Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect. Canvas paintings that extend the viewer's perspective of the artwork and incorporate multidimensional movement are the earliest examples of kinetic art. More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most often refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move naturally or are machine operated. The moving parts are generally powered by wind, a motor or the observer. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles.

There is also a portion of kinetic art that includes virtual movement, or rather movement perceived from only certain angles or sections of the work. This term also clashes frequently with the term "apparent movement", which many people use when referring to an artwork whose movement is created by motors, machines, or electrically powered systems. Both apparent and virtual movement are styles of kinetic art that only recently have been argued as styles of op

art. The amount of overlap between kinetic and op art is not significant enough for artists and art historians to consider merging the two styles under one umbrella term, but there are distinctions that have yet to be made.
"Kinetic art" as a moniker developed from a number of sources. Kinetic art has its origins in the late 19th century impressionist artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet who originally experimented with accentuating the movement of human figures on canvas. This triumvirate of impressionist painters all sought to create art that was more lifelike than their contemporaries. Degas’ dancer and racehorse portraits are examples of what he believed to be "photographic realism"; artists such as Degas in the late 19th century felt the need to challenge the movement toward photography with vivid, cadenced landscapes and portraits.
By the early 1900s, certain artists grew closer and closer to ascribing their art to dynamic motion. Naum Gabo, one of the two artists attributed to naming this style, wrote frequently about his work as examples of "kinetic rhythm". He felt that his moving sculpture Kinetic Construction (also dubbed Standing Wave, 1919–20) was the first of its kind in the 20th century. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the style of kinetic art was reshaped by a number of other artists who experimented with mobiles and new forms of sculpture.

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  • 1. [Op art] Op art, also known as optical art, is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions.
    Op art works are abstract, with many better known pieces created in black and white. Typically, they give the viewer the impression of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibrating patterns, or of swelling or warping.
  • 2. [Jean Tinguely] Jean Tinguely (22 May 1925 – 30 August 1991) was a Swiss painter and sculptor. He is best known for his sculptural machines or kinetic art, in the Dada tradition; known officially as metamechanics. Tinguely's art satirized the mindless overproduction of material goods in advanced industrial society.
  • 3. [Jesús Rafael Soto] Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 - January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a painter.
  • 4. [George Rickey] George Warren Rickey (June 6, 1907 – July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor.
  • 5. [Victor Vasarely] Victor Vasarely (French: [viktɔʁ vazaʁəli]; Hungarian: [ˈviktor ˈvɒzɒrɛlːi]; born Vásárhelyi Győző [ˈvaːʃaːrhɛji ˈɟøːzøː]; ( 1906-04-09)9 April 1906 – 15 March 1997( 1997-03-15)), was a Hungarian–French artist, who is widely accepted as a "grandfather" and leader of the short-lived op art movement. His work entitled Zebra, created in the 1930s, is considered by some to be one of the earliest examples of op art.
  • 6. [Carlos Cruz-Diez] Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan kinetic and op artist. He lives in Paris. He has spent his professional career working and teaching between both Paris and Caracas. His work is represented in museums and public art sites internationally. He is represented by three American galleries: Sicardi Gallery in Houston, Texas, Moka Gallery in Chicago, Illinois, and Maxwell Davidson Gallery in New York City.
  • 7. [Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel] Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel (GRAV) (Research Art Group) was a collaborative artists group in Paris that consisted of eleven opto-kinetic artists, like François Morellet, Julio Le Parc, Francisco Sobrino, Horacio Garcia Rossi, Yvaral, Joël Stein and Vera Molnár, who picked up on Victor Vasarely's concept that the sole artist was outdated and which, according
  • 8. [Mobile (sculpture)] A mobile (/mˈbl/) is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. It consists of a number of rods, from which weighted objects or further rods hang. The objects hanging from the rods balance each other, so that the rods remain more or less horizontal. Each rod hangs from
  • 9. [Nicolas Schöffer] Nicolas Schöffer (Hungarian: Schöffer Miklós; September 6, 1912 — January 8, 1992) was a Hungarian-born French artist. He can be considered as the father of cybernetic art. He was born in Kalocsa, Austria-Hungary and resided in Paris from 1936 till his death in his Montmartre atelier in 1992. His career touched on painting, kinetic sculpture,
  • 10. [Wen-Ying Tsai] Wen-Ying Tsai (October 13, 1928 – January 2, 2013) was an American pioneer cybernetic sculptor and kinetic artist best known for creating sculptures using electric motors, stainless steel rods, stroboscopic light, and audio feedback control. As one of the first Chinese-born artists to achieve international recognition in the 1960s, Tsai was an inspiration to generations of Chinese artists around the world.
