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Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect. Canvas paintings that extend the viewer's perspective of the artwork and incorporate multidimensional movement are the earliest examples of kinetic art. More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most often refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move naturally or are machine operated. The moving parts are generally powered by wind, a motor or the observer. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles.

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There is also a portion of kinetic art that includes virtual movement, or rather movement perceived from only certain angles or sections of the work. This term also clashes frequently with the term apparent movement, which many people use when referring to an artwork whose movement is created by motors, machines, or electrically-powered systems. Both apparent and virtual movement are styles of kinetic art that only recently have been argued as styles of op art.…

…The amount of overlap between kinetic and op art is not significant enough for artists and art historians to consider merging the two styles under one umbrella term, but there are distinctions that have yet to be made.
"Kinetic art" as a moniker developed from a number of sources. Kinetic art has its origins in the late 1800s impressionist artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet who originally experimented with accentuating the movement of human figures on canvas. This triumvirate of impressionist painters all sought to create art that was more lifelike than their contemporaries. Degas’ dancer and racehorse portraits are examples of what he believed to be "photographic realism"; artists such as Degas in the late 1800s felt the need to challenge the movement toward photography with vivid, cadenced landscapes and portraits.
By the early 1900s, certain artists grew closer and closer to ascribing their art to dynamic motion. Naum Gabo, one of the two artists attributed to naming this style, wrote frequently about his work as examples of "kinetic rhythm". He felt that his moving sculpture Kinetic Construction (also dubbed Standing Wave, 1919–20) was the first of its kind in the 20th century. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the style of kinetic art was reshaped by a number of other artists who experimented with mobiles and new forms of sculpture.

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      Jean Tinguely Jean Tinguely (22 May 1925 – 30 August 1991) was a Swiss painter and sculptor. He is best known for his sculptural…
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      Jean Tinguely (22 May 1925 – 30 August 1991) was a Swiss painter and sculptor. He is best known for his sculptural machines or kinetic art, in the Dada tradition; known officially as metamechanics. Tinguely's art satirized the mindless overproduction of material goods in advanced industrial society.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Jean Tinguely

    • He is best known for his sculptural machines or kinetic art, in the Dada tradition; known officially as metamechanics. from Jean Tinguely

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Ásmundur Sveinsson, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and also by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Modern sculpture

    • In the early 1960s, Klüver began to collaborate with artists on works of art incorporating new technology, the first being kinetic art sculptor Jean Tinguely on his Homage to New York (1960), a machine that destroyed itself that was presented in the garden at MOMA. from Billy Klüver

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    • Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle's kinetic artwork, the Stravinsky Fountain near the Centre Pompidou, Paris. from 1983 in art

    • The name 'Metamatic' comes from a painting machine by kinetic artist Jean Tinguely, first exhibited at the Paris Biennial in 1959. from Metamatic

    • Among the most notable works of art in the museum's permanent collection are the French sculptors Auguste Rodin's The American Athlete and Niki de Saint Phalle's Les Footballeurs, the Luxembourgish sculptor Lucien Wercollier's tribute to the pole vault Altius, the Colombian sculptor Fernando Botero's Jeune Fille a la Balle and a kinetic art sculpture by the Swiss sculptor Jean Tinguely which combines a hockey stick, a boar's head and a motorbike wheel. from Olympic Museum

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Sculpture

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      George Rickey George Warren Rickey (June 6, 1907 – July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor.
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      George Warren Rickey (June 6, 1907 – July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To George Rickey

    • Rickey turned from painting to creating kinetic sculpture. from George Rickey

    • George Warren Rickey (June 6, 1907 – July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor. from George Rickey

    • In the summer of 2009 IAC played host to a retrospective exhibit on the kinetic sculptures, models and sketches of Indiana artist George Rickey. from Indianapolis Art Center

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    • 17 July – George Rickey, American kinetic sculptor (b. 1907). from 2002 in art

    • Four Rectangles Oblique IV (1979) is a kinetic sculpture by George Rickey. from Citygarden

    • The development of Holokinetic Sculptures "Perpetuum Mobile", HoloMobiles XYZ and TransOptical Mobiles, animated by the kinetic sculptures of Alexander Calder and George Ricky, became since 1998 extended fields of his involvement. from Dieter Jung (artist)

    • A kinetic sculpture by George Rickey named Triple L Excentric Gyratory III sits outside the building. from PNC Center (Cleveland)

    • The courtyard was home to George Rickey's kinetic sculpture, "Two Planes Vertical—Horizontal II" for many years, but the sculpture has now been moved to the courtyard of the Yale University Art Gallery. from Pierson College

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      Jesús Rafael Soto Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 - January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a…
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      Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 - January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a painter.
      He was born in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. He began his artistic career as a boy painting cinema posters in his native city. He received his artistic training in Caracas. He directed the Escuela de

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      Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 - January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a painter.
      He was born in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. He began his artistic career as a boy painting cinema posters in his native city. He received his artistic training in Caracas. He directed the Escuela de Artes Plasticas in Maracaibo from 1947 to 1950, when he left for Paris and began associating with Yaacov Agam, Jean Tinguely, Victor Vasarely, and other artists connected with the Salon des Realités Nouvelles and the Galerie Denise René. Soto's breakthrough works of the 1950s and 1960s were "geometric abstract paintings, using a limited and carefully selected array of flat colors."
      Soto has created penetrables, interactive sculptures which consist of square arrays of thin, dangling tubes through which observers can walk. It has been said of Soto's art that it is inseparable from the viewer; it can only stand completed in the illusion perceived by the mind as a result of observing the piece.
      From 1970 until the early 1990s, Soto's works appeared in places such as the Museum of Modern Art and the Guggenheim Museum in New York City, as well as the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.
      In 1973, the Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art opened in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela with a collection of his work. The Venezuelan architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva designed the building for the museum and the Italian op artist Getulio Alviani was called to direct it. Unlike conventional art galleries, a large number of the exhibits are wired to the electricity supply so that they can move.
      Some of Soto's work adorns Caracas' main arts centre, the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex.
      Jesús Rafael Soto died in 2005 in Paris, and is buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Jesús Rafael Soto

    • Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 - January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a painter. from Jesús Rafael Soto

    • Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré, the kinetic artists Jesús-Rafael Soto and Carlos Cruz-Diez. Since the middle of the 20th century, artists such as Jacobo Borges, Régulo Perez, Pedro León Zapata, Mario Abreu, Pancho Quilici, Carmelo Niño and Angel Peña emerged. from Latin American culture

    • Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré; the kinetic artists Jesús Soto and Carlos Cruz-Díez; and contemporary artist as Marisol and Yucef Merhi. from Venezuela

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      Victor Vasarely Victor Vasarely (French: [viktɔʁ vazaʁəli]; Hungarian: [viktor vɒzɒrɛli]; born Vásárhelyi Győző [vaːʃaːrhɛji…
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      Victor Vasarely (French: [viktɔʁ vazaʁəli]; Hungarian: [viktor vɒzɒrɛli]; born Vásárhelyi Győző [vaːʃaːrhɛji ɟʝøːzøː]; ( 1906-04-09)9 April 1906 – 15 March 1997( 1997-03-15)), was a Hungarian–French artist, who is widely accepted as a "grandfather" and leader of the short-lived op art movement. His work entitled Zebra, created in the 1930s, is considered by some to be one of the earliest examples of op art.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Victor Vasarely

    • When artists such as Victor Vasarely developed a number of the first features of virtual movement in their art, kinetic art faced heavy criticism. from Kinetic art

    • Formally trained in architecture, which he practiced early in his career with Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer, Nadir Afonso later studied painting in Paris and became one of the pioneers of Kinetic art, working alongside Victor Vasarely, Fernand Léger, Auguste Herbin, and André Bloc. from Nadir Afonso

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      Mobile (sculpture) A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. It consists…
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      A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. It consists of a number of rods, from which weighted objects or further rods hang. The objects hanging from the rods balance each other, so that the rods remain more or less horizontal. Each rod hangs from only…

