe than major depressive disorder. As dysthymia is a chronic disorder, sufferers may experience symptoms for many years before it is diagnosed, if diagnosis occurs at all. As a result, they may believe that depression is a part of their character, so they may not even discuss their symptoms with doctors, family members, or friends.
      Dysthymia often co-occurs with other mental disorders. A "double depression" is the occurrence of episodes of major depression in addition to dysthymia. Switching between periods of dysthymic moods and periods of hypomanic moods is indicative of cyclothymia, which is a mild variant of bipolar disorder.
      The DSM-5, the 5th edition of the DSM, was released in May 2013 and includes a number of changes. In this edition, dysthymia is replaced by persistent depressive disorder. This new condition includes both chronic major depressive disorder and the previous dysthymic disorder. The reason for this change is that there was no evidence for meaningful differences between these two conditions.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Dysthymia

    • Symptoms of ADHD such as low mood and poor self-image, mood swings, and irritability can be confused with dysthymia, cyclothymia or bipolar disorder as well as with borderline personality disorder. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep disorders. from Antidepressant

    • Feelings of emptiness often accompany dysthymia, depression, loneliness, anhedonia, , or other mental/emotional disorders, including schizoid personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizotypal personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. from Emptiness

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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disorder…
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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disorder, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, possible overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis as ADHD leading to undertreatment of the real underlying disease, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD. These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the 1970s.…

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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disorder, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, possible overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis as ADHD leading to undertreatment of the real underlying disease, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD. These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the 1970s.
      The best course of ADHD management is major topic of debate. Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD, and, even though the National Institute of Mental Health states that they are considered safe when under medical supervision, there are concerns regarding the higher rates of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as increased severity of these disorders in individuals with a history of stimulant use for ADHD in childhood.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

    1. 40
      Neurofeedback Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy or neurobiofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that uses realtime…
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      Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy or neurobiofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that uses realtime displays of electroencephalography (EEG) or hemoencephalography (HEG) to illustrate brain activity and teach self-regulation. EEG neurofeedback uses sensors that are placed on the scalp to measure brain waves, while HEG neurofeedback uses infrared (IR) sensors or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain blood flow.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Neurofeedback

    • Psychological therapies used include: psychoeducational input, behavior therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy, family therapy, school-based interventions, social skills training, parent management training, and neurofeedback. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • It has been used for addiction, ADHD, aggression, anxiety, autism, depression, epilepsy, headaches, insomnia, Tourette syndrome, and brain damage from stroke, TBI, apathy and other causes. from Neurofeedback

    • One review argued there is some indication on the effectiveness of biofeedback for ADHD but it is not conclusive: several studies have yielded positive results, however the "best designed" ones have either shown absent or reduced effects. from Neurofeedback

    1. 41
      Antisocial personality disorder Antisocial (or dissocial) personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or…
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      Antisocial (or dissocial) personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. There may be an impoverished moral sense or conscience and a history of crime, legal problems, and impulsive and aggressive behavior.…

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      Antisocial (or dissocial) personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. There may be an impoverished moral sense or conscience and a history of crime, legal problems, and impulsive and aggressive behavior.
      Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is the name of the disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Dissocial personality disorder is the name of a similar or equivalent concept defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), where it states that the diagnosis includes antisocial personality disorder. Both manuals have similar but not identical criteria. Both have also stated that their diagnoses have been referred to, or include what is referred to, as psychopathy or sociopathy, though distinctions are sometimes made.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Antisocial personality disorder

    • Additionally it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • About half of those with hyperactivity and ODD or CD develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Impulsivity is both a facet of personality as well as a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. from Impulsivity

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    • Many psychiatric disorders feature impulsivity, including substance-related disorders, paraphilias, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, conduct disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. from Impulse control disorder

    • The low arousal theory is a psychological theory explaining that people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial personality disorder seek self-stimulation by excessive activity in order to transcend their state of abnormally low arousal. from Low arousal theory

    • NCCMH has produced guidelines on: Schizophrenia, Eating Disorders, Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Dementia, Substance misuse, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health (e.g. Postpartum depression). from National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health

    • Men with alcohol-use disorders more often have a co-occurring diagnosis of narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, impulse disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. from Alcoholism

    • In a pre-sentencing evaluation performed on May 10, 2011, Minkow was diagnosed by a Dr. Michael Brannon as having antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, opioid dependence, anabolic steroid abuse, and migraine headaches. from Barry Minkow

