A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white and black shaded squares. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues which lead to the answers. In languages that are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom. The shaded squares are used to separate the words or phrases.

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  • 1. [Sudoku] Sudoku (数独, sūdoku, Digit-single) /suːˈdoʊkuː/, originally called Number Place, is a logic-based, combinatorial number-placement puzzle. The objective is to fill a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, each row, and each of the nine 3×3 sub-grids that compose the grid (also called "boxes", "blocks", "regions", or "sub-squares") contains all of the digits from 1 to 9. The puzzle setter provides a partially completed grid, which for a well-posed puzzle has a unique solution.
  • 2. [Will Shortz] Will Shortz (born 26 August 1952 in Crawfordsville, Indiana) is an American puzzle creator and editor, and currently the crossword puzzle editor for The New York Times.
  • 3. [Arthur Wynne] Arthur Wynne (June 22, 1871 – January 14, 1945) was the British-born inventor of the modern crossword puzzle.
  • 4. [American Crossword Puzzle Tournament] The American Crossword Puzzle Tournament is a crossword-solving tournament held annually in late February or early March. Founded in 1978 by Will Shortz, who still directs the tournament, it is the oldest and largest crossword tournament held in the United States; the 2009 event attracted nearly 700 competitors. The 37th annual tournament took place on March 7–9, 2014.
  • 5. [Puzzle] A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity. In a puzzle, one is required to put pieces together, in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct solution of the puzzle. There are different types of puzzles for different ages.
  • 6. [Wordplay (film)] Wordplay is a 2006 documentary film directed by Patrick Creadon. It features Will Shortz, the editor of the New York Times crossword puzzle, crossword constructor Merl Reagle, and many other noted crossword solvers and constructors. The second half of the movie is set at the 2005 American Crossword Puzzle Tournament (ACPT), where the top solvers compete for a prize of $4000.
  • 7. [Kakuro] Kakuro or Kakkuro (Japanese: カックロ) is a kind of logic puzzle that is often referred to as a mathematical transliteration of the crossword. Kakuro puzzles are regular features in many math-and-logic puzzle publications in the United States. In 1966, Canadian Jacob E. Funk,an employee of Dell Magazines came up with the original English name Cross
  • 8. [Margaret Farrar] Margaret Petherbridge Farrar (March 23, 1897 – June 11, 1984) was an American journalist and the first crossword puzzle editor for The New York Times (1942–1968). Creator of many of the rules of modern crossword design, she wrote a long-running series of crossword puzzle books including the first book ever published by Simon & Schuster.
  • 9. [Cryptogram] A cryptogram is a type of puzzle that consists of a short piece of encrypted text. Generally the cipher used to encrypt the text is simple enough that cryptogram can be solved by hand. Frequently used are substitution ciphers where each letter is replaced by a different letter or number. To solve the puzzle, one
  • 10. [The New York Times crossword puzzle] The New York Times crossword puzzle is a daily puzzle published in The New York Times and online at the newspaper's website. Magmic Games released mobile versions of the puzzle for BlackBerry and iOS devices in 2008 and 2009; and then for Kindle Fire and Nook in 2012. It is also syndicated to more than
  • 11. [Eugene Thomas Maleska] Eugene Thomas Maleska (January 6, 1916 – August 3, 1993) was a U.S. crossword puzzle constructor and editor.
    The New York Times had published dozens of crosswords that he had submitted as a freelance contributor. He became the crossword editor for the New York Times in 1977, replacing Will Weng. In 1993, Maleska was succeeded by
  • 12. [Scrabble] Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles, each bearing a single letter, onto a gameboard which is divided into a 15×15 grid of squares. The tiles must form words which, in crossword fashion, flow left to right in rows or downwards in columns. The words must
  • 13. [Emily Cox (puzzle writer)] Emily Cox is a US puzzle writer. She and her partner, Henry Rathvon, wrote "The Atlantic Puzzler," a cryptic crossword featured each month in the magazine The Atlantic Monthly from 1997 to August 2009. (After March 2006, the Puzzler was published solely online at The Atlantic's website.) They also create acrostic puzzles for The New
  • 14. [Henry Rathvon] Henry Rathvon is a puzzle writer. He and his partner, Emily Cox, wrote The Atlantic Puzzler, a cryptic crossword featured each month in the magazine The Atlantic Monthly from September 1977 to October 2009. (After March 2006, the Puzzler was published solely online at The Atlantic's website.) They also create acrostic puzzles for the New
  • 15. [Will Weng] Will Weng (February 25, 1907 – May 2, 1993) was an American journalist and crossword puzzle constructor who served as crossword puzzle editor for New York Times from 1969-1977.