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      A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. It consists of a number of rods, from which weighted objects or further rods hang. The objects hanging from the rods balance each other, so that the rods remain more or less horizontal. Each rod hangs from only one string, which gives it freedom to rotate about the string. Mobiles are popular in the nursery, where they hang over cribs to give infants something to entertain them and give them external visual stimulation. Mobiles have inspired many composers, including Morton Feldman and Earle Brown who were inspired by Alexander Calder's mobiles to create mobile-like indeterminate pieces. Frank Zappa also claimed that his compositions were modelled on Calder mobiles.
      The meaning of the term "mobile" as applied to sculpture has evolved since it was first suggested by Marcel Duchamp in 1931 to describe the early, mechanized creations of Alexander Calder. At this point, "mobile" was synonymous with the term "kinetic art", describing sculptural works in which motion is a defining property. While motor or crank-driven moving sculptures may have initially prompted it, the word "mobile" later came to refer more specifically to Calder’s free-moving creations. Influenced by the abstract work of Piet Mondrian, Joan Miró and Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Calder in many respects invented an art form where objects (typically brightly coloured, abstract shapes fashioned from sheet metal) are connected by wire much like a balance scale. By the sequential attachment of additional objects, the final creation consists of many balanced parts joined by lengths of wire whose individual elements are capable of moving independently or as a whole when prompted by air movement or direct contact. Thus, "mobile" has become a more well-defined term referring to the many such hanging constructs Calder produced in a prolific manner between the 1930s until his death in 1976. A succinct definition of the term "mobile" in a visual art sense could be a type of kinetic sculpture in which an ensemble of balanced parts capable of motion are hung freely in space but which never come into contact with each other.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Mobile (sculpture)

    • Vladimir Tatlin is considered by many artists and art historians to be the first person to ever complete a mobile sculpture. from Kinetic art

    • More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most often refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move naturally or are machine operated. from Kinetic art

    • A mobile is a type of kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium. from Mobile (sculpture)

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    • Alexander Calder ( ; July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American sculptor best known as the originator of the mobile, a type of kinetic sculpture made with delicately balanced or suspended components which move in response to motor power or air currents. from Alexander Calder

    • His work includes kinetic art such as rolling ball machines, mobiles, stabiles, and suspended magnetic sculptures. from Bruce Gray (sculptor)

    • Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include mobiles. from Modern sculpture

    • Martin's first constructions appeared in 1951 and he became known for his mobile works and kinetic sculpture. from Kenneth Martin

    • Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include mobiles. from Sculpture

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      Carlos Cruz-Diez Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan kinetic and op artist. He lives in Paris. He has…
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      Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan kinetic and op artist. He lives in Paris. He has spent his professional career working and teaching between both Paris and Caracas. His work is represented in museums and public art sites internationally.[citation needed] He is represented by three American galleries: Sicardi Gallery in Houston, Texas, Moka Gallery in Chicago, Illinois, and Maxwell Davidson Gallery in New York, New York.…

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      Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan kinetic and op artist. He lives in Paris. He has spent his professional career working and teaching between both Paris and Caracas. His work is represented in museums and public art sites internationally.[citation needed] He is represented by three American galleries: Sicardi Gallery in Houston, Texas, Moka Gallery in Chicago, Illinois, and Maxwell Davidson Gallery in New York, New York.
      In 1957, he returned to Venezuela and worked at his studio, Estudio de Artes Visuales, and started investigating the role of color in kinetic art. He also worked as a graphic designer for the Education Ministry publications, Caracas. During 1958-1960, he served as the Assistant Director and Professor at the Caracas School of Fine Arts. During 1959-60, he also taught Typographie and Graphic Design at the School of Journalism, Central University of Venezuela, Caracas. In 1965, Cruz-Diez the Centre culturel Noroit, Arras, France, as a graphic designer. During 1972-73, he taught Kinetic Techniques at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris and Unité d'enseignement et de recherche. From 1973 to 1980, he served as a member of the jury for diploma of École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. From 1986 to 1993, he was the Titular Professor and Director of the Art Unit of the Institute of Advanced Studies (IDEA), Caracas.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Carlos Cruz-Diez

    • Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan kinetic and op artist. from Carlos Cruz-Diez

    • Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré, the kinetic artists Jesús-Rafael Soto and Carlos Cruz-Diez. Since the middle of the 20th century, artists such as Jacobo Borges, Régulo Perez, Pedro León Zapata, Mario Abreu, Pancho Quilici, Carmelo Niño and Angel Peña emerged. from Latin American culture

    • Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré; the kinetic artists Jesús Soto and Carlos Cruz-Díez; and contemporary artist as Marisol and Yucef Merhi. from Venezuela

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      Yaacov Agam Yaacov Agam (Hebrew: יעקב אגם‎) (b. 1928) is an Israeli sculptor and experimental artist best known for his…
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      Yaacov Agam (Hebrew: יעקב אגם‎) (b. 1928) is an Israeli sculptor and experimental artist best known for his contributions to optical and kinetic art.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Yaacov Agam

    • Agam's work is usually abstract, kinetic art, with movement, viewer participation and frequent use of light and sound. from Yaacov Agam

    • Yaacov Agam ( ) (b. 1928) is an Israeli sculptor and experimental artist best known for his contributions to optical and kinetic art. from Yaacov Agam

    • Works ranges from $2,000 to a $1 million Renoir; as well as historic artists, it also represents contemporary artists, such as Southfield resident Marcus Glenn and Israeli sculptor, Yaacov Agam, who makes optical and kinetic art. from Park West Gallery

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      Lumino kinetic art Lumino Kinetic art involves, as the name suggests, light and movement. It is a subset and an art historical term in…
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      Lumino Kinetic art involves, as the name suggests, light and movement. It is a subset and an art historical term in the context of the more established kinetic art, which in turn is a subset of new media art. The historian of art Frank Popper views the evolution of this type of art as evidence…

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      Lumino Kinetic art involves, as the name suggests, light and movement. It is a subset and an art historical term in the context of the more established kinetic art, which in turn is a subset of new media art. The historian of art Frank Popper views the evolution of this type of art as evidence of "aesthetic preoccupations linked with technological advancement" and a starting-point in the context of high-technology art. László Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946), a member of the Bauhaus, and influenced by constructivism can be regarded as one of the fathers of Lumino kinetic art. Light sculpture and moving sculpture are the components of his Light-Space Modulator (1922–30), One of the first Light art pieces which also combines kinetic art.
      The origins of the term itself are multiple. There was an early cybernetic artist, Nicolas Schöffer, who developed walls of light, prisms, and video circuits under the term in the 50s. Artist/engineer Frank Malina came up with the Lumidyne system of lighting (CITE), and his work Tableaux mobiles (moving paintings) is an example of Lumino Kinetic art of that period. Later, artist Nino Calos worked with the term "Limino-kinetic paintings. (CITE). Artist György Kepes was also experimenting with lumino-kinetic works. Ellis D Fogg is also associated with the term as a "lumino kinetic sculptor". In the 1960s various exhibits involved Lumino Kinetic art, inter alia Kunst-Licht-Kunst at the Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven in 1966, and Lumière et mouvement at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris in 1967.
      Lumino Kinetic art was also aligned with Op art in the late 60s because the moving lights were spectacular and psychedelic.
      Frank Popper views it as an art historical term in the context of kinetic art; he states that "there is no lumino kinetic art after the early 70s; it stands as a precursor to other contemporary cybernetic, robotic, new media-based arts, and is limited to a very small number of (male) European avant-garde artists (part of the New Tendencies movement)".