    • It is speculated that Ruggiero suffered from Antisocial personality disorder, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette syndrome which earned him the moniker of the "Perle Mesta of the Mob". from Angelo Ruggiero

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      Cyclothymia Cyclothymia, also called cyclothymic disorder, is a type of chronic mood disorder widely considered to be a milder…
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      Cyclothymia, also called cyclothymic disorder, is a type of chronic mood disorder widely considered to be a milder or subthreshold form of bipolar disorder. Cyclothymia is characterized by numerous mood disturbances, with periods of hypomanic symptoms alternating with periods of mild or moderate depression.…

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      Cyclothymia, also called cyclothymic disorder, is a type of chronic mood disorder widely considered to be a milder or subthreshold form of bipolar disorder. Cyclothymia is characterized by numerous mood disturbances, with periods of hypomanic symptoms alternating with periods of mild or moderate depression.
      An individual with cyclothymia may feel stable at a baseline level but experience noticeable shifts to an emotional high during hypomanic episodes, with symptoms similar to those of mania but less severe, and emotional lows involving depressive symptoms that do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode. To meet the diagnostic criteria for cyclothymia, a person must experience this alternating pattern of emotional highs and lows for a period of at least two years with no more than two consecutive symptom-free months. For children and adolescents, the duration must be at least one year.
      While diagnosis of cyclothymia is becoming more common, it is not as frequent as that of bipolar disorder. Diagnosis of cyclothymia presupposes absence of a major depressive episode, manic episode or mixed episode, which would qualify the individual for diagnosis of another mood disorder. When such episodes manifest after an initial diagnosis of cyclothymia, the individual may qualify for a diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Although estimates vary greatly, 15–50% of cases of cyclothymia later fit the diagnostic criteria for bipolar I and/or bipolar II disorder (resulting in a diagnosis of bipolar I or II with cyclothymic features).
      Although the emotional highs and lows of cyclothymia are less extreme than those of bipolar disorder, the symptomatology, longitudinal course, family history and treatment response of cyclothymia are consistent with bipolar spectrum. Lifetime prevalence of cyclothymic disorder is 0.4–1%. Frequency appears similar in men and women, though women more often seek treatment. Unlike during episodes of bipolar I disorder, people with cyclothymia are more likely to be either somewhat or fully productive,[citation needed] and sometimes even hyper-productive.
      Cyclothymia is similar to bipolar II disorder in that it presents itself in signature hypomanic episodes. Because hypomania is often associated with exceptionally creative, outgoing, and high-functioning behavior, both conditions are often undiagnosed. As with most of the disorders in the bipolar spectrum, it is the depressive phase that leads most sufferers to get help.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Cyclothymia

    • Symptoms of ADHD such as low mood and poor self-image, mood swings, and irritability can be confused with dysthymia, cyclothymia or bipolar disorder as well as with borderline personality disorder. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Symptoms described in the hypomanic episode are also commonly associated with ADHD, such as increased energy, distractibility and impulsive or risk seeking behavior. from Cyclothymia

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      International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the…
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      The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the short-form name International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.…

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      The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the short-form name International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System. The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases.
      The International Classification of Diseases is published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and used worldwide for morbidity and mortality statistics, reimbursement systems, and automated decision support in health care. This system is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of these statistics. As in the case of the analogous (but limited to mental and behavioral disorders) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, currently in version 5), the ICD is a major project to statistically classify health disorders, and provide diagnostic assistance. The ICD is a core statistically-based classificatory diagnostic system for health care related issues of the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC).
      The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth revision. The ICD-10, as it is therefore known, was developed in 1992 to track health statistics. ICD-11 is planned for 2017. As of 2007, development plans included using Web 2.0 principles to support detailed revision. Annual minor updates and triennial major updates are published by the WHO. The ICD is part of a "family" of guides that can be used to complement each other, including also the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health which focuses on the domains of functioning (disability) associated with health conditions, from both medical and social perspectives.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

    • In the tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) the signs of ADHD are given the name "hyperkinetic disorders". from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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      Neurodevelopmental disorder Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system…
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      Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as the individual grows. The term is sometimes erroneously used as an exclusive synonym for autism and autism spectrum disorders.…

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      Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as the individual grows. The term is sometimes erroneously used as an exclusive synonym for autism and autism spectrum disorders.
      Disorders considered neurodevelopmental in origin, or that have neurodevelopmental consequences when they occur in infancy and childhood include:
      Neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with widely varying degrees of difficulty which may have significant mental, emotional, physical, and economic consequences for individuals, and in turn their families and society in general.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Neurodevelopmental disorder