  • 11. [François Morellet] François Morellet (born 1926, Cholet, Maine-et-Loire) is a contemporary French painter, sculptor and light artist. His early work prefigured Minimal art and Conceptual art, and he has played an important role in the development of geometrical abstract art.
  • 12. [Getulio Alviani] Getulio Alviani (born 5 September 1939 in Udine) is an Italian painter based in Milan. He is considered to be an important International Optical - kinetic artist.
  • 13. [Julio Le Parc] Julio Le Parc (born September 23, 1928) is an Argentina-born artist who focuses on both modern op art and kinetic art. Le Parc attended the School of Fine Arts in Argentina. A founding member of Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visual (GRAV) and award winning artworks, he is a significant figure in Argentinean modern art.
  • 14. [Yaacov Agam] Yaacov Agam (Hebrew: יעקב אגם‎) (b. 1928) is an Israeli sculptor and experimental artist best known for his contributions to optical and kinetic art.
  • 15. [Lumino kinetic art] Lumino Kinetic art involves, as the name suggests, light and movement. It is a subset and an art historical term in the context of the more established kinetic art, which in turn is a subset of new media art. The historian of art Frank Popper views the evolution of this type of art as evidence
  • 16. [Denise René] Denise René (born Denise Bleibtreu; June 1913 – 9 July 2012) was a French art gallerist specializing in kinetic art and op art.
  • 17. [Heinz Mack] Heinz Mack (born March 8, 1931) is a German artist. Together with Otto Piene he founded the ZERO movement in 1957. He exhibited works at documenta in 1964 and 1977 and he represented Germany at the 1970 Venice Biennale. He is best known for his contributions to op art, light art and kinetic art.
  • 18. [Alexander Calder] Alexander Calder (/ˈkɔːldər/; August 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American sculptor known as the originator of the mobile, a type of moving sculpture made with delicately balanced or suspended shapes that move in response to touch or air currents. Calder’s monumental stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He also produced wire figures, which are like drawings made in space, and notably a miniature circus work that was performed by the artist.
  • 19. [Arthur Ganson] Arthur Ganson (born 1955) is a renowned kinetic sculptor. He makes mechanical art demonstrations and Rube Goldberg machines with existential themes. His moving sculptures have been exhibited at a number of science museums and art galleries. Ganson's work appeals to viewers of all ages, and has been featured in an animated children's television show. He has invented mass-produced children's toys, and hosts an annual competition to make Rube Goldberg chain reaction machines.
  • 20. [Gas sculpture] Gas sculpture is a proposal made by Joan Miró in his late writings to make sculptures out of gaseous materials.
    The idea of a gas sculpture also appeared in the book Gog, by Giovanni Papini (1881–1956).
  • 21. [Theo Jansen] Theo Jansen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈteːoː ˈjɑnsən]; born 14 March 1948) is a Dutch artist. In 1990, he began what he is known for today: building large mechanisms out of PVC that are able to move on their own, known only as Strandbeest. His animated works are a fusion of art and engineering; in a car
  • 22. [Gerhard von Graevenitz] Gerhard von Graevenitz (born September 19, 1934 Schilde, Prignitz/Mark Brandenburg; died August 20, 1983 near Habkern/Traubachtal in Switzerland) was a German kinetic artist, co-founding member of the Nouvelle Tendance and member of the op-art movement. He also belonged to the international circle of the Zero-Group. He is seen as one of the uncompromising representatives of the constructive-concrete art of the younger generation (since 1958).