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Lumino kinetic art

    • Light sculpture and moving sculpture are the components of his Light-Space Modulator (1922–30), One of the first Light art pieces which also combines kinetic art. from Lumino kinetic art

    • It is a subset and an art historical term in the context of the more established kinetic art, which in turn is a subset of new media art. from Lumino kinetic art

    • He is mainly known for his avant-garde designs and kinetic and lumino kinetic art. from Aleksandar Srnec

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      Wen-Ying Tsai Wen-Ying Tsai (October 13, 1928 – January 2, 2013) was an American pioneer cybernetic sculptor and kinetic artist…
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      Wen-Ying Tsai (October 13, 1928 – January 2, 2013) was an American pioneer cybernetic sculptor and kinetic artist best known for creating sculptures using electric motors, stainless steel rods, stroboscopic light, and audio feedback control. As one of the first Chinese-born artists to achieve international recognition in the 1960s, Tsai was an inspiration to generations of Chinese artists around the world.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Wen-Ying Tsai

    • Wen-Ying Tsai (October 13, 1928 - January 2, 2013) was an American pioneer Cybernetic sculptor and Kinetic artist best known for creating cybernetic sculptures using electric motors, stainless steel rods, stroboscopic light, and audio feedback control. from Wen-Ying Tsai

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      Julio Le Parc Julio le Parc is a modern op artist and kinetic artist born in 1928 in Mendoza, Argentina.
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      Julio le Parc is a modern op artist and kinetic artist born in 1928 in Mendoza, Argentina.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Julio Le Parc

    • A precursor of Kinetic Art and Op Art, founding member of Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visual and recipient of the Grand Prize for Painting at the 33rd Venice Biennale in 1966, Julio Le Parc is a major figure in modern art history. from Julio Le Parc

    • Julio le Parc is a modern op artist and kinetic artist born in 1928 in Mendoza, Argentina. from Julio Le Parc

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      Nicolas Schöffer Nicolas Schöffer (Hungarian: Schöffer Miklós; September 6, 1912 — January 8, 1992) was a Hungarian-born French…
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      Nicolas Schöffer (Hungarian: Schöffer Miklós; September 6, 1912 — January 8, 1992) was a Hungarian-born French artist. He can be considered as the father of cybernetic art. He was born in Kalocsa, Austria-Hungary and resided in Paris from 1936 till his death in his Montmartre atelier in 1992. His career touched on painting, kinetic sculpture,…

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      Nicolas Schöffer (Hungarian: Schöffer Miklós; September 6, 1912 — January 8, 1992) was a Hungarian-born French artist. He can be considered as the father of cybernetic art. He was born in Kalocsa, Austria-Hungary and resided in Paris from 1936 till his death in his Montmartre atelier in 1992. His career touched on painting, kinetic sculpture, architecture, urbanism, film, TV, and music. Indeed he collaborated on music with Pierre Henry. All of the artistic actions of Schöffer were done in the pursuit of a dynamism in art.
      This interest in artistic dynamism was originally initiated by the Cubo-Futurists and then intensified and solidified by the Russian Constructivism artists, such as Naum Gabo, Anton Pevsner, Moholy-Nagy and Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack. All these artists were concerned with opening up the static three-dimensional sculptural form to a fourth dimension of time and motion. And this was the intention of Schöffer as well.
      Schöffer however, coming well after, benefited from cybernetic theories (theories of feedback systems (interactivity) primarily based on the ideas of Norbert Wiener (1894–1964)) in that they suggested to him artistic processes in terms of the organization of the system manifesting it (e.g., the circular causality of feedback-loops). For Schöffer, this enabled cybernetics to elucidate complex artistic relationships from within the work itself.
      His CYSP 1 (1956) is considered the first cybernetic sculpture in art history in that it made use of electronic computations as developed by the Philips Company. The sculpture is set on a base mounted on four rollers, which contains the mechanism and the electronic brain. The plates are operated by small motors located under their axis. Photo-electric cells and a microphone built into the sculpture catch all the variations in the fields of color, light intensity and sound intensity. All these changes occasion reactions on the part of the sculpture.
      Consequently his kinetic sculptural compositions were able to parallel the work of Warren McCulloch and his adaptation of cybernetics in formulating a creative epistemology concerned with the self-communication within an observer's psyche and between the psyche and the surrounding environment. This is the primary usefulness of cybernetics in studying the supposed subject/object polarity in terms of artistic experience.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Nicolas Schöffer

    • His career touched on painting, kinetic sculpture, architecture, urbanism, film, TV, and music. from Nicolas Schöffer

    • The Centre’s participatory or Gonzo curating approach include controversial exhibitions such as “Viva la republique” set during the Golden Jubilee with Banksy, Jamie Reid and Genesis P-Orridge; “The curators” which entirely eliminated the artists from the exhibition by putting the curators on display, as well as in-depth solo projects with artists such as a Fluxus concert with Ken Friedman or a kinetic art retrospective of Nicolas Schöffer. from The Centre of Attention

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      Alexander Calder Alexander Calder (/ˈkɔːldər/; July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American sculptor known as the originator…
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      Alexander Calder (/ˈkɔːldər/; July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American sculptor known as the originator of the mobile, a type of kinetic sculpture made with delicately balanced or suspended components which move in response to motor power or air currents. Calder’s stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He also produced numerous wire figures, notably for a miniature circus.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Alexander Calder

    • The Cirque Calder can be seen as the start of Calder's interest in both wire sculpture and kinetic art. from Alexander Calder

    • Alexander Calder ( ; July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American sculptor best known as the originator of the mobile, a type of kinetic sculpture made with delicately balanced or suspended components which move in response to motor power or air currents. from Alexander Calder

    • Alexander Calder is an artist who many believe to have defined firmly and exactly the style of mobiles in kinetic art. from Kinetic art

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    • His work includes kinetic art such as rolling ball machines, mobiles, stabiles, and suspended magnetic sculptures. from Bruce Gray (sculptor)

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Ásmundur Sveinsson, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and also by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Modern sculpture

    • The development of Holokinetic Sculptures "Perpetuum Mobile", HoloMobiles XYZ and TransOptical Mobiles, animated by the kinetic sculptures of Alexander Calder and George Ricky, became since 1998 extended fields of his involvement. from Dieter Jung (artist)

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Sculpture

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      Theo Jansen Theo Jansen (born 1948) is a Dutch artist. In 1990, he began what he is known for today: building large mechanisms…
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      Theo Jansen (born 1948) is a Dutch artist. In 1990, he began what he is known for today: building large mechanisms out of PVC that are able to move on their own, known only as Strandbeest. His animated works are a fusion of art and engineering; in a car company (BMW) television commercial Jansen says:…

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      Theo Jansen (born 1948) is a Dutch artist. In 1990, he began what he is known for today: building large mechanisms out of PVC that are able to move on their own, known only as Strandbeest. His animated works are a fusion of art and engineering; in a car company (BMW) television commercial Jansen says: "The walls between art and engineering exist only in our minds." He strives to equip his creations with their own artificial intelligence so they can avoid obstacles by changing course when one is detected, such as the sea itself.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Theo Jansen

    • The Jansen's linkage is a leg mechanism designed by the kinetic sculptor Theo Jansen to simulate a smooth walking motion. from Jansen's linkage

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      Arthur Ganson Arthur Ganson is a renowned kinetic sculptor. He makes mechanical art demonstrations and Rube Goldberg machines…
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      Arthur Ganson is a renowned kinetic sculptor. He makes mechanical art demonstrations and Rube Goldberg machines with existential themes. His moving sculptures have been exhibited at a number of science museums and art galleries. Ganson's work appeals to viewers of all ages, and has been featured in an animated children's television show. He has invented mass-produced children's toys, and hosts an annual competition to make Rube Goldberg chain reaction machines.…

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      Arthur Ganson is a renowned kinetic sculptor. He makes mechanical art demonstrations and Rube Goldberg machines with existential themes. His moving sculptures have been exhibited at a number of science museums and art galleries. Ganson's work appeals to viewers of all ages, and has been featured in an animated children's television show. He has invented mass-produced children's toys, and hosts an annual competition to make Rube Goldberg chain reaction machines.
      Ganson was an artist-in-residence at the Mechanical Engineering department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1995–1999. In addition, he has given invited presentations about his work at the TED conference, and at the Long Now Foundation.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Arthur Ganson

    • In November 2013, the MIT Museum opened 5000 Moving Parts, an exhibition of kinetic art, featuring the work of Arthur Ganson, Anne Lilly, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, John Douglas Powers, and Takis. from Kinetic art

    • Arthur Ganson is a renowned kinetic sculptor. from Arthur Ganson

    • The Museum runs the annual "Friday After Thanksgiving" (FAT) competition, which usually has been emceed by kinetic artist Arthur Ganson, sometimes accompanied by fellow artist Jeff Lieberman. from MIT Museum

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    • One of the most popular permanent galleries features approximately a dozen works of kinetic art by Arthur Ganson. from MIT Museum

    • , works of high-speed photographer Harold Edgerton and kinetic artist Arthur Ganson are the two largest long-running displays. from MIT Museum

    • Since around 1997, the kinetic artist Arthur Ganson has been the emcee of the annual "Friday After Thanksgiving" (FAT) competition sponsored by the MIT Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts. from Rube Goldberg machine

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      Getulio Alviani Getulio Alviani (5 September 1939 ) is an Italian painter born in Udine. He is considered to be an important…
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      Getulio Alviani (5 September 1939 ) is an Italian painter born in Udine. He is considered to be an important International Optical - kinetic artist.

