Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan) (1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian French late medieval author. She served as a court writer for several dukes (Louis of Orleans, Philip the Bold of Burgundy, and John the Fearless of Burgundy) and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI. She wrote both poetry and prose works such as biographies and books containing practical advice for women. She completed forty-one works during her 30-year career from 1399–1429. She married in 1380 at the age of 15, and was widowed 10 years later. Much of the impetus for her writing came from her need to earn a living for herself and her three children. She spent most of her childhood and all of her adult life in Paris and then the abbey at Poissy, and wrote entirely in her adopted language, Middle French.

Her early courtly poetry is marked by her knowledge of aristocratic custom and fashion of the day, particularly involving women and the practice of chivalry. Her early and later allegorical and didactic treatises reflect both autobiographical information about her life and views and also her own individualized and humanist approach to the scholastic learned tradition of mythology, legend, and history she inherited from clerical scholars and to the genres and courtly or scholastic subjects of

contemporary French and Italian poets she admired. Supported and encouraged by important royal French and English patrons, she influenced 15th-century English poetry. Her success stems from a wide range of innovative writing and rhetorical techniques that critically challenged renowned writers such as Jean de Meun, author of the Romance of the Rose, which she criticized as immoral.
In recent decades, Christine de Pizan's work has been returned to prominence by the efforts of scholars such as Charity Cannon Willard, Earl Jeffrey Richards and Simone de Beauvoir. Certain scholars have argued that she should be seen as an early feminist who efficiently used language to convey that women could play an important role within society. This characterization has been challenged by other critics, who say that it is either an anachronistic use of the word or a misinterpretation of her writing and intentions.

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  • 1. [The Book of the City of Ladies] The Book of the City of Ladies (finished by 1405), or Le Livre de la Cité des Dames, is perhaps Christine de Pizan's most famous literary work, and it is her second work of lengthy prose. Pizan uses the vernacular French language to compose the book, but she often uses Latin-style syntax and conventions within
  • 2. [Jean de Meun] Jean de Meun (or de Meung, pronounced: [ʒɑ̃ də mœ̃]) (c. 1240 – c. 1305) was a French author best known for his continuation of the Roman de la Rose.
  • 3. [Roman de la Rose] The Roman de la Rose (French: [ʁɔmɑ̃ də la ʁoz]; "Romance of the Rose"), is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision. It is a notable instance of courtly literature. The work's stated purpose is to both entertain and to teach others about the Art of Love. At various times in the
  • 4. [The Treasure of the City of Ladies] The Treasure of the City of Ladies (Le trésor de la cité des dames, also known The Book of the Three Virtues) is a manual of education by medieval Italian-French author Christine de Pizan. Finished, like her previous Book of the City of Ladies, by the year 1405, and dedicated to Margaret of Burgundy at
  • 5. [Matter of Rome] According to the medieval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. Bodel divided all the literary cycles he knew best into the Matter of
  • 6. [Louis I, Duke of Orléans] Louis I of Orléans (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death. He was also Count of Valois (1386?-1406), Duke of Touraine (1386–1392), Count of Blois (1397–1407), Angoulême (1404–1407), Périgord (1400-1407) and Soissons (1404-07).
  • 7. [John the Fearless] John the Fearless (French: Jean sans Peur, Dutch: Jan zonder Vrees), also John II, Duke of Burgundy, known as John of Valois and John of Burgundy (28 May 1371 – 10 September 1419), was Duke of Burgundy from 1404 to 1419. For a period he was regent for his mentally ill first cousin Charles VI of France and a member of the Valois Dynasty.
  • 8. [Philip the Bold] Philip the Bold (French: Philippe le Hardi, Dutch: Filips de Stoute), also Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (17 January 1342, Pontoise – 27 April 1404, Halle), was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg. By his marriage to Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, he also
  • 9. [Simone de Beauvoir] Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir, commonly known as Simone de Beauvoir (French: [simɔn də bovwaʁ]; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986), was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and
  • 10. [Charles V of France] Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called the Wise (French : "le Sage"), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
  • 11. [Mirrors for princes] The mirrors for princes (Latin: specula principum or rather, principum specula, German: Fürstenspiegel) refer to a genre – in the loose sense of the word – of political writing during the Early Middle Ages, Middle Ages and the Renaissance. They are best known in the form of textbooks which directly instruct kings or lesser rulers
  • 12. [Italians in France] Italian migration into what is today France has been going on, in different migrating cycles, for centuries, beginning in prehistoric times right to the modern age. In addition, Corsica passed from the Republic of Genoa to France in 1770, and the area around Nice and Savoy from the Kingdom of Sardinia to France in 1860. According to Robin Cohen, "about 5 million French nationals are of Italian origin if their parentage is retraced over three generations."
  • 13. [Charles VI of France] Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (French: le Fol or le Fou), was King of France from 1380 to his death. He was a member of the House of Valois.
  • 14. [Poissy] Poissy is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris, 23.8 km (14.8 mi) from the centre of Paris.
  • 15. [William Minto] William Minto (10 October 1845 – 1 March 1893) was a Scottish man of letters.
  • 16. [Chivalry] Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is a code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood.
    Historically, the late medieval code of chivalry had arisen from the idealisation of the early medieval synthesis of Germanic and Roman martial traditions — involving military bravery, individual training, and service to others — especially in Francia, among horse soldiers in Charlemagne's cavalry, the term chivalry deriving from the Old French term chevalerie "horse soldiery"
  • 17. [Middle French] Middle French (French: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611. It is a period of transition during which:
  • 18. [Joan of Arc] Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc, IPA: [ʒan daʁk]; ca. 1412 – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (French: La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to a peasant family at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan said she received visions of the Archangel
  • 19. [Hector] In Greek mythology, Hector (Ἕκτωρ Hektōr, pronounced [héktɔːr]) was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. As the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, who was a descendant of Dardanus and Tros, the founder of Troy, he was a prince of the royal house and the heir
  • 20. [Beauvais] Beauvais (French pronunciation: ​[bovɛ]) is a historic cathedral city in the northern French region of Picardy.
    Beauvais Cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Beauvais.
  • 21. [Feminism] Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending a state of equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist advocates or supports the rights and equality of women.
  • 22. [Reason] Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, for establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a definitive
  • 23. [Astrologer] An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. Typically an astrologer draws a horoscope for the time of an event, such as a person's birth, and interprets celestial points and their placements at the time of the event to better understand someone, determine the auspiciousness of an undertaking's beginning, etc. However, the methods employed
  • 24. [Ballad] A ballad /ˈbælɪd/ is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were originally "dancing songs". Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and song of the British Isles from the later medieval period until the 19th century and used extensively
  • 25. [Republic of Venice] The Republic of Venice (Italian: Repubblica di Venezia) was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. Despite its long history of war and conquest, the Republic's modern reputation is chiefly based on its status as an economic and trading power.
  • 26. [Irony] Irony (from Ancient Greek εἰρωνεία (eirōneía), meaning "dissimulation, feigned ignorance"), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event characterized by an incongruity, or contrast, between what the expectations of a situation are and what is really the case, with a third element, that defines that what is really the case is
  • 27. [Alchemy] Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers. The defining objectives of alchemy are varied but historically have typically included one or more of the following goals: the creation of the fabled philosopher's stone; the ability to transform base metals into the noble metals (gold or silver); and development of an elixir of life, which would confer youth and longevity.
  • 28. [Physician] A physician is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. They may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, or methods of treatment – known as specialist medical practitioners
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