Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect. Canvas paintings that extend the viewer's perspective of the artwork and incorporate multidimensional movement are the earliest examples of kinetic art. More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most often refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move naturally or are machine operated. The moving parts are generally powered by wind, a motor or the observer. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles.
There is also a portion of kinetic art that includes virtual movement, or rather movement perceived from only certain angles or sections of the work. This term also clashes frequently with the term "apparent movement", which many people use when referring to an artwork whose movement is created by motors, machines, or electrically powered systems. Both apparent and virtual movement are styles of kinetic art that only recently have been argued as styles of op art. The amount of overlap between kinetic and op art is not significant enough for artists and art historians to consider merging the two styles under one umbrella term, but there are distinctions that have yet to be made.
"Kinetic art" as a moniker developed from a number of sources. Kinetic art has its origins in the late 19th century impressionist artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet who originally experimented with accentuating the movement of human figures on canvas. This triumvirate of impressionist painters all sought to create art that was more lifelike than their contemporaries. Degas’ dancer and racehorse portraits are examples of what he believed to be "photographic realism"; artists such as Degas in the late 19th century felt the need to challenge the movement toward photography with vivid, cadenced landscapes and portraits.
By the early 1900s, certain artists grew closer and closer to ascribing their art to dynamic motion. Naum Gabo, one of the two artists attributed to naming this style, wrote frequently about his work as examples of "kinetic rhythm". He felt that his moving sculpture Kinetic Construction (also dubbed Standing Wave, 1919–20) was the first of its kind in the 20th century. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the style of kinetic art was reshaped by a number of other artists who experimented with mobiles and new forms of sculpture....LESS
"A comprehensive study of the field of kinetic art which, although practiced by many notable artists, has remained relatively hidden from a large audience because of its under-representation in art museums and publications. Force Fields examines the entire history of the art form, covering works from the 1920's through the 1980's. Featured artists include Marcel Duchamp, Lazslo Moholy-Nagy, Alexander Calder, Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, Piero Manzoni, Jean Tinguely, Henri Michaux, James Whitney, Takis, Fran ois Morellet, Jesus Rafael Soto, Pol Bury, Sergio Camargo, Sol LeWitt, Gego, Helio Oticia, Mira Schendel, Lygia Clark, Robert Smithson, Gordon Matta-Clark, Agnes Denes, Hans Haacke, Medalla, Dieter Roth, Len Lye, Liliane Lijn, Julio le Parc, Li Yuan-Chia, Dom Sylvester Houedard, Leandre Crist/fol and John Latham, among others."
This book examines pioneering Latin American kinetic artists who helped develop kinetic art into an international movement. Kinesthesia: Latin American Kinetic Art, 1954-1969 examines the influential and visually stunning work of South American kinetic artists. While Southern California was becoming the North American epicenter for Light and Space art in the 1960s, separate yet closely related technical experiments had been unfolding in a handful of major cities of South America, as well as in Paris, the European center for kinetic art. Kinesthesia highlights the broad differences that emerged among the two principal South American centers of activity: Argentina, where kinetic art grew out of local debates about painting; and Venezuela, where pioneering notions of modern architecture stimulated a synthesis of art and design. Featured in this volume are kinetic sculptures and installations by Jesus Rafael Soto, Julio Le Parc, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Martha Boto, and others, as well as essays that explore the history of this movement, examine the artists' reception by European and American audiences in the context of the Cold War, and link their achievements to 21st-century artists and their work.