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    Connects To Getulio Alviani

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      Gerhard von Graevenitz Gerhard von Graevenitz (born September 19, 1934 Schilde, Prignitz/Mark Brandenburg; died August 20, 1983 near…
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      Gerhard von Graevenitz (born September 19, 1934 Schilde, Prignitz/Mark Brandenburg; died August 20, 1983 near Habkern/Traubachtal in Switzerland) was a German kinetic artist, co-founding member of the Nouvelle Tendance and member of the op-art movement. He also belonged to the international circle of the Zero-Group. He is seen as one of the uncompromising representatives of the constructive-concrete art of the younger generation (since 1958).

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    Connects To Gerhard von Graevenitz

    • Brett, Guy: Kinetic Art. from Gerhard von Graevenitz

    • In 1968 he participated in documenta 4 in Kassel with three large kinetic objects. from Gerhard von Graevenitz

    • He constructed “play-objects”, some of them meant as models for multiples, and in 1962 he made serigraphics in many series, investigating non-hierarchical fields on the basis of chance-operations similar to his first kinetic objects . from Gerhard von Graevenitz

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    • In 1961, he created his first kinetic object, and, from 1963 onwards, light-objects, He installed his light-wall in 1966 (which was shown in London, Eindhoven and in 1969 at the Venice Biennale ). from Gerhard von Graevenitz

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      Sound art Sound art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilised as a medium. Like many genres of contemporary art…
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      Sound art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilised as a medium. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art is interdisciplinary in nature, or takes on hybrid forms. Sound art can engage with subjects such as acoustics, psychoacoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media, found or environmental sound, explorations of the human body, sculpture, film or video and an ever-expanding set of subjects that are part of the current discourse of contemporary art.…

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      Sound art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilised as a medium. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art is interdisciplinary in nature, or takes on hybrid forms. Sound art can engage with subjects such as acoustics, psychoacoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media, found or environmental sound, explorations of the human body, sculpture, film or video and an ever-expanding set of subjects that are part of the current discourse of contemporary art.
      In Western art early examples include Luigi Russolo's Intonarumori or noise intoners, and subsequent experiments by Dadaists, Surrealists, the Situationist International, and in Fluxus happenings. Because of the diversity of sound art, there is often debate about whether sound art falls within the domain of either the visual art or experimental music categories, or both. Other artistic lineages from which sound art emerges are conceptual art, minimalism, site-specific art, sound poetry, spoken word, avant-garde poetry, and experimental theatre.
      Scottish artist Susan Philipsz's 2010 British Turner Prize win for her piece Lowlands (overlapping recordings of the artist singing an ancient Scottish lament in three different versions, played back over a loudspeaker system, without any visual component) was seen as an important boost for this relatively new genre (it was the first time a work of sound art won this prestigious prize), and, in winning an art prize, again highlighted the genre's blurred boundaries with other, more visual artforms. In the same year, British artist Haroon Mirza won the Northern Art Prize for his sculptural installation that brought together video, sculptural assemblages and works from Leeds Art Gallery collection to compose a piece of music.

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    • Trimpin (born Gerhard Trimpin 1951 in Istein, Germany, now part of Efringen-Kirchen) is a Seattle, Washington-based kinetic sculptor, sound artist, and musician. from Trimpin

    • He is known for elaborate kinetic art and sound art constructions that utilize the large-scale fabrication factories in Mainland China. from Matt Hope

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      Takis Panagiotis "Takis" Vassilakis (Greek: Παναγιώτης (Τάκις) Βασιλάκης; born October 25, 1925, Athens) is an artist…
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      Panagiotis "Takis" Vassilakis (Greek: Παναγιώτης (Τάκις) Βασιλάκης; born October 25, 1925, Athens) is an artist living in Greece, but popular in France. His works can be found in many public locations in and around Paris.

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    Connects To Takis

    • In November 2013, the MIT Museum opened 5000 Moving Parts, an exhibition of kinetic art, featuring the work of Arthur Ganson, Anne Lilly, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, John Douglas Powers, and Takis. from Kinetic art

    • The AWC grew out of an incident at MoMA during the exhibition curated by Pontus Hulten, The Machine at the End of the Mechanical Age: on January 3, 1969, Greek kinetic sculptor Vassilakis Takis, with the support of friends, physically removed his work from the exhibition. from Art Workers' Coalition

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      Heinz Mack Heinz Mack (born March 8, 1931) is a German artist. Together with Otto Piene he founded the ZERO movement in 1957…
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      Heinz Mack (born March 8, 1931) is a German artist. Together with Otto Piene he founded the ZERO movement in 1957. He exhibited works at documenta in 1964 and 1977 and he represented Germany at the 1970 Venice Biennale. He is best known for his contributions to op art, light art and kinetic art.

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    Connects To Heinz Mack

    • He is best known for his contributions to op art, light art and kinetic art. from Heinz Mack

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      Ludwig Wilding Ludwig Wilding (19 May 1927 – 4 January 2010) was a German artist whose work is associated with Op art and Kinetic…
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      Ludwig Wilding (19 May 1927 – 4 January 2010) was a German artist whose work is associated with Op art and Kinetic art. Wilding was born in Grünstadt, Germany. He studied at the University of Mainz Art School.…

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      Ludwig Wilding (19 May 1927 – 4 January 2010) was a German artist whose work is associated with Op art and Kinetic art. Wilding was born in Grünstadt, Germany. He studied at the University of Mainz Art School.
      Wilding's works are three-dimensional structures that create shifting patterns through their black and white designs. He has shown at the Museum Leverkusen (1953), Zimmergallery, Frankfurt (1958) and Studio F, Ulm (1965). His work was included in The Responsive Eye (Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1965), Eyes, Lies, and Illusions (Hayward Gallery, London, 2004) and Optic Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960s (The Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio, 2007). Ludwig Wilding lived in Westheim, Germany.

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    • Ludwig Wilding (19 May 1927 – 4 January 2010) was a German artist whose work is associated with Op art and Kinetic art. from Ludwig Wilding

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      Fletcher Benton Fletcher Benton (born February 25, 1931 Columbus, Ohio) is an American sculptor and painter from San Francisco…
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      Fletcher Benton (born February 25, 1931 Columbus, Ohio) is an American sculptor and painter from San Francisco, California. Benton is widely known for his kinetic art as well as his large-scale steel abstract geometric sculptures.

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    Connects To Fletcher Benton

    • Benton is widely known for his kinetic art as well as his large-scale steel abstract geometric sculptures. from Fletcher Benton

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      Gas sculpture Gas sculpture is a proposal made by Joan Miró in his late writings to make sculptures out of gaseous materials.The…
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      Gas sculpture is a proposal made by Joan Miró in his late writings to make sculptures out of gaseous materials.
      The idea of a gas sculpture also appeared in the book Gog, by Giovanni Papini (1881–1956).…

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      Gas sculpture is a proposal made by Joan Miró in his late writings to make sculptures out of gaseous materials.
      The idea of a gas sculpture also appeared in the book Gog, by Giovanni Papini (1881–1956).
      An example of pure water fog sculpture is in the sculpture garden at the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra. A large bank of very small nozzles is arrayed on the edge of a small rush-filled pond, and when the power is switched on a fine mist of fog billows out. The "sculpture" has a continuously changing shape as it is affected by the water, the rushes, and the air currents in the area.