  • 16. [Games (magazine)] Games magazine (ISSN 0199-9788) is a United States magazine devoted to games and puzzles, and is published by Games Publications, a division of Kappa Publishing Group.
  • 17. [Merv Griffin's Crosswords] Merv Griffin's Crosswords (commonly shortened to Crosswords) is an American game show based on crossword puzzles. The show was created by its namesake, Merv Griffin, who died shortly after beginning production on the series. Ty Treadway was the host, and Edd Hall was the announcer.
  • 18. [Cross-figure] A cross-figure (also variously called cross number puzzle or figure logic) is a puzzle similar to a crossword in structure, but with entries which consist of numbers rather than words, with individual digits being entered in the blank cells. The numbers can be clued in various ways:
  • 19. [Anagram] An anagram is a type of word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce a new word or phrase, using all the original letters exactly once; for example Doctor Who can be rearranged into Torchwood. Someone who creates anagrams may be called an "anagrammatist". The original word or phrase is known as the subject of the anagram.
  • 20. [Ambigram] An ambigram is a word, art form or other symbolic representation, whose elements retain meaning when viewed or interpreted from a different direction, perspective, or orientation.
  • 21. [Digraph (orthography)] A digraph or digram (from the Greek: δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined. The sound is often, but not necessarily, one which cannot
  • 22. [Roger Squires] Roger Squires, born 22 February 1932 (age 82), in Tettenhall, Wolverhampton, England, is a British crossword compiler, living in Ironbridge, Shropshire, who is best known for being the world's most prolific compiler. He compiles under the pseudonym Rufus in The Guardian, Dante in The Financial Times and is the Monday setter for the Daily Telegraph.
  • 23. [A. N. Prahlada Rao] A. N. Prahlada Rao (born 24 July 1953) is an Indian author and Kannada-language crossword compiler.
  • 24. [IJ (digraph)] The IJ (lowercase ij; Dutch pronunciation: [ɛi] ( )) is the digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itself – although in most fonts that have a separate character for ij the two composing parts are not connected, but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
  • 25. [The Cross-Wits] The Cross-Wits is an American syndicated game show which premiered on December 15, 1975 and lasted for five seasons until its cancellation on September 12, 1980. The show was hosted by Jack Clark, with Jerri Fiala as hostess. Announcing duties were handled by John Harlan, Jay Stewart, and Jerry Bishop. The show was produced by Ralph Edwards Productions and distributed by Metromedia Producers Corporation.
  • 26. [New York World] The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a major role in the history of American newspapers. It was a leading national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers' attention and pushing its daily circulation to the one-million mark.
  • 27. [Pangram] A pangram (Greek: παν γράμμα, pan gramma, "every letter") or holoalphabetic sentence for a given alphabet is a sentence using every letter of the alphabet at least once. Pangrams have been used to display typefaces, test equipment, and develop skills in handwriting, calligraphy, and keyboarding.
  • 28. [Acrostic] An acrostic is a poem or other form of writing in which the first letter, syllable or word of each line, paragraph or other recurring feature in the text spells out a word or a message. The word comes from the French acrostiche from post-classical Latin acrostichis, from Koine Greek ἀκροστιχίς, from Ancient Greek ἄκρος
  • 29. [Ll] Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.
  • 30. [Chessboard] A chessboard is the type of checkerboard used in the board game chess, and consists of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns) arranged in two alternating colors (light and dark). The colors are called "black" and "white" (or "light" and "dark"), although the actual colors are usually dark green and buff for boards used
  • 31. [Georges Perec] Georges Perec (7 March 1936 – 3 March 1982) was a French novelist, filmmaker, documentalist and essayist. He was a member of the Oulipo group.
  • 32. [Spoonerism] A spoonerism is an error in speech or deliberate play on words in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched (see metathesis) between two words in a phrase.
  • 33. [Ktiv hasar niqqud] Ktiv hasar niqqud (Hebrew pronunciation: [ktiv ħaˈsaʁ niˈkud]; Hebrew: כתיב חסר ניקוד‎, literally "spelling lacking niqqud"), (colloquially known as ktiv male (IPA: [ktiv maˈle]; Hebrew: כתיב מלא‎), literally "full spelling") are the rules for writing Hebrew without vowel pointers (niqqud), often replacing them with matres lectionis (ו and י). To avoid confusion, consonantal ו ([v])
  • 34. [Pearson's Magazine] Pearson's Magazine was an influential monthly periodical which first appeared in Britain in 1896. It specialised in speculative literature, political discussion, often of a socialist bent, and the arts. Its contributors included Upton Sinclair, George Bernard Shaw, Maxim Gorky, George Griffith, H. G. Wells, Dornford Yates and E. Phillips Oppenheim, many of whose short stories and novelettes first saw publication in Pearson's.