    • It is classified as a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental disorder type. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • In broader definitions ADHD is included, and the term used is neurodevelopmental disorders. from Developmental disorder

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    • The most important differences result from the effects of the extra X and Y chromosome on neurodevelopment, leading to higher rates of developmental delays in early childhood, learning disability or intellectual disability, adaptive functioning (life skills) difficulties, neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders, and psychological/behavioral problems including anxiety, depression, and mood dysregulation. from XXYY syndrome

    • 48, XXYY may result in infertility, low testosterone, and neurodevelopmental disorders like ADHD or autism but some men have no issues. from Disorders of sex development

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    1. 45
      Intelligence quotient An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human…
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      An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenz-quotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests he advocated in a 1912 book. When current IQ tests are…

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      An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenz-quotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests he advocated in a 1912 book. When current IQ tests are developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation (SD) up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically. By this definition, approximately 95 percent of the population scores an IQ between 70 and 130, which is within two standard deviations of the mean.
      IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance.
      IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can also inform current research on human intelligence.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Intelligence quotient

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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management are the treatment options available to people with…
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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management are the treatment options available to people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
      A variety of psychotherapeutic and behavior modification approaches to managing ADHD including psychotherapy and working memory training may be used. Improving the surrounding home and school environment with parent management training and classroom management can improve the behavior of children…

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      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management are the treatment options available to people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
      There are several effective and evidence-based options to treat people with ADHD. Multimodal treatment, that is, combined pharmacological and behavioral treatment, is the most effective ADHD management strategy, followed by medication alone, and then behavioral treatment. However, these results have been questioned because the study from the multimodal treatment group phased out the behavioral procedure 3 months prior to the last evaluation point but continued the medication group. Indeed, after 14 months the medication group lost its advantage to the long discontinued behavior modification group. By year eight socioeconomic status and family structure were the only predictive variables for ADHD treatment A separate study highlighted the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children with ADHD.
      The most common stimulant medications are methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall). Atomoxetine (Strattera), guanfacine (Intuniv) and clonidine (Kapvay) are non-stimulant drugs approved for the treatment of ADHD. Other medications which may be prescribed off-label include certain antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants, SNRIs or MAOIs. The presence of comorbid (co-occurring) disorders make finding the right treatment and diagnosis much more costly and time-consuming. Having a comorbid disorder makes the treatment and diagnosis of ADHD more complicated, so it is recommended to assess and treat any comorbid disorders simultaneously.
      A variety of psychotherapeutic and behavior modification approaches to managing ADHD including psychotherapy and working memory training may be used. Improving the surrounding home and school environment with parent management training and classroom management can improve the behavior of children with ADHD. Specialized ADHD coaches provide services and strategies to improve functioning, like time management or organizational suggestions. Self-control training programs have been shown to have limited effectiveness. Behaviorally based self-control does better than cognitive self-control training. A meta-analysis found that the use of behavior modification for ADHD are effective.
      As of 2006 there was a shortage of data regarding ADHD drugs' potential adverse effects, with very few studies assessing the safety or efficacy of treatments beyond four months, and no randomized controlled trials assessing for periods of usage longer than two years. Treatment of preschool children is not recommended. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that a large number of the controlled trials required subjects who were known to respond to stimulants or who had no history of intolerance to stimulants, and this limits assumed generalizability of the trials' results.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management

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      Serotonin transporter The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) is a type of monoamine transporter protein that transports serotonin from…
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      The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) is a type of monoamine transporter protein that transports serotonin from the synaptic cleft to the presynaptic neuron.…

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      The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) is a type of monoamine transporter protein that transports serotonin from the synaptic cleft to the presynaptic neuron.
      This transport of serotonin by the SERT protein terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner. This protein is the target of many antidepressant medications, including those of the SSRI class. It is a member of the sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family. A repeat length polymorphism in the promoter of this gene has been shown to affect the rate of serotonin uptake and may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome, aggressive behavior in Alzheimer disease patients, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression-susceptibility in people experiencing emotional trauma.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Serotonin transporter

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      Tic A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups. Tics…
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      A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups. Tics can be invisible to the observer, such as abdominal tensing or toe crunching. Common motor and phonic tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing.…