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    Connects To Gas sculpture

    • Some kinetic sculptures contain other gaseous elements, such as the sculptures of Jean-Paul Riopelle's La Joute, which includes natural gas fire jets, a water fountain, and bronze sculptural elements. from Gas sculpture

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      Nadir Afonso Nadir Afonso, GOSE (December 4, 1920 – December 11, 2013) was a geometric abstractionist painter. Formally trained…
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      Nadir Afonso, GOSE (December 4, 1920 – December 11, 2013) was a geometric abstractionist painter. Formally trained in architecture, which he practiced early in his career with Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer, Nadir Afonso later studied painting in Paris and became one of the pioneers of Kinetic art, working alongside Victor Vasarely, Fernand Léger, Auguste Herbin, and André Bloc.…

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      Nadir Afonso, GOSE (December 4, 1920 – December 11, 2013) was a geometric abstractionist painter. Formally trained in architecture, which he practiced early in his career with Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer, Nadir Afonso later studied painting in Paris and became one of the pioneers of Kinetic art, working alongside Victor Vasarely, Fernand Léger, Auguste Herbin, and André Bloc.
      As a theorist of his own geometry-based aesthetics, published in several books, Nadir Afonso defended the idea that art is purely objective and ruled by laws that treat art not as an act of imagination but of observation, perception, and form manipulation.
      Nadir Afonso achieved international recognition early in his career and many of his works are in museums. His most famous works are the Cities series, which depict places all around the world. He was known to have painted into his later years and died on December 11, 2013, at a hospital in Cascais. During his life he achieved great honors, representing his country at the finest level.

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    • That obsession forced him to return to Paris, looking for artists researching Kinetic art. from Nadir Afonso

    • Formally trained in architecture, which he practiced early in his career with Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer, Nadir Afonso later studied painting in Paris and became one of the pioneers of Kinetic art, working alongside Victor Vasarely, Fernand Léger, Auguste Herbin, and André Bloc. from Nadir Afonso

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      Starr Kempf Starr Gideon Kempf (August 13, 1917, Bluffton, Ohio – April 7, 1995, Colorado Springs, Colorado) was a sculptor…
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      Starr Gideon Kempf (August 13, 1917, Bluffton, Ohio – April 7, 1995, Colorado Springs, Colorado) was a sculptor, architect, and artist best known for his graceful steel wind kinetic sculptures.

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    Connects To Starr Kempf

    • Starr Gideon Kempf (August 13, 1917, Bluffton, Ohio – April 7, 1995, Colorado Springs, Colorado) was a sculptor, architect, and artist best known for his graceful steel wind kinetic sculptures. from Starr Kempf

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      Max Bill Max Bill (22 December 1908 – 9 December 1994) was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, industrial…
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      Max Bill (22 December 1908 – 9 December 1994) was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, industrial designer and graphic designer.

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    Connects To Max Bill

    • Max Bill became an almost complete disciple of the kinetic movement in the 1930s. from Kinetic art

    • With the support of artists such as Albert Gleizes, other avant-garde artists such as Jackson Pollock and Max Bill felt as if they had found new inspiration to discover oddities that became the focus of kinetic art. from Kinetic art

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      MIT Museum The MIT Museum, founded in 1971, is located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge…
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      The MIT Museum, founded in 1971, is located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It hosts collections of holography, technology-related artworks, artificial intelligence, robotics, maritime history, and the history of MIT. Its holography collection of 1800 pieces is the largest in the world, though not all of it is exhibited. As of…

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      The MIT Museum, founded in 1971, is located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It hosts collections of holography, technology-related artworks, artificial intelligence, robotics, maritime history, and the history of MIT. Its holography collection of 1800 pieces is the largest in the world, though not all of it is exhibited. As of 2014, works of high-speed photographer Harold Edgerton and kinetic artist Arthur Ganson are the two largest long-running displays. There is a regular program of temporary special exhibitions, often on the intersections of art and technology.
      In addition to serving the MIT community, the Museum offers numerous outreach programs to school-age children and adults in the public at large. The widely-attended annual Cambridge Science Festival was originated by and continues to be coordinated by the Museum.

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    Connects To MIT Museum

    • In November 2013, the MIT Museum opened 5000 Moving Parts, an exhibition of kinetic art, featuring the work of Arthur Ganson, Anne Lilly, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, John Douglas Powers, and Takis. from Kinetic art

    • The Museum runs the annual "Friday After Thanksgiving" (FAT) competition, which usually has been emceed by kinetic artist Arthur Ganson, sometimes accompanied by fellow artist Jeff Lieberman. from MIT Museum

    • One of the most popular permanent galleries features approximately a dozen works of kinetic art by Arthur Ganson. from MIT Museum

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    • , works of high-speed photographer Harold Edgerton and kinetic artist Arthur Ganson are the two largest long-running displays. from MIT Museum

    • Since around 1997, the kinetic artist Arthur Ganson has been the emcee of the annual "Friday After Thanksgiving" (FAT) competition sponsored by the MIT Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts. from Rube Goldberg machine

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      Gilles Larrain Gilles Larrain (Dec 5, 1938) is a renowned French-American photographer who believes photography is a way to…
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      Gilles Larrain (Dec 5, 1938) is a renowned French-American photographer who believes photography is a way to “capture the landscape of the soul of a person.” By taking a unique approach to photography, which includes creating his own lighting, managing the entire darkroom process, and always having subjects come to his personal studio space, Larrain…

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      Gilles Larrain (Dec 5, 1938) is a renowned French-American photographer who believes photography is a way to “capture the landscape of the soul of a person.” By taking a unique approach to photography, which includes creating his own lighting, managing the entire darkroom process, and always having subjects come to his personal studio space, Larrain has created acclaimed pieces of art since 1969. In 1973, Larrain published the highly successful photographic book, Idols, which presented portraits of transvestites. Two generations later, the book inspired American photographer Ryan McGinley who wrote an April 2010 article in Vice Magazine, which identified Larrain and the book Idols as one of his early and biggest influences for experimenting with colors, casting, and props, because all of Larrain’s images in the book are raw without any manipulation. Larrain has photographed notable personalities in a wide range of creative disciplines, including the dancers of the American Ballet Theatre, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Salvador Dali, Miles Davis, Sting, Billy Joel, Roberto Rossellini, Norman Mailer, and more.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Gilles Larrain

    • Throughout the 1960s, Larrain was a pioneer in kinetic art, using air, smoke, light, inflatable structures, water and neon tubes as means of artistic expression. from Gilles Larrain

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      Vladimir Tatlin Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Russian: Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; December 28 [O.S. December 16] 1885 – May…
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      Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Russian: Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; December 28 [O.S. December 16] 1885 – May 31, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet painter and architect. With Kazimir Malevich he was one of the two most important figures in the Russian avant-garde art movement of the 1920s, and he later became an important artist in the…

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      Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Russian: Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; December 28 [O.S. December 16] 1885 – May 31, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet painter and architect. With Kazimir Malevich he was one of the two most important figures in the Russian avant-garde art movement of the 1920s, and he later became an important artist in the Constructivist movement. He is most famous for his design for The Monument to the Third International, more commonly known as Tatlin's Tower, which he began in 1919.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Vladimir Tatlin

    • Vladimir Tatlin is considered by many artists and art historians to be the first person to ever complete a mobile sculpture. from Kinetic art

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      Youri Messen-Jaschin Youri Messen-Jaschin ([1]) is an artist of Latvian origin, born in Arosa, Switzerland, in 1941. He often combines…
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      Youri Messen-Jaschin ([1]) is an artist of Latvian origin, born in Arosa, Switzerland, in 1941. He often combines oils and gouaches. His favourite colors are: strong reds, yellows, greens, and blue. He also works in body painting, exhibiting his works in nightclubs.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Youri Messen-Jaschin

    • Architecture plays an important role in his paintings and sculptures, the search for movement Op Art (kinetic art) in architectural space is a whole, and he could talk about it with Oscar Niemeyer, Burle Marx, in Rio de Janeiro, Otake in Sao Paolo in Brazil, and Clorindo Testa in Buenos Aires. from Youri Messen-Jaschin

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      Bruce Gray (sculptor) Bruce Gray (born 1956 Orange, New Jersey) is an artist residing in Los Angeles. His work includes kinetic art such…
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      Bruce Gray (born 1956 Orange, New Jersey) is an artist residing in Los Angeles. His work includes kinetic art such as rolling ball machines, mobiles, stabiles, and suspended magnetic sculptures. He also creates found objects sculptures such as a lifesize motorcycle sculpture constructed from train parts, and giant objects such as a large aluminum wedge…

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      Bruce Gray (born 1956 Orange, New Jersey) is an artist residing in Los Angeles. His work includes kinetic art such as rolling ball machines, mobiles, stabiles, and suspended magnetic sculptures. He also creates found objects sculptures such as a lifesize motorcycle sculpture constructed from train parts, and giant objects such as a large aluminum wedge of Swiss cheese and giant high heel shoes. Gray's work has been displayed at many museums, art galleries, and is part of over 1200 corporate and private art collections. His work has appeared in numerous films and television shows including Charmed, Austin Powers, Meet the Fockers, Batman Forever, Sleeping with the Enemy, Six Feet Under, Seinfeld, Star Trek, Friends, Frasier, Roseanne, Murphy Brown, How I Met Your Mother, and NYPD Blue.
      Bruce Gray's sculptures can be seen at Little Rock National Airport, Edwards Air Force Base, Vanderbilt University, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Children's Hospital Boston, Kapor Enterprises, The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Network Solutions, A&M Records, NBCUniversal, Doubletree, Embassy Suites Hotels, Southern California Edison, Kaiser Permanente, Clean Harbors, and the Rolling Ball Museum permanent collection in Seoul, South Korea.