  • 35. [Lattice graph] A lattice graph, mesh graph, or grid graph, is a graph whose drawing, embedded in some Euclidean space Rn, forms a regular tiling. This implies that the group of bijective transformations that send the graph to itself is a lattice in the group-theoretical sense.
  • 36. [Yōon] Yōon or Youon (拗音?, contracted word or diphthong) is a feature of the Japanese language in which a mora is formed with an added [j] sound, i.e., palatalized.
  • 37. [Le Point] Le Point (French pronunciation: ​[ləˈpwɛ̃]) is a French weekly news magazine. It was founded in 1972 by a group of journalists who had, one year earlier, left the editorial team of L'Express, which was then owned by Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, a député (member of parliament) of the Parti Radical. The company operating the newspaper, Société d'exploitation de l'hebdomadaire Le Point (SEBDO Le Point) has its head office in the 14th arrondissement of Paris.
  • 38. [Cabin fever] Cabin fever is an idiomatic term, first recorded in 1918, for a claustrophobic reaction that takes place when a person or group is isolated and/or shut in a small space, with nothing to do for an extended period. Cabin fever describes the extreme irritability and restlessness a person may feel in these situations.
  • 39. [Germanic umlaut] Germanic umlaut (also i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel or a front vowel becomes closer to /i/ when the following syllable contains /i/, /iː/, or /j/. This process took place separately in the various Germanic languages starting around 450 or 500 AD, and affected all of the early languages except for Gothic. An example of the resulting vowel change is the English plural foot > feet.
  • 40. [Cipher] In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode is to convert information from plain text into cipher or code. In non-technical usage, a 'cipher' is the same thing as a 'code'; however, the concepts are distinct in cryptography. In classical cryptography, ciphers were distinguished from codes.
  • 41. [Think different] "Think different" was an advertising slogan for Apple Inc (formerly Apple Computer Inc) in 1997 created by the Los Angeles office of advertising agency TBWA\Chiat\Day. It was used in a television commercial, several print advertisements, and a number of TV promos for Apple products. Apple's use of the slogan was discontinued with the start of the Apple Switch ad campaign in 2002.
  • 42. [Homophone] A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning, and may differ in spelling. The words may be spelled the same, such as rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as carat, caret, and carrot, or to, two, and too. Homophones that are
  • 43. [Bonnier Group] Bonnier AB (also the Bonnier Group ) is a privately held Swedish media group of 175 companies operating in 20 countries. It is controlled by the Bonnier family.
  • 44. [Capitalization] Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction. The term is also used for the choice of case in text.
  • 45. [Tilde] The tilde (/ˈtɪldə/, /ˈtɪldi/; ˜ or ~; also referred to informally as squiggly or squiggle(s)) is a grapheme with several uses. The name of the character comes from Portuguese and Spanish, from the Latin titulus meaning "title" or "superscription", though the term "tilde" has evolved and now has a different meaning in linguistics. Some may refer to it as a "flourish".
  • 46. [Diacritic] A diacritic /daɪ.əˈkrɪtɨk/ – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign from ancient Greek διά (dia, through) and κρίνω (krinein, to separate) – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Greek διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"). Diacritic is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical
  • 47. [Dutch orthography] Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language. The spelling system is issued by government decree and is compulsory for all government documentation and educational establishments.
  • 48. [Ch (digraph)] Ch is a digraph in the Latin script. It is treated as a letter of its own in Chamorro, Czech, Slovak, Igbo, Quechua, Guarani, Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Belarusian Łacinka alphabets. In Vietnamese and Spanish, it also used to be considered a letter for collation purposes but this is no longer common.
  • 49. [Windsock] A windsock is a conical textile tube (which resembles a giant sock, hence its name) designed to indicate wind direction and relative wind speed. Windsocks typically are used at airports and at chemical plants where there is risk of gaseous leakage. They are sometimes located alongside highways at windy locations.
  • 50. [Caesar cipher] In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, also known as Caesar's cipher, the shift cipher, Caesar's code or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the
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