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      A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups. Tics can be invisible to the observer, such as abdominal tensing or toe crunching. Common motor and phonic tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing.
      Tics must be distinguished from movements of other movement disorders such as chorea, dystonia, myoclonus; movements exhibited in stereotypic movement disorder or some people with autism; and the compulsions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and seizure activity.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Tic

    • Other conditions that should be considered are other neurodevelopmental disorders, tics, and sleep apnea. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Clonidine has also been successfully used in indications that exceed what would be expected from a simple blood-pressure lowering drug: it has recently shown positive results in children with ADHD who suffer from tics resulting from the treatment with a CNS stimulant drug, such as Adderall XR or methylphenidate; clonidine also helps alleviate symptoms of opioid withdrawal. from Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

    • The discrimination is based on numerous factors such as: stereotypes about individual differences or conditions (e.g. ADHD, bipolar, schizophrenia, personality disorder diagnoses), specific behavioral phenomena (e.g. stuttering, tics), or supposed intelligence, or neurology (e.g. neurodiversity on the autism spectrum). from Mentalism (discrimination)

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      Striatum The striatum, also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is a subcortical part of the forebrain. It receives…
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      The striatum, also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is a subcortical part of the forebrain. It receives input from the cerebral cortex and is the primary input to the basal ganglia system. In all primates, the striatum is divided by a white matter tract called the internal capsule into two sectors called the…

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      The striatum, also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is a subcortical part of the forebrain. It receives input from the cerebral cortex and is the primary input to the basal ganglia system. In all primates, the striatum is divided by a white matter tract called the internal capsule into two sectors called the caudate nucleus and the putamen. The term corpus striatum is occasionally used to refer to the striatum combined with the pallidum, which is a collective term for the dorsal pallidum (globus pallidus) and the ventral pallidum. The lenticular nucleus refers to the putamen together with the globus pallidus.
      Functionally, the striatum helps coordinate motivation with body movement. It facilitates and balances motivation with both higher-level and lower-level functions, such as inhibiting one's behavior in a complex social interaction and fine-motor functions of inhibiting small voluntary movement.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Striatum

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      Mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a mental or behavioral pattern or…
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      A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a mental or behavioral pattern or anomaly that causes either suffering or an impaired ability to function in ordinary life (disability), and which is not developmentally or socially normative. Mental disorders are generally defined by a combination of how a person feels, acts,…

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      A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a mental or behavioral pattern or anomaly that causes either suffering or an impaired ability to function in ordinary life (disability), and which is not developmentally or socially normative. Mental disorders are generally defined by a combination of how a person feels, acts, thinks or perceives. This may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain or rest of the nervous system, often in a social context. Mental disorder is one aspect of mental health. The scientific study of mental disorders is called psychopathology.
      The causes of mental disorders are varied and in some cases unclear, and theories may incorporate findings from a range of fields. Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, and assessments are carried out by psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and clinical social workers, using various methods but often relying on observation and questioning. Clinical treatments are provided by various mental health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options, as are social interventions, peer support and self-help. In a minority of cases there might be involuntary detention or involuntary treatment, where legislation allows. Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders (or with being diagnosed or judged as having a mental disorder), leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding and challenge social exclusion. Prevention is now appearing in some mental health strategies.

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    How Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Connects To Mental disorder

    • Stereotypes that are associated with their diagnosis also do not go unnoticed, many of them face bullying simply due to the fact that they have ADHD or Depression. from Mental disorder

    • Stimulants are commonly used, notably for ADHD. from Mental disorder

    • In February 2013 a study found common genetic links between five major psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. from Mental disorder

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    • A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed, for example autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood. from Mental disorder

    • It is classified as a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental disorder type. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. from Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    • Developing brain cells and structures can be malformed or have development interrupted by prenatal alcohol exposure; this can create an array of primary cognitive and functional disabilities (including poor memory, attention deficits, impulsive behavior, and poor cause-effect reasoning) as well as secondary disabilities (for example, predispositions to mental health problems and drug addiction). from Fetal alcohol syndrome

    • While racing thoughts are most commonly described in people with bipolar disorder, they are also common with anxiety disorders, such as OCD and psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. from Racing thoughts

    • An increased interference effect is found in disorders such as brain damage, dementias and other neurodegenerative diseases, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or a variety of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, addictions, and depression. from Stroop effect

    • Amen's clinics offer medical services to people who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disorders. from Daniel Amen

    • A study finds common genetic links between five major psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. from 2013 in science

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