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    Connects To Bruce Gray (sculptor)

    • His work includes kinetic art such as rolling ball machines, mobiles, stabiles, and suspended magnetic sculptures. from Bruce Gray (sculptor)

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      Alexander Rodchenko Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1891 –…
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      Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1891 – December 3, 1956) was a Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer. He was one of the founders of constructivism and Russian design; he was married to the artist Varvara Stepanova.…

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      Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1891 – December 3, 1956) was a Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer. He was one of the founders of constructivism and Russian design; he was married to the artist Varvara Stepanova.
      Rodchenko was one of the most versatile Constructivist and Productivist artists to emerge after the Russian Revolution. He worked as a painter and graphic designer before turning to photomontage and photography. His photography was socially engaged, formally innovative, and opposed to a painterly aesthetic. Concerned with the need for analytical-documentary photo series, he often shot his subjects from odd angles—usually high above or down below—to shock the viewer and to postpone recognition. He wrote: "One has to take several different shots of a subject, from different points of view and in different situations, as if one examined it in the round rather than looked through the same key-hole again and again."

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Alexander Rodchenko

    • Alexander Rodchenko, one of Tatlin’s friends who insisted his work was complete, continued the study of suspended mobiles and created what he deemed to be "non-objectivism". from Kinetic art

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      Temple Israel (Memphis, Tennessee) Temple Israel is a Reform Jewish congregation in Memphis, Tennessee, in the United States. It is the only Reform…
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      Temple Israel is a Reform Jewish congregation in Memphis, Tennessee, in the United States. It is the only Reform synagogue in Memphis, the oldest and largest Jewish congregation in Tennessee, and one of the largest Reform congregations in the U.S. It was founded in 1853 by mostly German Jews as Congregation B'nai Israel (Hebrew for…

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      Temple Israel is a Reform Jewish congregation in Memphis, Tennessee, in the United States. It is the only Reform synagogue in Memphis, the oldest and largest Jewish congregation in Tennessee, and one of the largest Reform congregations in the U.S. It was founded in 1853 by mostly German Jews as Congregation B'nai Israel (Hebrew for "Children of Israel"). Led initially by cantors, in 1858 it hired its first rabbi, Jacob Peres, and leased its first building, which it renovated and eventually purchased.
      Peres was fired in 1860 because he opened a store that conducted business on Saturdays, the Jewish Sabbath. He was replaced by Simon Tuska, who moved the congregation from Orthodox to Reform practices. Tuska died in 1871, and was succeeded by Max Samfield; under his leadership, the synagogue was one of the founding members of the Union for Reform Judaism. In 1884, Children of Israel completed a new building, and membership grew rapidly. Samfield died in 1915, and was succeeded by Bill Fineshriber, an outspoken supporter of women's suffrage and equal rights for African Americans. The following year the congregation moved to a new building, where membership continued to grow. Fineshriber left in 1924, and was succeeded by Harry Ettelson.
      The synagogue experienced difficulty during the Great Depression—membership dropped, the congregational school was closed, and staff had their salaries reduced—but conditions had improved by the late 1930s. In 1943 the synagogue changed its name to Temple Israel, and by the late 1940s membership had almost doubled from its low point in the 1930s. Ettelson retired in 1954, and was succeeded by Jimmy Wax.
      Wax became known for his activism during the Civil Rights era. Though some members—particularly those whose families had lived in the South for generations—had segregationist views, others were prominent in the fight for black civil rights. During Wax's tenure, most of Temple Israel's members moved far from the existing synagogue, and in 1976 the congregation constructed its current building, closer to where most members lived. Wax retired in 1978, and was succeeded by Harry Danziger, who brought traditional practices back to the congregation. He retired in 2000, and was succeeded by Micah Greenstein. As of 2010, Temple Israel has almost 1,600 member families. Greenstein is the senior rabbi, and the cantor is John Kaplan.

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    Connects To Temple Israel (Memphis, Tennessee)

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      Bridget Riley Bridget Louise Riley CH CBE (born 24 April 1931 in Norwood, London) is an English painter who is one of the…
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      Bridget Louise Riley CH CBE (born 24 April 1931 in Norwood, London) is an English painter who is one of the foremost exponents of Op art. She currently lives and works in London, Cornwall, and France.

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    Connects To Bridget Riley

    • In the early 1960s he became involved In the Op art and Kinetic art movements, exhibiting with Bridget Riley, Jeffrey Steele, Michael Kidner and Peter Sedgely. from Richard Allen (abstract artist)

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      Len Lye Leonard Charles Huia "Len" Lye (5 July 1901 – 15 May 1980), was a Christchurch, New Zealand-born artist known…
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      Leonard Charles Huia "Len" Lye (5 July 1901 – 15 May 1980), was a Christchurch, New Zealand-born artist known primarily for his experimental films and kinetic sculpture. His films are held in archives including the New Zealand Film Archive, British Film Institute, Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and the Pacific Film Archive…

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      Leonard Charles Huia "Len" Lye (5 July 1901 – 15 May 1980), was a Christchurch, New Zealand-born artist known primarily for his experimental films and kinetic sculpture. His films are held in archives including the New Zealand Film Archive, British Film Institute, Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and the Pacific Film Archive at University of California, Berkeley. Lye's sculptures are found in the collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Albright-Knox Art Gallery and the Berkeley Art Museum. Although he became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1950, much of his work went to New Zealand after his death, where it is housed at the Govett-Brewster Art Gallery in New Plymouth.

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    Connects To Len Lye

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Ásmundur Sveinsson, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and also by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Modern sculpture

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Sculpture

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      László Moholy-Nagy László Moholy-Nagy (Hungarian: [ˈlɑ̈ːsloː ˈmoholiˌnɒɟ]; July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter…
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      László Moholy-Nagy (Hungarian: [ˈlɑ̈ːsloː ˈmoholiˌnɒɟ]; July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as professor in the Bauhaus school. He was highly influenced by constructivism and a strong advocate of the integration of technology and industry into the arts.

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    Connects To László Moholy-Nagy

    • László Moholy-Nagy (1895–1946), a member of the Bauhaus who was influenced by ConstructivismLight sculpture and moving sculpture are the components of his Light-Space Modulator (1922–30), which is one of the first light art pieces which also incorporates kinetic art. from Light art

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      Gyula Kosice Gyula Kosice, born Fernando Fallik (April 26, 1924) in Košice (Slovakia) is a naturalized Argentine sculptor…
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      Gyula Kosice, born Fernando Fallik (April 26, 1924) in Košice (Slovakia) is a naturalized Argentine sculptor, plastic artist, theoretician and poet, one of the most important figures in kinetic and luminal art and luminance vanguard.…

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      Gyula Kosice, born Fernando Fallik (April 26, 1924) in Košice (Slovakia) is a naturalized Argentine sculptor, plastic artist, theoretician and poet, one of the most important figures in kinetic and luminal art and luminance vanguard.
      He used his natal city name as artist name. He was one of the precursors of abstract and non-figurative art in Latin America. He used, for the first time in international art scene, water and neon gas as part of an artwork. Light and movement are also present in his works.
      He has made monumental sculptures, hydrospatial walks, hydrowalls, etc. He made more than 40 personal and 500 collective exhibitions all over the world.
      Kosice keeps making art pieces and has transformed his workshop into a museum.