  • 23. [Francisco Sobrino] Francisco Sobrino (1932 – 11 May 2014) was a Spanish sculptor. His career began in 1959 when he moved to Paris to have a start in his career. His works can be seen in Tel Aviv, Guadalajara, Chicago, Madrid, New York City and Paris. Sobrino was born in Guadalajara, Spain and lived in Paris.
  • 24. [Ludwig Wilding] Ludwig Wilding (19 May 1927 – 4 January 2010) was a German artist whose work is associated with Op art and Kinetic art. Wilding was born in Grünstadt, Germany. He studied at the University of Mainz Art School.
  • 25. [Takis] Panagiotis "Takis" Vassilakis (Greek: Παναγιώτης (Τάκις) Βασιλάκης; born October 25, 1925, in Athens) is a Greek artist popular in France. His works can be found in many public locations in and around Paris.
  • 26. [Fletcher Benton] Fletcher Benton (born February 25, 1931 Columbus, Ohio) is an American sculptor and painter from San Francisco, California. Benton is widely known for his kinetic art as well as his large-scale steel abstract geometric sculptures.
  • 27. [Gregorio Vardanega] Gregorio Vardanega (21 March 1923, Possagno – 7 October 2007, Paris) was an artist of Italian origins who worked in Argentina and France. Vardanega and Martha Boto, his companion, created the term "chromocinetism" to describe their artistic research.
  • 28. [Sound art] Sound art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilised as a medium. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art is interdisciplinary in nature, or takes on hybrid forms. Sound art can engage with a range of subjects such as acoustics, psychoacoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media, found or environmental sound, explorations of the human body, sculpture, film or video and an ever-expanding set of subjects that are part of the current discourse of contemporary art.
  • 29. [Robotic art] Robotic art is any artwork that employs some form of robotic or automated technology. There are many branches of robotic art, one of which is robotic installation art, a type of installation art that is programmed to respond to viewer interactions, by means of computers, sensors and actuators. The future behavior of such installations can therefore be altered by input from either the artist or the participant, which differentiates these artworks from other types of kinetic art.
  • 30. [Jean-Pierre Yvaral] Jean-Pierre Vasarely (1934–2002), professionally known as Yvaral, was a French artist working in the fields of op-art and kinetic art from 1954 onwards. He was the son of Victor Vasarely.
  • 31. [Starr Kempf] Starr Gideon Kempf (August 13, 1917 in Bluffton, Ohio – April 7, 1995 in Colorado Springs, Colorado) was an American sculptor, architect, and artist best known for his graceful steel wind kinetic sculptures.
  • 32. [Nadir Afonso] Nadir Afonso, GOSE (December 4, 1920 – December 11, 2013) was a geometric abstractionist painter. Formally trained in architecture, which he practiced early in his career with Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer, Nadir Afonso later studied painting in Paris and became one of the pioneers of Kinetic art, working alongside Victor Vasarely, Fernand Léger, Auguste Herbin, and André Bloc.
  • 33. [Max Bill] Max Bill (22 December 1908 – 9 December 1994) was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, industrial designer and graphic designer.
  • 34. [Vladimir Tatlin] Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Russian: Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; December 28 [O.S. December 16] 1885 – May 31, 1953) was a Soviet painter and architect. With Kazimir Malevich he was one of the two most important figures in the Soviet avant-garde art movement of the 1920s, and he later became an important artist in the Constructivist movement.
  • 35. [MIT Museum] The MIT Museum, founded in 1971 is located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It hosts collections of holography, technology-related artworks, artificial intelligence, robotics, maritime history, and the history of MIT. Its holography collection of 1800 pieces is the largest in the world, though not all of it is exhibited. As of
  • 36. [Bruce Gray (sculptor)] Bruce Gray (born 1956 Orange, New Jersey) is an artist residing in Los Angeles. His work includes kinetic art such as rolling ball machines, mobiles, stabiles, and suspended magnetic sculptures. He also creates found objects sculptures such as a lifesize motorcycle sculpture constructed from train parts, and giant objects such as a large aluminum wedge
  • 37. [Youri Messen-Jaschin] Youri Messen-Jaschin ([1]) is an artist of Latvian origin, born in Arosa, Switzerland, in 1941. He often combines oils and gouaches. His favourite colors are: strong reds, yellows, greens, and blue. He also works in body painting, exhibiting his works in nightclubs.