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    • Gyula Kosice, born Fernando Fallik (April 26, 1924) in Košice (Slovakia) is a naturalized Argentine sculptor, plastic artist, theoretician and poet, one of the most important figures in kinetic and luminal art and luminance vanguard. from Gyula Kosice

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      Frederick John Kiesler Frederick John Kiesler (Czernowitz or Tschernovitz, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Chernivtsi, Ukraine), September…
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      Frederick John Kiesler (Czernowitz or Tschernovitz, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Chernivtsi, Ukraine), September 22, 1890 – New York City, December 27, 1965) (born as Friedrich Kiesler). Austrian-American architect, theoretician, theater designer, artist and sculptor.

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    Connects To Frederick John Kiesler

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Ásmundur Sveinsson, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and also by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Modern sculpture

    • Brâncuși's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Julio González, Pablo Serrano, Jacques Lipchitz and by the 1940s abstract sculpture was impacted and expanded by Alexander Calder, Len Lye, Jean Tinguely, and Frederick Kiesler who were pioneers of Kinetic art. from Sculpture

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      Alejandro Otero Alejandro Otero (El Manteco, Bolívar March 7, 1921 - Caracas 13th, August 1990) was a Venezuelan painter of…
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      Alejandro Otero (El Manteco, Bolívar March 7, 1921 - Caracas 13th, August 1990) was a Venezuelan painter of Geometric abstraction, a sculptor, a writer and a cultural promoter. He was a founding member of the Los Disidentes group.

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    Connects To Alejandro Otero

    • The idea of the module in Otero's practice first emerged in these works, in which he exhaustively explored a dynamic conception of space and pictorial structure typical of Op Art and Kinetic Art. from Alejandro Otero

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      The Bucket Fountain The Bucket Fountain is an iconic kinetic sculpture in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It is located in…
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      The Bucket Fountain is an iconic kinetic sculpture in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It is located in Cuba Mall, which is part of Cuba Street. It consists of a series of "buckets" that fill with water until they tip, spilling their load into the buckets and pool below. The fountain was designed by Burren and Keen and erected in 1969.…

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      The Bucket Fountain is an iconic kinetic sculpture in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. It is located in Cuba Mall, which is part of Cuba Street. It consists of a series of "buckets" that fill with water until they tip, spilling their load into the buckets and pool below. The fountain was designed by Burren and Keen and erected in 1969.
      Much of the water does not reach the buckets below, but instead splashes onto pedestrians and onlookers. On windy days (common in Wellington) water is carried several metres from the fountain.
      People often add dishwashing detergent to the water, which spreads bubbles all over the mall. This is common on Friday and Saturday nights.
      Wellington City Council upgraded the fountain in 2003, and some buckets were turned around so they intentionally tip their water onto the pavement.

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    Connects To The Bucket Fountain

    • The Bucket Fountain is an iconic kinetic sculpture in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. from The Bucket Fountain

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      Sal Maccarone Sal Maccarone is an American author, furniture maker, sculptor and kinetic artist. He is best known as a master…
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      Sal Maccarone is an American author, furniture maker, sculptor and kinetic artist. He is best known as a master craftsman, and for his internationally distributed woodworking books such as Tune Up Your Tools, and How to Make $40,000 a Year Woodworking, both published by F & W publications, Betterway Books, in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is…

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      Sal Maccarone is an American author, furniture maker, sculptor and kinetic artist. He is best known as a master craftsman, and for his internationally distributed woodworking books such as Tune Up Your Tools, and How to Make $40,000 a Year Woodworking, both published by F & W publications, Betterway Books, in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is also known for his woodworking technique articles published both online since 1994, Article. and by the national magazine Popular Woodworking. Article. Articles such as his "Evolution of an Entryway" have also been published in industry specific journals.
      He attended San Jose State University and achieved a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1972. During 1973 and 1974 while enrolled in the Master of Fine Arts Program for sculpture at (SJSU), where he studied under Professors Sam Richardson, John Battenberg, and Fletcher Benton, all internationally recognized sculptors.
      While studying for his masters degree in sculpture he became involved in the kinetic sculpture movement of the 1960s. Always using wood as the main media for his sculpture, he also incorporates metal, glass, plastic, and natural stone. His meticulously engineered kinetic sculptures are best described as a combination of fine furniture pieces which contain an impossible bottle type environment that is viewed through glass. The cabinet always remains stationary while the artwork within is kinetic. When turned on, the pieces sequenced with a combination of light and mechanical movement. Video.
      He gained national recognition for his furniture, and sculpture in 1977 when he and his work were featured on the KPIX-TV program Evening Magazine. Video. He was the co-founder of Bears in the Wood a small chain of retail stores in the San Francisco Bay Area which served as the showrooms for furniture that he both designed and built. The stores also sold Teddy Bears which were imported from around the world. The merchandise was displayed within an environment which featured a three story waterfall, and a full scale log cabin. These were the first stores in the country to market "just" Teddy Bears. The airing of that TV special set off a national Teddy Bear store frenzy in the United States from coast to coast which began in 1976, and continues until the present.
      In 1979 his work was featured in the Fine Woodworking "Design Book Two" printed by the Taunton Press. This hardcover book featured photographs of the best work in wood by selected craftsmen from across the United States, and Canada.
      In 1990 his woodwork, and sculpture at the Tenaya Lodge in Yosemite was featured first in the Fresno Bee newspaper, and then on the KGPE CBS TV47 program, Eye on the Valley. Video. The program was filmed at Sal's studio in Mariposa, California in March 1990.
      Beginning in 1997, after the publication of his first national woodworking book, he began teaching woodworking technique. Touring the country with The Woodworking Shows, a Los Angeles based traveling trade organization, he gave three day woodworking seminars in twenty-one different US cities each season. He continued teaching and traveling the country on an average of twice each month until October 2002.
      In 2009 he began a syndicated newspaper column called, "How Art Shapes Our Lives". The column is published once each week in the California central valley, Sierra foothills, and the Yosemite area. The column is designed to help build an awareness of the fine arts and the "Bigger Picture" while pointing to something local that can be observed. Article archives.
      In 2010 he designed and built the two wood and glass display cases which reside as part of the permanent collection in the Great Lounge of the Ahwahnee Hotel. These furniture pieces were the first new additions to grace the Great Lounge since 1927. Both matching cases are made of native walnut and are primarily used to display the historic baskets made by the Miwok people who once lived in Yosemite Valley. In 2011 the display cases were designated as "Reserve Property" of the hotel and are now part of the United States national heritage.
      He has been in the business of designing and building commissioned pieces of furniture, and sculpture since 1972. His woodwork and kinetic sculpture can be viewed in many public, and private collections throughout the United States, and British Columbia. Article. His woodwork portfolio has been used as reference within the Marriott International interior design library system since 1990.
      As a member of the American Institute for Conservation he has also served as a conservator of furniture for the Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite National Park, and has helped to preserve such National treasures as the three Craftsman style harvest tables which were built in 1926 by L & J.G. Stickley especially for the hotel.

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    • His woodwork and kinetic sculpture can be viewed in many public, and private collections throughout the United States, and British Columbia. Article. from Sal Maccarone

    • While studying for his masters degree in sculpture he became involved in the kinetic sculpture movement of the 1960s. from Sal Maccarone

    • Sal Maccarone is an American author, furniture maker, sculptor and kinetic artist. from Sal Maccarone

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      Eusebio Sempere Eusebio Sempere (Onil, Spain, 3 April 1923–10 April 1985) was a Spanish sculptor, painter and graphic artist whose…
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      Eusebio Sempere (Onil, Spain, 3 April 1923–10 April 1985) was a Spanish sculptor, painter and graphic artist whose abstract geometric works make him the most representative artist of the Kinetic art movement in Spain and one of Spain's foremost artists. His use of repetition of line and mastery of color to manipulate the way light plays on the surface give depth to his pictorial compositions.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Eusebio Sempere

    • Eusebio Sempere (Onil, Spain, 3 April 1923–10 April 1985) was a Spanish sculptor, painter and graphic artist whose abstract geometric works make him the most representative artist of the Kinetic art movement in Spain and one of Spain's foremost artists. from Eusebio Sempere

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      David Ascalon David Ascalon (born March 8, 1945) is an Israeli contemporary sculptor and stained glass artist, and co-founder of…
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      David Ascalon (born March 8, 1945) is an Israeli contemporary sculptor and stained glass artist, and co-founder of Ascalon Studios.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To David Ascalon

    • La Esfera, Caracas, Venezuela File:David Ascalon Kinetic Sculpture Mobile memphis TN.JPG|David Ascalon, "Wings to the Heavens", 2008. from Kinetic art

    • "Wings to the Heavens", David Ascalon's -high, welded aluminum and stainless steel abstract kinetic sculpture, was installed in the atrium. from Temple Israel (Memphis, Tennessee)

    1. 43
      Jean-Pierre Yvaral Jean-Pierre Vasarely (1934–2002), professionally known as Yvaral, was a French artist working in the fields of…
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      Jean-Pierre Vasarely (1934–2002), professionally known as Yvaral, was a French artist working in the fields of op-art and kinetic art from 1954 onwards. He was the son of Victor Vasarely.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Jean-Pierre Yvaral

    • Jean-Pierre Vasarely (1934–2002), professionally known as Yvaral, was a French artist working in the fields of op-art and kinetic art from 1954 onwards. from Jean-Pierre Yvaral

    1. 44
      Rowland Emett Frederick Rowland Emett (22 October 1906 – 13 November 1990) OBE, known as Rowland Emett (with the forename…
    1. 44

      Frederick Rowland Emett (22 October 1906 – 13 November 1990) OBE, known as Rowland Emett (with the forename sometimes spelled "Roland" [as his middle name appears on his birth certificate] and the surname frequently misspelled "Emmett"), was an English cartoonist and constructor of whimsical kinetic sculpture.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Rowland Emett

    • Frederick Rowland Emett (22 October 1906 13 November 1990) OBE, known as Rowland Emett (with the forename sometimes spelled "Roland" [as his middle name appears on his birth certificate] and the surname frequently misspelled "Emmett"), was an English cartoonist and constructor of whimsical kinetic sculpture. from Rowland Emett

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      Rafael Lozano-Hemmer Rafael Lozano-Hemmer (born in 1967 in Mexico City) is a Mexican-Canadian electronic artist who works with ideas…
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      Rafael Lozano-Hemmer (born in 1967 in Mexico City) is a Mexican-Canadian electronic artist who works with ideas from architecture, technological theater and performance. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Physical Chemistry from Concordia University in Montreal. Currently, Lozano-Hemmer lives and works in Montreal and Madrid.[citation needed]

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    Connects To Rafael Lozano-Hemmer

    • In November 2013, the MIT Museum opened 5000 Moving Parts, an exhibition of kinetic art, featuring the work of Arthur Ganson, Anne Lilly, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, John Douglas Powers, and Takis. from Kinetic art

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      Chuck Hoberman Chuck Hoberman (born 1956 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, US) is an artist, engineer, architect, and inventor of…
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      Chuck Hoberman (born 1956 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, US) is an artist, engineer, architect, and inventor of folding toys and structures, most notably the Hoberman sphere.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Chuck Hoberman

    • He made a work that unrolled colored plastic sheets on the floor, and he became fascinated with kinetic art. from Chuck Hoberman

    1. 47
      Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp (French: [maʁsɛl dyʃɑ̃]; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor…
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      Marcel Duchamp (French: [maʁsɛl dyʃɑ̃]; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Dadaism and conceptual art, although not directly associated with Dada groups. Duchamp is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who…

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      Marcel Duchamp (French: [maʁsɛl dyʃɑ̃]; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Dadaism and conceptual art, although not directly associated with Dada groups. Duchamp is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art. By World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists (like Henri Matisse) as "retinal" art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to put art back in the service of the mind.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Marcel Duchamp

    • Duchamp's interest in kinetic works can be discerned as early as the notes for The Large Glass and the Bicycle Wheel readymade, and despite losing interest in "retinal art", he retained interest in visual phenomena. from Marcel Duchamp

    • In 1920, Ray helped Duchamp make the Rotary Glass Plates, his first machine and one of the earliest examples of kinetic art. from Man Ray

    1. 48
      Sound installation Sound installation (related to sound art and sound sculpture) is an intermedia and time based art form. It is an…
    1. 48

      Sound installation (related to sound art and sound sculpture) is an intermedia and time based art form. It is an expansion of an art installation in the sense that it includes the sound element and therefore the time element. The main difference with a sound sculpture is that a sound installation has a three-dimensional space…

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      Sound installation (related to sound art and sound sculpture) is an intermedia and time based art form. It is an expansion of an art installation in the sense that it includes the sound element and therefore the time element. The main difference with a sound sculpture is that a sound installation has a three-dimensional space and the axes with which the different sound objects are being organized are not exclusively internal to the work, but also external. A work of art is an installation only if it makes a dialog with the surrounding space. A sound installation is usually a site-specific but sometimes it can be readapted to other spaces. It can be made either in close or open spaces, and context is fundamental to determine how a sound installation will be aesthetically perceived. The difference between a regular art installation and a sound installation is that the later one has the time element, which gives the visiting public the possibility to stay a longer time due possible curiosity over the development of sound. This temporal factor also gives the audience the excuse to explore the space thoroughly due to the dispositions of the different sounds in space.
      Sound installations sometimes use interactive art technology (computers, sensors, mechanical and kinetic devices, etc.) but we also find this type of art form using only sound sources placed in different space points (like speakers), or acoustic music instruments materials like piano strings that are played by a performer or by the public (see Paul Panhuysen).

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Sound installation

    • Sound installations sometimes use interactive art technology (computers, sensors, mechanical and kinetic devices, etc.) but we also find this type of art form using only sound sources placed in different space points (like speakers), or acoustic music instruments materials like piano strings that are played by a performer or by the public (see Paul Panhuysen). from Sound installation

    1. 49
      Whirligig A whirligig is an object that spins or whirls, or has at least one member that spins or whirls. Whirligigs are also…
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      A whirligig is an object that spins or whirls, or has at least one member that spins or whirls. Whirligigs are also known as pinwheels, buzzers, comic weathervanes, gee-haws, spinners, whirlygigs, whirlijig, whirlyjig, whirlybird, or plain whirly. Whirligigs are most commonly powered by the wind but can be hand, friction, or motor powered. They can…

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      A whirligig is an object that spins or whirls, or has at least one member that spins or whirls. Whirligigs are also known as pinwheels, buzzers, comic weathervanes, gee-haws, spinners, whirlygigs, whirlijig, whirlyjig, whirlybird, or plain whirly. Whirligigs are most commonly powered by the wind but can be hand, friction, or motor powered. They can be used as a kinetic garden ornament. They can be designed to transmit sound and vibration into the ground to repel burrowing rodents in yards, gardens, and backyards.

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    How Kinetic art
    Connects To Whirligig

    • In the movie Twister, Helen Hunt's aunt Meg (played by Lois Smith) has a large collection of metal kinetic art whirligigs in her front yard to warn her of approaching tornadoes. from Whirligig

    • They can be used as a kinetic garden ornament. from Whirligig

    1. 50
      Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953), was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed…
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      Albert Gleizes (8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953), was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris. Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme", 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists.…

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      Albert Gleizes (8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953), was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris. Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme", 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. He was also a member of Der Sturm, and his many theoretical writings were originally most appreciated in Germany, where especially at the Bauhaus his ideas were given thoughtful consideration. Gleizes spent four crucial years in New York, and played an important role in making America aware of modern art. He was a member of the Society of Independent Artists, founder of the Ernest-Renan Association, and both a founder and participant in the Abbaye de Créteil. Gleizes exhibited regularly at Léonce Rosenberg’s Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris; he was also a founder, organizer and director of Abstraction-Création. From the mid-1920s to the late 1930s much of his energy went into writing (e.g., La Peinture et ses lois (Paris, 1923), Vers une conscience plastique: La Forme et l’histoire (Paris, 1932) and Homocentrisme (Sablons, 1937).

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    How Kinetic art
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    • With the support of artists such as Albert Gleizes, other avant-garde artists such as Jackson Pollock and Max Bill felt as if they had found new inspiration to discover oddities that became the focus of kinetic art. from Kinetic art

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