  • 38. [Eusebio Sempere] Eusebio Sempere (3 April 1923 – 10 April 1985) was a Spanish sculptor, painter and graphic artist whose abstract geometric works make him the most representative artist of the Kinetic art movement in Spain and one of Spain's foremost artists. His use of repetition of line and mastery of color to manipulate the way light plays on the surface give depth to his pictorial compositions.
  • 39. [Len Lye] Leonard Charles Huia "Len" Lye (/l/; 5 July 1901 – 15 May 1980), was a Christchurch, New Zealand-born artist known primarily for his experimental films and kinetic sculpture. His films are held in archives including the New Zealand Film Archive, British Film Institute, Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and the Pacific Film
  • 40. [Rafael Lozano-Hemmer] Rafael Lozano-Hemmer (born in 1967 in Mexico City) is a Mexican-Canadian electronic artist who works with ideas from architecture, technological theater and performance. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Physical Chemistry from Concordia University in Montreal. Currently, Lozano-Hemmer lives and works in Montreal and Madrid.
  • 41. [Alexander Rodchenko] Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1891 – December 3, 1956) was a Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer. He was one of the founders of constructivism and Russian design; he was married to the artist Varvara Stepanova.
  • 42. [Barton Rubenstein] Barton Rubenstein (born 1962) is a modernist American sculptor. Rubenstein has focused most of his artistic efforts on themes related to water and kinetics. He lives in Maryland with his wife and three kids.
  • 43. [Vera Molnár] Vera Molnár (born 1924) is a French media artist of Hungarian origin. She is considered a pioneer of computer art.
  • 44. [Pontus Hultén] Karl Gunnar Vougt Pontus Hultén (21 June 1924 – 26 October 2006) was a Swedish art collector and museum director. Pontus Hultén is regarded as one of the most distinguished museum professionals of the twentieth century. He was the pioneering former head of the Museum for modern art in Stockholm and in the 1970s he was invited to participate in the creation of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, where he was its first director in 1974-1981.
  • 45. [Gilles Larrain] Gilles Larrain (Dec 5, 1938) is a renowned French-American photographer who believes photography is a way to “capture the landscape of the soul of a person.” By taking a unique approach to photography, which includes creating his own lighting, managing the entire darkroom process, and always having subjects come to his personal studio space, Larrain
  • 46. [Temple Israel (Memphis, Tennessee)] Temple Israel is a Reform Jewish congregation in Memphis, Tennessee, in the United States. It is the only Reform synagogue in Memphis, the oldest and largest Jewish congregation in Tennessee, and one of the largest Reform congregations in the U.S. It was founded in 1853 by mostly German Jews as Congregation B'nai Israel (Hebrew for
  • 47. [Bridget Riley] Bridget Louise Riley CH CBE (born 24 April 1931 in Norwood, London) is an English painter who is one of the foremost exponents of Op art. She currently lives and works in London, Cornwall and the Vaucluse in France.
  • 48. [Gyula Kosice] Gyula Kosice, born Ferdinand Fallik (April 26, 1924) in Košice (Slovakia) is a naturalized Argentine sculptor, plastic artist, theoretician and poet, one of the most important figures in kinetic and luminal art and luminance vanguard.
  • 49. [The Bucket Fountain] The Bucket Fountain is an iconic kinetic sculpture in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It is located in Cuba Mall, which is part of Cuba Street. It consists of a series of "buckets" that fill with water until they tip, spilling their load into the buckets and pool below. The fountain was designed by Burren and Keen and erected in 1969.
  • 50. [Sal Maccarone] Sal Maccarone is an American author, furniture maker, sculptor and kinetic artist. He is best known as a master craftsman, and for his internationally distributed woodworking books such as Tune Up Your Tools, and How to Make $40,000 a Year Woodworking, both published by F & W publications, Betterway Books, in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is
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